ETHICAL ASPECTS OF DECISION MAKING

Ethics - a moral philosophy, -a science of judging the relationship of means to ends, - The art of controlling means so they will serve human ends. ETHICAL THEORIES 1. Deontological theories – from the Greek “deon” or duty - Focus on the intent of the action and are duty and right based. - Emphasis is on the dignity of human beings. - The intention of the action rather than the end of the action is considered. 2. Teleological theories – from the Greek “telos” or end - Derive the rules and norms for conduct from utilitarian consequence of actions. - Favors the common good. - Right has good consequences, and wrong has bad consequences. - The greatest amount of good and the largest amount of happiness are good. 3. Principlism – emerging theory - The ethical principles control ethical decision making more than the ethical theories. - The principles are moral norms, including autonomy, beneficence, fidelity, justice, normaleficence, paternalism, respect for others, utility and veracity. - Each principle can be used individually, but they are often used in concert. 4. Egoism – based on self-interest and self-centeredness. - Decisions are made for personal comfort. - Based on the principle that the right decision is the one that brings pleasure to the decision maker. 5. Obligationism – Tries to balance distributive justice (dividing equally among all citizens regardless of age, gender, race, religion, or socioeconomic status) and beneficence (doing good and not harm). - One should do what is good and prevent harm and evil. - Useful for determining public policy. 6. Social Contract theory – based on a concept of original position and considers the least advantaged person in society as the norm. - The determination of what is right or wrong is from the perspective of the least advantaged people, such as children and handicapped people. - Based on distributive justice and supports giving the most to the least advantaged.  Natural law – virtue of ethics. - Actions are considered right when in accord with human nature. - People should do good, avoid evil, and have opportunities to reach their potential. - Happiness occur when people think rationally and make conscious choices rather than responding to instincts.

and racial issues. rules. Rule ethics – expects obedience to laws. remember the golden rule.It transcends cultural. 2.Distributive justice Normaleficence – means if you cannot do good at least do no harm. . 8. Utility –indicates that what is best for the common good outweighs what is best for the individual. limits freedom of choice.ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 1. 2. Benefit to the least advantaged group is the norm.considered the highest principle that incorporates all the other principles. Fidelity – keeping one’s commitments and promises. freedom of choice. One’s own pleasure is the concern. 3. Utilitarianism – community-oriented position that focuses on the consequences and prefers the greatest amount of good and happiness for the most people. Engineering Model – suggests that one person presents facts to another and sets aside her own code of ethics to do what the other wants. Collegial Model – individuals share mutual goals and reach decisions through discussions and concensus. 6. 4. Formalism – considers the nature of the act and the related principles without thought to personal position or consequences of the actions: be honest. Justice – treating people equally and fairly. ETHICAL POSITIONS 1. Priestly Model – manager is paternalistic and makes decisions without considering other’s values or seeking others’ input. gender. Beneficence – indicates that the actions one takes should be in an effort to promote good. or the least amount of harm. Most see it as justified only to keep another person from harm. 9. 4.Acknowledges the rights of people to make their own decisions and to live by their decisions. Egoism – seeks solutions that are best for oneself without regards for others. ETHICAL RELATIONSHIPS 1. Paternalism – allows one to make decisions for another. Respect for others. Veracity – indicates that people should tell the truth. 5. 3. . 7. 2. . . 3. 4. Fairness – considers distribution of benefits and liabilities from the viewpoint of the least advantaged population. and authority. professional codes. 5. and responsibility for one’s choices. Autonomy – involves personal freedom. Contractual Model – provides a contract that identifies general obligations and benefits for two or more people.

MORAL REASONING Levels of moral development: a. c.Economic costs . Property 6. and feels obligation.Privacy for the patients and families . Truth ETHICS COMMITTEE Complex ethical issues regarding patient care and policy making must be addressed. structure. uses literal obedience to the rules. particularly for infants and those older adults who are unable to make their own decisions. Life 5. Liberty 4. Autonomous – person thinks and judges for herself. Punishment 7. Distributive justice 2. Roles and concerns of affection 8. Ten universal moral values: 1. Roles and concerns of authority 9.Role of the committee in patient care decisions .Responsibility . both when forming an institutional ethics committee and through ongoing study and evaluation of the existing committee: . consider the purpose and consequences of the rules. Gender 10. The following issues must be addressed within the institution’s philosophy.Committee composition. and do not accept group standards without reflection. Law 3. b.  Moral choice involves selecting one or two or more values that conflict. Conventional – person accepts standards of the group with little critical reflection.Efficacy . Premoral or Preconventional – behaviour is motivated by social or biological impulses with no sense of obligations to rules. Institutional ethics committees deal with ethical questions that often require painful choices for patients. meeting and access .Accountability .

c. processes or systems. .Named for their developer. . regardless of what the computer does. . hrs.Highly developed schedules that allow one to visualize multiple tasks that have to be done. depending on the longevity of the project) . explain and predict phenomena.e. and Games a. Model: represents something else.Applied when risk or uncertainty is present in a decision. 2. Simulations. Henry Gantt . months.DECISION-MAKING TOOLS 1. the manager may compare alternatives and their consequences. If a person tosses a coin 200 times. most commonly objects.Through simulation. Gantt Chart . - - 3. Models. days. Task Collect information Type report Responsible ME ME X Mon Tue Wed Th Fri . events.. The player tries to develop a strategy that will maximize gains and minimize losses. decades. we can predict that it can show heads 100 times and tails 100 times. Probability Theory . assigned responsibility and time frame (min.These methods may be used to study organizational changes. Game theory: is a simulation of system operations.Operates on the assumption that factors occur in accordance with a predictable pattern .A line is drawn through the time frame while a task is in process.An X is put to a point where that task is completed. Simulation: way of using models and games to simplify problems by identifying the basic components and using trial and error to determine a solution.g. scheduling. b. years. Developed to describe.. It is a technique of abstraction and simplification for studying something under varying conditions. weeks.Grid with columns for tasks. assembly line management and time sequences. . .

. and information needs for a specific problem over a period of time. numbered. Program Evaluation and Review Technique . and assigning the duration of each phase of work. outcomes. . or numbered and labelled on the flow chart. A1 A2 A3 Decision Point 1 A4 Alternatives Chance events Probable consequences 5. that subtasks must be completed before others can be started.Involves identifying the key activities in a project. .Helps to see the possible directions that actions may take from each decision point and to evaluate the consequences of a series of decisions. and the need for further decisions is contemplated.The key events are identified. further.Revise report Submit report ME ME X X 4. risks.Graphic method that can help managers visualize the alternative available.Recognizes that certain tasks must be completed before the total project can be completed and. . Decision Trees .A network system model for planning and control under uncertain conditions. sequencing the activities in a flow diagram. then the predicted outcome for each decision is considered. labelled.Process begin with a primary decision having at least 2 alternatives. . .

which estimates the completion time with normal problems 3. which estimates the completion time given numerous problems -Thus. the longest possible time. stuffy No rain Lacks picnic atmosphere Regrets for not having outside Wet participants Ruined food No rain Dampened spirits Have a work picnic Rain Outdoors Pleasant party 6. calculates a single time estimate for each activity. The most likely time (tm). which estimates the completion time without complications 2. Critical Path Method . -Expected time (te) is calculated by: Te= to + 4(tm) + tp Crowded but dry 6 Rain Indoors No bugs Proud of decision Crowded. the shortest. with the direction of the arrow showing the direction of the work flow..Closely related to PERT. .A cost estimate is figured for both normal and crash operations.The activities that cause the progress from one event to another are indicated by arrows.PERT also deals with the problem of uncertainty with respect to time by estimating the time variances associated with the expected time of completion of the subtasks. 3 projected time are determined: 1. and longest times needed to complete an activity are calculated. The pessimistic time (tp). . . average. The optimistic time (to).

. eliminating them may be even more costly 8. and crash refers to conditions in less-tyhan-normal time.Uses matrix algebra or linear mathematical equations to determine the best way . Queuing Theory .Acknowledges that although delays are costly.Useful where cost is a significant factor and experience provides a basis for estimating time and cost.A mathematical technique for determining the most efficient balance of factors related to intermittent service. 7..Particularly applicable when units to receive service arrive in a random fashion but the time required for service is predictable.Network analysis techniques facilitate planning and result in objective plans by making it possible to identify the critical path and show interrelationships among parts. thus facilitating improvements in structure and communications. .Normal means least-cost method. .Balances the cost of waiting versus the prevention of waiting by increasing service . .Deals with waiting lines or intermittent servicing problems. Linear Programming . .

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