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, environments, and the like? Answer: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue. Research in business: Often, organization members want to know everything about their products, services, programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems. The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you. Manager’s role in research programs of a company: Managing people is only a fraction of a manager's responsibility - they have to manage the operations of the department, and often have responsibilities towards the profitability of the organization. Knowledge of research can be very helpful for a good manager.
Question 2: a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Answer: a. Research design for exploratory research: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather
whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. income and price of substitute. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts. For example. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. all variables need not be continuous. it would be known as an extraneous variable. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. In statistical term. age is a continuous variable. Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. income. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. In this context. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations.” b. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. Even if he could. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. etc. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. And if. they are also known as „discrete variable‟. For example. For instance. the discovery of relationships between variables. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. Then. while price is the independent variable. weight. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. . The concept may assume different quantitative values. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. like height. Therefore. more variables determine demand. intelligence may also influence the school performance. the dependent variable. However. But. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. like income and prices of substitute commodity. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. at the second. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. However. then demand is a dependent variable.information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Therefore. if demand depends upon price. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental error‟.
It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. at each stage. analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on.Question 3: a. Difference between Census survey and Sample Survey Census Survey A census measures absolutely everyone in the whole country. Analyse multi-stage and sequential sampling. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. For example. it can conduct a sample survey of some of the cancer patients and then extrapolate the results on the section of the population that is undergoing treatment for cancer. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. Sample surveys cannot count the number of people in the country but when government is planning on a welfare program for cancer patients. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’ b. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. conducts his study. Sequential sampling: Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. First. Answer: a. That is. Analyse multi-stage and sequential sampling: Multi-stage sampling: In multi-stage sampling method. when a government has to count heads of the population Census survey is more accurate. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. This sampling technique gives the . sampling is carried out in two or more stages. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. This obviously means that a census survey is a much bigger exercise in nature and procedures Census survey also is a very time consuming exercise as information needs to be collected from each and every individual from the population. Sample Survey A part of the population is known as sample On the other hand. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. there is margin for error in sample survey b. There are times and requirements where governments have to indulge in census survey even if it is time consuming and very expensive as it needs to formulate policies and welfare programs for the population. sample survey is easier as a representative sample is taken from the population and the results obtained are extrapolated to fit the entire population.
Question 4: List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Answer: Measures of Central Tendency: The term central tendency refers to the "middle" value or perhaps a typical value of the data. the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value. and the one that is best to use depends upon the situation. It is not expensive.researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population. the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. in a mark distribution.e. Each of these measures is calculated differently. Positional averages Statistical Averages . Due to the aforementioned disadvantages. many students may score marks. median. Averages are classified into two groups. For instance. This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: Central tendency Dispersion Skew ness Kurtosis In a data distribution. not time consuming and not workforce extensive. In this distribution. i. Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. 1. or mode. and is measured using the mean. Mathematical averages 2. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. which are near to the average marks. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. 50.
location of the household life style etc. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value. the mean score usually provides a better measure of central tendency. Difference between Mean and Median: Mean (Mathematical averages) When the sample size is large and does not include outliers. knowledge. family size. performance and growth. awareness. opinions. The median is determined by sorting the data set from lowest to highest values and taking the data point in the middle of the sequence Question 5: Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. These statistical measures try to understand how individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. religion. Behavioral variables: Attitudes. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of: 1. the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. race. Answer: For performing research on the literacy levels among families. Median and mode are positional averages. The median often is used when there are a few extreme values that could greatly influence the mean and distort what might be considered typical. The mean is the most commonly-used measure of central tendency. marital status. practice. 2. geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. objectives. When we talk about an "average". resources. intentions.Mathematical averages Arithmetic mean Geometric mean Harmonic mean Positional averages Median Mode Arithmetic mean. education. functions. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin. 3. An outlier is an extreme value that differs greatly from other values. social class. we conclude that the distribution has central tendency. . we usually are referring to the mean The mean is simply the sum of the values divided by the total number of items in the set Median (Positional averages) The median may be a better indicator of the most typical value if a set of scores has an outlier. occupation income. ownership. sex. etc.
But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Primary Sources of Data: Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.4. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables. business management studies etc... leadership studies. collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. farm managements studies.V. Yet. They include: socioeconomic surveys. mailing etc. sociological studies of social problems and social institutions.. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation. viewing surveys. Hence. cities. radio listening and T. brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from as ample of consumers by interviewing them. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics. primary data have to be gathered. Thus. no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. etc. The relevance. inadequate or obsolete. adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. It is difficult to administer Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. Without an analysis of factual data. Advantage of Primary Data: It is original source of data It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. Extensive research study is based of primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data: Primary data is expensive to obtain It is time consuming It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. which are analyzed with statistical techniques. social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities. the importance of data for any research studies The sources of data may be classified into: a. districts. the scientific process of measurements. population. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Marketing research. opinion polls. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate. of spatial divisions like villages. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study.g. Primary sources b. interviewing. talluks. There . for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In this case. state and the nation. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. analysis. attitudinal surveys. occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies. readership. the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs. resource endowment. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Secondary sources. brand preference.
secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered Use of Secondary Data: The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. First.(d)experimentation. the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country. etc. sociological studies on crimes. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports. Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Statistical statement. Reports of trade associations. e. volume of business etc. personnel records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations.are various methods of data collection. Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India. (b) interviewing. census reports . Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks. depend primarily on secondary data. ILO.(e) simulation and (f) projective technique. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. their capital structure. World Bank. Second. a tool is an instruments used for the method. they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification.g. accounting and financial records. WHO. For example. secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research maybe tested. minutes of meetings. Clearly.g. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data. annual reports and financial statements of companies. Reports of the National sample survey Organization.. Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks. some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. and so on. they are readymade and readily available. First. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e. For example. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others.(c)mail survey. and the like. may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Finally. register of members. the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages. published by the NABARD. secondary sources are not limited in time and space.. Reports of Government Departments. IMF.. Features of Secondary Sources: Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials. statistical reports of government . the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole. inventory records etc. historical studies. That is. their coverage of villages.. and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them Second. Financial Analysis of companies..g. Year books. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour. they have certain common characteristics. e. but also unpublished records. publications of international organizations such as UNO. Finally. a schedule is used for interviewing. this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources. The important methods are (a) observation.
Finally. For example. What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent? What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research? . 1) Data Pertinence: The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. and time periods may also be different. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach.. Even if the location of the source is known. The researcher needs not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. For example. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. collection of data is just matter of desk work. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. Disadvantages of Secondary Data: The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. units of measure may not match. Once their source of documents and reports are located. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply.departments. Evaluation of Secondary Data: When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research. report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises. The following questions should be considered. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. and serve as major data sources for such research studies Advantages of Secondary Data: Secondary sources have some advantages: Secondary data. population census data are published two or three years later after compilation and no new figures will be available for another ten years. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. because of time lag in producing them. he should evaluate them before deciding to use them. Thus. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. Censes Reports etc. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. thanks to Xeroxing facilities. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Event he tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected.
The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. the next step is to examine the quality of the data. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. 3) Data Completeness: The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data. Then only. charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. Question 6: a. 2) Data Quality: If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs. logically and simply. . the researcher can review the cautionary and other comments that were made in the original source. the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization’s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? b. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. The quality of data refers to their accuracy. it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. graphic presentation involves use of graphics. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher’s study. by emphasizing new and significant relationship. reliability and completeness. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Answer: a) Role of Graphs and Diagrams: In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. In additions to tabular forms. The question of possible bias should also be examined.” They.On the basis of above consideration.
to enable effective communication. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams. What is the educational level of the audience? d. This is very important step of statistical analysis. Graphic forms used should be simple. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields. datum means facts. The word 'Data' is plural for 'datum'. play. The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and. for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can. What is the purpose of the diagram? b. However. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height. cognition. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: . creative thought. and problem solving.The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are nontechnical people or general public. Role of Diagrams: Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. These concerns have triggered a surge of interest in the study of diagrams. Graphs and diagram leave a lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings. placing the conference as a major international event in the area. computation. a. but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. and do. What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately? Role of Graphs: Because graphs provide a compact. the following questions must be considered. graphic forms are not substitutes for tables. How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? e. both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data. We will be discussing the organization of data. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data: Graphical representation is done of the data available. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields. insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. The pervasive. What facts are to be emphasized? c. In planning this work. sketches and other visualizations in communication. Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data.
1) Bar chart: A Bar chart (or diagram) is a graphical representation of data using bars (rectangles of same width). Que:Represent the following data by means of a Histogram: Age( in years) Number of workers 2025 3 2530 4 3035 5 3540 6 4045 5 4550 4 5055 3 .1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bar graph Pie graph Line graph Scatter plot Histogram Examples of graphical representation of data: Let us see some examples of graphical representation of data. It is one dimensional in which case only the height of the rectangle matters. year 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 populatio 6000 7600 8900 12000 13500 n of a place Solution: scale: Y axis 1 cm = 1000 years 1981 18000 2) Graphical Representation of Histogram: A histogram (or rectangular diagram or block diagram) is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution in the form of rectangles one after the other with height proportional to the frequencies. It is two dimensional in which case the height as well as width of the rectangle matters.
by straight lines. are to be included.marks 2. in two different ways: Method I: Represent the class-marks along the x-axis. The two classes. Represent the frequencies along y-axis.5 Number students 10 of . The points at each end is joined to the immediate higher(or lower) class mark at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon. Construct a frequency polygon for the following data: Monthly pocket expenses of a student Number of students Solution: Here we have Monthly pocket expenses of a student(in $) 0-5 0-5 10 5-10 16 10-15 30 15-20 42 20-25 50 25-30 30 30-35 16 35-40 12 class. in order. Method II: Represent a histogram of the given data. with equalinterval. Join these points. Join the mid points of the tops of the adjacent rectangles by straight lines. one at each end.3) Frequency Polygon of a Line Graph: A frequency polygon can be constructed for a grouped frequency distribution. The mid points at each end are joined to the immediate higher (or lower) at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon.
This is also known as ogive.5 17.5 16 30 42 50 30 16 12 4) Cumulative Frequency Curve(ogive): The Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution is obtained by plotting the points and then joining them by a free-hand smooth curve.5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 7.5 32. Mark the cumulative frequencies along the y-axis. Mark the upper class limits along the x-axis.5 12.5 22. Draw a cumulative frequency curve for the following data: Marks Number of students 0-4 4 4-8 6 8-12 10 12-16 8 16-20 4 The cumulative frequency table is as follows: Marks Number of student s 4 cumulativ e frequency 4 0-4 .5 37.5 27. Method: Form the cumulative frequency table. Plot the points and join them by a free-hand smooth curve.
6 <BOC = 16 x 360 /100 = 57.8 Take a circle with centre O and unit radius.4 <COD = 29 x 360 /100 = 104.4 <EOF = 16 x 360 /100 = 57.4-8 8-12 12-16 16-20 6 10 8 4 4+6=10 10+10=2 0 20+8=28 28+4=32 Total 32 Joining these points by a free-hand smooth curve. Solution: <AOB = 14 x 360 /100 = 50.6 <DOE = 17 x 360 /100 = 61.2 <FOA = 8 x 360 /100 = 28. . we have the following cumulative frequency curve: Pie-chart or Pie-graph: 5) It is drawn by first drawing a circle of a suitable radius and then dividing the angle of 360 degree at its centre in proportion to the figures given under various heads.
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