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This document is prepared to provide some help to create an involuteprofiled spur or helical gears in Pro-E. Before plunging into the methodology, let’s discuss about some important terms used in a gear. Standard gear: A gear in which there is no addendum modification or profile shift is done. Pitch circle: A reference imaginary circle which passes through the teeth and space in a way that tooth thickness and space width measured at that circle are equal (Refer fig.1).
Fig.1: Standard gear having same space width and tooth thickness at PC
Note that this definition is valid only for standard gears. When there is a profile shift in the gear, this definition no longer holds good. Base circle: This circle is the mother of involute curve. An involute curve needs nothing but a base circle to generate. Though base circle diameter is not at all
Let’s say I have two gears of module 3. Calculating using the simple formula Module = Pitch circle diameter / no. Some interesting facts about involutes: • • Two involutes generated from the same base circle are always parallel. . That is.necessary for manufacturing. we can scale the initially drawn involute to the base circle diameter ratio (new base circle / old base circle) instead of generating a new involute curve. • A normal drawn to an involute will always be tangential to its base circle. Let’s go in detail with and example. Profile shift is done to achieve a targeted centre distance.2. which is 96 mm. it can be found in all gear drawings. of teeth.5mm? Definitely cycloidal profile will not help. we will get the pitch circle diameters of driver and the driven as 128 and 64 mm respectively. What if my design constrains me to go with a centre distance of 96. No matter at which point they start from. Profile Shift or Addendum modification coefficient: The reason of using involute profile over cycloidal profile lies in this term. The driver is of 40 teeth and the other of 20 teeth. but thankfully involute will. Involute curves drawn from different base circle diameters maintain a linear proportionality. Observe the following figures to get the idea of achieving the desired centre distance. The centre distance is the mean of the two.
3: Profile shift given to the gear. Fig. PCs are tangential to each other. . Blue dotted line shows the original profile.Fig. 2: A set of standard gears in action.
In the next figure the gear is given a profile shift. The value of profile shift is not the value of change in centre distance or any other parameters. Thus the centre distance of the gear pair is increased. 4: Corrected gear set in action. there will be a huge root clearance as in the figures. That means. It is worthy to note that addendum and dedendum have to be modified after shifting the profile. Else. The circles newly drawn which are tangential to each other. It is not at all necessary for the space width and tooth thickness of the gears to be equal at OPC. It can also be noted that the standard pitch circles of both the gears are away from each other. The value is directly associated with manufacturing. Shift of profile directly gives the deviation of depth of cut of the gear hob into . If I want to reduce the centre distance I have to give a negative profile shift to any of / both the gears. This new centre distance is called as operating centre distance. the tooth thickness of the gear is increased. OPCs are shown in blue dotted line In fig.Fig. This change does not allow the pinion teeth to go into the space width of the gear as much as it went before. intersecting the point of contact of two meshing teeth and intersecting the common vertical centre line of the gears are known as the operating pitch circles (OPC). 2 both the gear and the pinion are standard (no profile shift) and they both have the same circular tooth thickness. This reduces the tooth thickness and this can let the gear to go deeper into the space width of the mating gear.
Root diameter. if you want the involute to be on XZ plane. Simply. 3. Now. For example if I give a shift of profile of -0. Major diameter.5mm. But remember… still the teeth are of same involute curve generated from the same base circle except that the curve is just shifted to a new polar coordinate. 4. Shift of profile. the hob will be plunged in excess into the blank by 0. of teeth (Z). No. then ‘Y’ should equal zero. Modeling a spur gear in Pro-E: Data needed: 1. 5. if any (k).the gear blank. 2.5mm which reduces the tooth thickness. 6. Generating the involute curve: Use the ‘datum curve from equation’ option. The equation should govern only the coordinates belonging to the plane in which you need the involute.1 in the new note pad opened. Modeling the blank diameter: It is just a cylinder modeled to the major diameter and the gear width using a normal protrusion option. All characters are to be in capital case. Pressure angle (α). If the shift of profile is a positive value then the hob will be stopped before reaching the standard depth by the profile shift value resulting in a wider tooth. type equation no. Pitch circle dia (D). . Select the default coordinate system and choose Cartesian.
Inside the sketch module choose the involute curve as your reference. (Refer fig. 5) . 1 THETA = T*200 Y = b*COS(THETA) + b*(THETA*(PI/180))*SIN(THETA) Z = b*SIN(THETA) . Trim the unnecessary portions of root circle and major circle. Draw a construction circle equal to the PCD. Mirror the left out involute curve with respect to the axis.The base circle radius can be found using the formula. select the face of the gear blank. Draw two circles of major dia and root dia. Join the centre point of the blank and intersection of the involute with the PC using a construction line. go to protrusion cut. Try keeping the unwanted circles and lines as construction elements.b*(THETA*(PI/180))*COS(THETA) Y=0 Cutting the first tooth: When there is no shift of profile: Once the involute is drawn. Draw an axis subtending an angle of /2 θ = 360 / (4Z) with the construction line drawn immediately before this. Base circle radius (b) = (D x cos(α)) Equation no. Project the involute curve and trim the portions beyond root circle and major circle.
5: Drawing the space width section Extrude this using protrusion cut. Pattern them as a group.Fig. Only the value of θ has to be found using the following equation. Provide fillet at the required places. π m ‐ 4 k tan D 90 π θ . That’s it! ☺ When there is a shift of profile / Addendum modification: The procedure is same as above.
Sketching the space profile in the transverse plane. 2. Fig. Normally. in any helical gear drawing sheet we can always find the terms like normal module. since it involves more formulae and advance options. . They all mean the same as a spur gear terminology except that they are all measured at a plane normal to the helix of the gear. normal pressure angle.Modeling a helical gear in Pro-E: Modeling a helical gear is little complex compared to a spur. But for modeling it is always easier if we go with the data pertaining to the transverse plane (the plane perpendicular to the axis of the gear). We can split up this exercise into four steps viz. Creating a trajectory coinciding with the helix at major cylinder. normal base pitch etc. 6: Normal plane of a helical gear The parameters associated with normal plane are always useful for manufacturing and in design calculations also. 1.
θ and. Refer figure 7. Go to sketch curve mode and choose the face of the helical gear as your sketching plane. tan‐1 tan αn cos ψ α = Pressure angle = Helix angle Subscripts t and n refer to data correspond to transverse and normal plane respectively. Base circle radius = D x cos(αt) αt Where. π mt ‐ 4 k tan αt D mn 90 π mt cos ψ Second. 4. Sweeping the space profile along the helix. generate an involute curve using equation method. First is that the formula of finding ‘theta’ varies if there is any profile shift. Sketching the space profile in the transverse plane Starting with the base circle radius as usual. Patterning it. Draw the space profile of the helical gear as you did for spur gear. With the base circle radius found using the above equations. There are two changes. Extend it a little further.3. don’t stop the involute at the major circle dia. .
Fig. Create a curve joining the intersection of gear axis with the face and the intersection of involute with major dia of gear blank as in fig 8 8. But before that we need to create a special coordinate cal system. . 7: Space width profile for a helical gear Creating a trajectory coinciding with the helix at Pitch cylinder Again we are going to use ‘Curve from equation’ option to create a helical trajectory.
Rm = Major circle radius (Radius of the blank) L = Lead of the helical gear. A note pad would have opened by now. Go to the orientation tab and pick the line drawn lastly to define X axis. go to create coordinate system option.Fig. The face can be chosen for defining Y axis. Pick the point of intersection between the blank axis and face as the origin. Feed in the following equation. Choose the lastly created coordinate system and then Cartesian. which can be found using the following formula. Select ‘curve from equation’ option now. . Y = Rm * SIN (T*360) X = Rm * COS (T*360) Z=T*L Where. 8: Creating coordinate system for trajectory Now.
This would have created a curve with a name “Copy ‘some number’”. Make sure that the ‘Normal to surface option’ is active to define the direction of projection. Click the most recently made cure (Using project method) and press “Ctrl + C” and “Ctrl + V”. Now. Go to edit and select project option. Just so be it. You need to introduce ‘-‘symbol in the equation to get the desired hand of helix in the desired direction. Select the helical curve created now. Note that the equation is just the equation of a circle if the value of lead is zero. the end of the . Right click and say ‘edit definition’. tan β π D ß = Helix angle at PCD Don’t’ bother about ‘T’. We cannot use this curve directly as a trajectory since pro-e does not allow one to use a helical curve as a trajectory. Click the square box which does not have the involute curve (ie.L Where. This depends upon the situation. So we have to do few more things to create a pro-e acceptable helical trajectory. Fig. pick the surface of the blank cylinder. Accept the curve formed and come out. 9: Extending the trajectory You can find two white squares representing the end of the curve.
The trajectory is ready now. Drag it and extend a little to overhang from the blank surface. Else. ☺ Fig. Go to sweep cut and choose the option “select trajectory”. Provide fillets and pattern them as usual. Once the trajectory is selected. Project the space profile initially created (Refer fig. Come out of sketcher mode and say Ok. you need to define the start point.). Your helical cut is ready. Select the previously created helix as the trajectory. 10: Projecting the space width profile . Sweeping the space profile along the helix. The option loop should have been selected before you click any portion of the space width section. Pro-E will take you to the sketcher mode for defining the cross section.trajectory). Ensure the start point of the trajectory is rightly taken by pro-e.
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