A DB-OECD Joint W orkshop on Gender in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship in India, Indonesia and PRChina 27-28 February 201 2, Manila

Gender equality in the 3 E’s in IIC Issues for discussion
Nelien Haspels International Labour Office, Bangkok

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

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Empowering wo/men for development
Outlook: • Asia rebounding from global downturn & poised to account for half of global output, trade & investment • Achievements in economic growth & poverty reduction … growing inequalities • Need for sustainable, fair, inclusive growth patterns supported by efficient – economic, social, employ ment and green policies • with decent work & gender equality at the heart of these policies

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Poor labour market outcomes for women - 1
• • Gender parity in education does not y et translate in equal labour market outcomes All women work – paid and unpaid: • 45% of working women in Asia outside the labour market – 19% of working men • > half of productive potential of Asian women remains untapped – insufficient employ ment opportunities for women Less access to decent work: • C oncentrated in narrow range of female-dominated low productivity , informal and vulnerable jobs: eg contract, temporary workers • Mostly in micro-enterprise: In 2009: 1% of women with own business with employ ees
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Poor labour market outcomes for women - 2
• • • • • • Gender pay gap: Women’s wages: 70-90% of men’s – wider among high-earners than low -earners Lack of social protection increases women’s care burdens Work and family duties fall mainly on women: Pregnancy and family responsibilities - considerable employ ment discrimination Women’s unpaid work not defined as economic activity and not included in GDP and employ ment statistics Violence & sexual harassment against women at work Lack of “agency and representation” in decision making
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Investing in gender equality & decent work - 1
Support for job-rich, equitable growth: • Principles: • Equality not a costly luxury that must wait until the economy has been developed … • Mounting evidence: Equality essential tool for achieving higher productivity and growth • Strategies: • Decent work and gender equality integrated in macroeconomic, employ ment and social policies through gender mainstreaming and gender-specific action • “In equality we trust, protection only if we must” • The poor and marginalized – often women – not passive beneficiaries but agents of economic transformation
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Investing in gender equality and decent work - 2
Rule of law: Sound labour laws and active labour market policies in line with international labour standards for gender equality promotion: • Elimination of discrimination in employ ment and occupation, and equal remuneration for work of equal value – both fundamental labour standards. • Provision of adequate maternity protection and measures for reconciling work and family commitments. • Decent work, wages and contracts for home-based, parttime and domestic workers and those in hidden employ ment relationships. • Prohibition of child and forced labour, promotion of safe migration and protection of internal and international migrants from labour and sex exploitation.
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Investing in gender equality and decent work - 3
Education and skills development: • Analy sis of existing structural gender inequalities at all stages and levels of education & training • Designing gender-responsive labour supply measures that tackle assumptions channeling y oung wo/men into a narrow range of “suitable” occupations • Encourage science and technology & enterprise development training for y oung wo/men at schools • Gender parity : Ensure y oung men complete education • Life-long learning for all: Retraining during life-cy cle • Vocational curricula, free from gender bias • Macro-level commitments require micro-level actions: eg female trainers, gender training with men, mobile training
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Investing in gender equality and decent work - 4
Enterprise development: • Improving women’s access to: • productive resources, financial and business development services • business skills and networks • creating an enabling business environment for women entrepreneurs: reduce transaction costs, simplify registration, Reduction of women’s time burdens & change in gender relations • Gender analy sis and specific support measures through fiscal eg individual tax for women; child care tax relief for entrepreneurs • … through trade policies: Avoid market distortions in favour of male and large-scale entrepreneurs
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Investing in gender equality and decent work - 5
Extending social protection by : • Building basic social protection services for all, including adequate maternity benefits. • Taking measures to create a better work -family balance • Safe work for all: agriculture and informal employ ment: high risk occupations • Preventing and redressing sexual harassment in workplaces.

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Engendering institutions - 1
C hallenge: • Government women’s machineries marginalized over the past decade • Lack of gender commitment and analy sis and planning capacity in ministries of finance, planning, labour, trade, education, agriculture • C orporate social responsibility (C SR) and Social C lauses weak on inclusion of equality and nondiscrimination principles and implementation

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Engendering institutions - 2
Strategies: • Gender equality advocacy , building commitment and expertise, allocation of budget & good governance by wo/men among policy makers and implementers • Increasing agency and representation of women in social dialogue and bargaining on economic, social and employ ment policies • C reate, invest in and utilize centers of gender expertise in government, universities and in civil society • Set up equal employ ment opportunity commissions

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Decent work and gendered indicators - 1
MDG indicators related to MDG 1B: Full and productive employ ment & decent work for all, including women & y outh • Growth rate of labour productivity (GDP per person employ ed) • Working poverty rate: Proportion of employ ed people living below the poverty line • Labour force participation rate & Employ ment to population ratio • Vulnerable employ ment rate: proportion of Ownaccount and U npaid family workers in total employ ment • Share of women in wage employ ment in the nonagricultural sector
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Decent work and gendered indicators - 2
ILO Decent work indicator framework in development: • U nemploy ment rate • Earnings/wages (average hourly wages) • Youth not in education and not in employ ment, 15-24 y ears (rate) • Distribution of unemploy ment by level of education (rate) • C hildren not in school or net enrolment rate • Adult literacy rate • Adult secondary -school graduation rate

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Resources
Women and labour markets in Asia: Rebalancing for gender equality http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---robangkok/documents/publication/wcms_154846.pdf Equality and non-discrimination in China: Training package: Handbook http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_154692/lang--en/index.htm Training manual (In Chinese & English) http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_154693/lang--en/index.htm Gender mainstreaming strategies in decent work promotion: Toolkit (Chinese, English, Bahasa) http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_143849/lang-en/index.htm, GEMS toolkit in brief http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_143847/lang--en/index.htm Sexual harassment at the workplace – FAQ (Bahasa and English) http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/info/public/nl/WCMS_149651/lang--en/index.htm Work, income and gender equality in East Asia: Action guide (Chin. Bahasa, Engl) http://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_101719/lang--en/index.htm Equality and discrimination resources http://www.ilo.org/asia/areas/equality-and-discrimination/facet/lang-en/index.htm?facetcriteria=TYP=Publication&facetdynlist=UWCMS_139813
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