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ELECTRIC DRIVES

Ion Boldea S.A.Nasar

1998

Electric Drives 2

8. INDUCTION MOTORS FOR DRIVES

8.1. THE STATOR AND ITS TRAVELING FIELD

Figure 8.1. Cross section of an induction motor with two poles

(8.1) g e

p α ⋅ · α

Electric Drives 3

Figure 8.2. The m.m.f. and airgap flux density of phase a

(8.2)

(8.3)

(8.6)

(8.8)

(8.9)

(8.11)

( ) t sin x sin F t , x F

1 m 1 a 1 a

ω ⋅

τ

π

⋅ ·

( ) t sin 2 I t i

1 a

ω ·

( )

,

_

¸

¸

ω −

τ

π

⋅ · t x cos F

2

3

t , x F

1 m 1 a 1 s

1

1

f 2

dt

dx

τ ·

π

ω

⋅ τ ·

( )

( )

e

1 s

0 1 g

g

t , x F

t , x B ⋅ µ ≈

p / f n

1 1

·

Electric Drives 4

8.2. THE CAGE AND WOUND ROTORS ARE

EQUIVALENT

Figure 8.3.

Induction motor rotors

a.) cage - type rotor

b.) wound rotor

Electric Drives 5

8.3. SLOT SHAPING DEPENDS ON

APPLICATION AND POWER LEVEL

Figure 8.4.

Stator or wound rotor slots

a.) for low power

(semiclosed slots)

b.) for high power (open slots)

Electric Drives 6

Figure 8.5. Rotor slots

a.) semiclosed - round for low power and variable frequency motors

b.) closed - for low noise or high speed motors

c.) semiclosed with moderate skin effect and starting torque - constant

frequency

d.) semiclosed with high skin effect for high starting torque - constant

frequency

e,f.) double cage - for superhigh starting torque - constant frequency

g.) for high speed inverter - fed motors

Electric Drives 7

8.4. THE INDUCTANCE MATRIX

Figure 8.6. Three phase induction

motor with equivalent wound rotor

(8.12)

(8.13)

(8.14)

2

L

3

2

cos L L L L

ms

ms ca bc ab

− ·

π

· − ·

2

L

3

2

cos L L L L

mr

mr a c c b b a

r r r r r r

− ·

π

· − ·

( )

er

se

re

ms er sr

cos

W

W

L L θ ⋅ · θ

Electric Drives 8

The inductances may be now assembled into the so called matrix inductance

:

(8.18)

where:

( ) [ ]

er

c , b , a , c , b , a

r

r

r

r

r

r

L θ

( ) [ ]

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

· θ

r r r r r r r r r

r r r r r r r r r

r r r r r r r r r

r r r

r r r

r r r

r

r

r

r

r

r

c c c b c a c c b c a c r

c b b b b a c b b b a b r

c a b a a a c a b a a a r

c c c b c a cc bc ac

b c b b b a bc bb ab

a c a b a a ac ab aa

r r r

er

c , b , a , c , b , a

L L L L L L c

L L L L L L b

L L L L L L a

L L L L L L c

L L L L L L b

L L L L L L a

c b a c b a

L

ms ls cc bb aa

L L L L L + · · · 2 / L L

ms ab

− · 2 / L L

ms ac

− ·

er srm c c b b a a

cos L L L L

r r r

θ · · · mr

r

lr

r

c c b b a a

L L L L L

r r r r r r

+ · · ·

( ) 3 / 2 cos L L L L

er srm c b b a a c

r r r

π − θ · · ·

( ) 3 / 2 cos L L L L

er srm a b c a b c

r r r

π + θ · · ·

2 / L L mr

r

b a

r r

− · 2 / L L mr

r

c b

r r

− ·

Electric Drives 9

8.5. REDUCING THE ROTOR TO STATOR

(8.19)

(8.20)

(8.21)

(8.22)

ms srm

L L ·

rs

r

cr

cr

r

br

br

r

ar

ar

K

i

i

i

i

i

i

· · ·

rs

r

cr

cr

r

br

br

r

ar

ar

K

1

V

V

V

V

V

V

· · ·

2

rs

r

lr

lr

r

r

r

K

1

L

L

r

r

· ·

So the new inductance matrix is similar to that in (8.18),

but with .

( ) [ ]

er c , b , a , c , b , a

r r r

L θ

ms srm ms

mr

r

L L , L L → →

Electric Drives 10

8.6. THE PHASE COORDINATE MODEL

GOES TO 8

th

ORDER

(8.23)

(8.24)

(8.25)

(8.26)

(8.27)

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] λ + ⋅ ·

dt

d

i r V

[ ] ( ) [ ] [ ] i L

er c , b , a , c , b , a

r r r

⋅ θ · λ

[ ] [ ]

r r r s s s

r , r , r , r , r , r Diag r ·

[ ] [ ]

T

cr br ar c b a

V , V , V , V , V , V V ·

[ ] [ ]

T

cr br ar c b a

i , i , i , i , i , i i ·

Using (8.24) in (8.23) - with θ

er

variable in time in any case - we obtain:

(8.28)

where: (8.29)

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

dt

d

i

d

L d

dt

i d

L i r V

er

er

θ

⋅ ⋅

θ

+ + ⋅ ·

r r

er

p

dt

d

Ω · ω ·

θ

Electric Drives 11

(8.30)

(8.31)

(8.32)

The motion equation are:

(8.33)

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

[ ]

[ ]

r

er

T T T T

i

d

L d

i

2

1

i i L

2

1

dt

d

i r i V i ω ⋅ ⋅

θ

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

r

er

T

r e e

i

d

L d

i

2

1

T P ω ⋅

θ

⋅ · Ω ⋅ ·

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] i

d

L d

i p

2

1

T

er

T

e

θ

⋅ ⋅ ·

r

er

load e

r

dt

d

; T T

dt

d

p

J

ω ·

θ

− ·

ω

Electric Drives 12

8.7. THE SPACE PHASOR MODEL

(8.34)

(8.35)

(8.36)

(8.37)

(8.38)

[ ] [ ]; a Re

3

4

cos ; a Re

3

2

cos ; e a

2

3

2

j

·

π

·

π

·

π

[ ] [ ]; e a Re

3

4

cos ; e a Re

3

2

cos

er er

j 2

er

j

er

θ θ

⋅ ·

,

_

¸

¸

π

+ θ ⋅ ·

,

_

¸

¸

π

+ θ

[ ] ( ) [ ]

er

j

cr

2

br ar ms c

2

b a ms a ls a

e i a i a i Re L i a i a i Re L i L

θ

⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

[ ] ( ) [ ]

er

j

c

2

b a ms cr

2

br ar ms ar lr ar

e i a i a i Re L i a i a i Re L i L

θ −

⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

( )

c

2

b a

s

s i a i a i

3

2

i ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ·

( )

cr

2

br ar

r

r i a i a i

3

2

i ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ·

[ ] ( )

0 a c b a a

s

s i i i i i

3

1

i i Re − · + + ⋅ − · [ ] ( )

0 ar cr br ar ar

r

r i i i i i

3

1

i i Re − · + + ⋅ − ·

Electric Drives 13

(8.41)

With definitions (8.37) - (8.38), equations (8.35) - (8.36) become:

(8.42)

(8.43)

If to (8.42) - (8.43) we add similar equations for phases b, b

r

and c, c

r

equation

(8.23) becomes:

(8.44)

(8.45)

(8.46)

0 i i i ; 0 i i i

cr br ar c b a

· + + · + +

( ) ( )

ms m

j

s

r

s

s

m

s

s

ls a

L

2

3

L ; e i i Re L i Re L

er

· ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

θ

( ) ( )

er

j

s

s

r

r

m

s

r

lr

ar

r

e i i Re L i Re L

θ −

⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

( )

dt

e i d

L

dt

i d

L i r

dt

d

i r V

er

j

r

r

m

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

s s

s

s

s

s

θ

+ ⋅ + ⋅ ·

λ

+ ⋅ ·

( )

dt

e i d

L

dt

i d

L i r

dt

d

i r V

er

j

s

s

m

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r r

r

r

r

r

θ −

+ ⋅ + ⋅ ·

λ

+ ⋅ ·

m lr r m ls s

L L L ; L L L + · + ·

Electric Drives 14

(8.48)

(8.49)

(8.50)

(8.51)

(8.52)

(8.53)

The torque should be calculated from (8.42) with the above notations:

dt

d

b

b

θ

· ω

b b b

j

b

s

s

s

j

b

s

s

s

j

b

s

s

s

e V V ; e i i ; e

θ θ θ

⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ λ · λ

( ) ( ) ( )

er b er b er b

j

b

r

r

r

j

b

r

r

r

j

b

r

r

r

e V V ; e i i ; e

θ − θ θ − θ θ − θ

⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ λ · λ

( )

r

r b

r

r

r

r

s

b

s

s

s

s

j

dt

d

i r V

j

dt

d

i r V

λ ⋅ ω − ω ⋅ +

λ

+ ⋅ ·

λ ⋅ ω ⋅ +

λ

+ ⋅ ·

r

m

s

s

s

i L i L ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

s

m

r

r

r

i L i L ⋅ + ⋅ · λ

( ) ( )

*

r

r

*

s

s e

i j Re p

2

3

i j Re p

2

3

T ⋅ ψ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ψ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

Electric Drives 15

We may now decompose in plane the space phasors along two orthogonal

axes d and q moving at speed ω

b

[5]:

(8.55)

(8.56)

qr dr

r

qr dr

r

qr dr

r

q d

s

q d

s

q d

s

j ; i j i i ; V j V V

j ; i j i i ; V j V V

λ ⋅ + λ · λ ⋅ + · ⋅ + ·

λ ⋅ + λ · λ ⋅ + · ⋅ + ·

( )

( )

( ) ( )

qr d dr q m d q q d e

dr r b

qr

qr r qr

qr r b

dr

dr r dr

d b

q

q s q

q b

d

d s d

i i i i pL

2

3

i i p

2

3

T

dt

d

i r V

dt

d

i r V

dt

d

i r V

dt

d

i r V

− · λ − λ ·

λ ⋅ ω − ω +

λ

+ ⋅ ·

λ ⋅ ω − ω −

λ

+ ⋅ ·

λ ⋅ ω +

λ

+ ⋅ ·

λ ⋅ ω −

λ

+ ⋅ ·

Electric Drives 16

Also from (8.49) - (8.50) and (8.47):

(8.57)

[P(θ

b

)] is the Park transformation:

(8.58)

The inverse of Park transformation is:

(8.59)

( ) [ ]

1

1

1

]

1

¸

⋅ θ ·

1

1

1

]

1

¸

c

b

a

b

0

q

d

V

V

V

P

2

1

V

V

V

( ) [ ]

( )

( )

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

π

− θ −

,

_

¸

¸

π

+ θ − θ −

,

_

¸

¸

π

− θ −

,

_

¸

¸

π

+ θ − θ −

⋅ · θ

2

1

2

1

2

1

3

2

sin

3

2

sin sin

3

2

cos

3

2

cos cos

3

2

P

b b b

b b b

b

( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]

T

b

1

b

P

2

3

P θ ⋅ · θ

−

Electric Drives 17

Example 8.1. The space phasor of sinusoidal symmetric currents.

Consider three symmetrical sinusoidal currents and show how their

complex space phasor in time through 6 instants. Give a graphical

description of this process in time.

Solution:

The three phase currents may be written as:

(8.61)

The space phasor in stator coordinates is, (8.37),:

(8.62)

with (8.63)

(8.62) becomes: (8.64)

s

s i

( ) 1,2,3 = i ;

3

2

1 i t cos 2 I i

1 c , b , a

,

_

¸

¸

π

⋅ − − ω ⋅ ·

s

s i

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

π

− ω +

,

_

¸

¸

π

− ω + ω ·

π π

3

4

t cos e

3

2

t cos e t cos 2 I

3

2

i

1

3

4

j

1

3

2

j

1

s

s

3

4

sin j

3

4

cos e ;

3

2

sin j

3

2

cos e

3

4

j

3

2

j

π

⋅ +

π

·

π

⋅ +

π

·

π π

[ ]

q d 1 1

s

s i j i t sin j t cos 2 I i ⋅ + · ω ⋅ + ω ·

Electric Drives 18

The position of the space phasor for

is shown in figure 8.7.

3

5

,

3

4

, ,

3

2

,

3

, 0 t

1

π π

π

π π

· ω

Figure 8.7. The space phasor of sinusoidal three phase currents

Electric Drives 19

8.8. THE SPACE PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR

ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS

The space phasor model equations

(8.51) - (8.53) may be represented on

a space phasor diagram in the d - q

plane with axes d and q rotating at

speed ω

b

= ω

1

(figure 8.8). Let us

consider .

0 V

b

r

·

Figure 8.8. The space phasor

diagram of induction motor valid for

transients (for steady d/dt = 0) in

synchronous coordinates

(cage rotor: ) 0 V

b

r

·

Electric Drives 20

d/dt = j(ω

1

- ω

b

). (8.66)

Also for steady state of rotor flux the rotor flux equation (8.52) becomes:

(8.67)

Only for (short - circuited, cage, rotor) the rotor current and flux

space phasors are orthogonal to each other.

For this case the torque expression (8.54) becomes:

(8.68)

( ) ( )

( )

b

r

r 1

b

r

r

b

r

r b

b

r

b 1

b

r

r

b

r

j i r

j j i r V

λ ⋅ ω − ω + ⋅ ·

· λ ⋅ ω − ω + λ ⋅ ω − ω + ⋅ ·

0 V

b

r

·

. ct ; i p

2

3

T

b

r

b

r

b

r e

· λ ⋅ λ ⋅ ·

Electric Drives 21

8.9. ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS WITH FLUX

LINKAGES AS VARIABLES

(8.69)

(8.70)

(8.71)

equations (8.51) - (8.53) become:

(8.72)

(8.73)

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ λ

−

λ

σ ·

−

r s

m

b

r

s

b

s

1

b

s

L L

L

L

i

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ λ

−

λ

σ ·

−

r s

m

b

s

r

b

r

1

b

r

L L

L

L

i

r s

2

m

L L

L

1− · σ

( )

b

r

r

b

s

s

b

s

s b

b

s

s

K V ' ' j 1

dt

d

' λ + τ · λ ⋅ τ ⋅ ω ⋅ + +

λ

τ

( ) ( )

b

s

s

b

r

r

b

r

r r b

b

r

r

K V ' ' j 1

dt

d

' λ + τ · λ ⋅ τ ⋅ ω − ω ⋅ + +

λ

τ

Electric Drives 22

with

(8.74)

While τ

s

, τ

r

are the stator and rotor time constants, τ

s

’ and τ

r

’ are

transient time constants of rotor and stator.The structural diagram

corresponding to (8.72) - (8.73) is shown on figure 8.9.

r

r

r

s

s

s

r r s s

r

m

r

s

m

s

r

L

;

r

L

' ; '

L

L

K ;

L

L

K

· τ · τ

σ ⋅ τ · τ σ ⋅ τ · τ

· ·

Figure 8.9.

Structural diagram

of induction motor

with stator and

rotor flux

and as

variables; random

speed (ω

b

)

coordinates.

b

s

λ

b

r

λ

Electric Drives 23

8.10. COMPLEX EIGEN VALUES FOR

ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS

Equations (8.72) - (8.73) imply a second order complex - variable system

with only two complex eigen values corresponding to the determinant:

(8.75)

The complex eigen values from (8.75) depend on the reference

system speed ω

b

and on rotor speed ω

r

, but their real part is, in general,

negative suggesting attenuated periodic response.[4,6]

Example 8.2. For an induction motor with the data r

s

= 0.5Ω, r

r

= 0.60Ω, L

s

=

L

r

= 0.08H, L

m

= 0.075H, p = 2pole pairs calculate the complex eigen values

for constant speed, in synchronous coordinates (ω

1

= 2π60) for n = 0 and n =

1800 rpm.

2 , 1

s

( )

0

' j 1 s ' K

K ' j 1 s '

r r b r s

r s b s

·

τ ω − ω + + τ −

− τ ω + + τ

Electric Drives 24

Solution:

The value of ω

b

= ω

1

= 2π60 rad/s. σ, τ

s

’, τ

r

’, K

s

, K

r

are now

calculated from (8.71) - (8.74):

(8.76)

(8.77)

Also (8.78)

1211 . 0

08 . 0

075 . 0

1

L L

L

1

2

2

r s

2

m

· − · − · σ

9375 . 0

08 . 0

075 . 0

L

L

K

9375 . 0

08 . 0

075 . 0

L

L

K

s 01614 . 0

6 . 0

08 . 0

1211 . 0

r

L

'

s 01937 . 0

5 . 0

08 . 0

1211 . 0

r

L

'

r

m

r

s

m

s

r

r

r r

s

s

s s

· · ·

· · ·

· ⋅ · σ · στ · τ

· ⋅ · σ · στ · τ

n 4 pn 2

r

π · π · ω

Electric Drives 25

Now we rewrite (8.75) in a canonical form:

(8.79)

(8.80)

For n = 0

(8.81)

For n = 30rps (1800rpm):

(8.82)

( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ' j 1 ' j 1

2 ' ' j ' ' s ' ' s

r r b s b

r b r s r s r s

2

· τ ⋅ ω − ω ⋅ + τ ⋅ ω ⋅ + +

ω − ω τ τ + τ + τ + τ τ

( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 01614 . 0 n 4 8 . 376 j 1 01937 . 0 8 . 376 j 1

n 4 8 . 376 2 01614 . 0 01937 . 0 j 01614 . 0 01937 . 0 s

01614 . 0 01937 . 0 s

2

· ⋅ π − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + +

π − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + + +

+ ⋅ ⋅

j 64 . 376 797 . 56 s

12

− ·

( )

000625 . 0

j 000759 . 0 01387 . 0 j 1177 . 0 0355 . 0

s

2 , 1

− − t + −

·

Electric Drives 26

8.11 ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS FOR

CONSTANT ROTOR FLUX

(8.83)

Using (8.83) in (8.73):

(8.84)

It is more convenient to use synchronous coordinates for equations

(8.72):

(8.85)

Equations (8.84) - (8.85) lead to a simplification in the structural

diagram of figure 8.9. as the derivative term in the rotor disappears (figure

8.10).

( )

b

r

r b

b

r

j

dt

d

λ ⋅ ω − ω ⋅ ·

λ

' jS 1

K V '

r 1

b

s

s

b

r

r

b

r

τ ω +

λ + τ

· λ

( )

b

r

r

b

s

s

b

s

s 1

b

s

s

K V ' ' j 1

dt

d

' λ + τ · λ ⋅ τ ⋅ ω ⋅ + +

λ

τ

Electric Drives 27

Figure 8.10. Structural diagram of induction motor with constant

rotor flux and speed in synchronous coordinates (ω

b

= ω

1

)

Electric Drives 28

8.12. STEADY STATE: IT IS D.C. IN

SYNCHRONOUS COORDINATES

Steady state means in general that the three phase voltages are symmetric and

sinusoidal:

; i = 1, 2, 3 (8.86)

The voltage space phasor in random coordinates is:

(8.87)

with (8.86):

(8.88)

For steady state:

(8.89)

Consequently:

(8.90)

( )

,

_

¸

¸

π

⋅ − − ω ⋅ ·

3

2

1 i t cos 2 V V

1 c , b , a

( ) ( ) ( )

b

j

3

2

j

c

3

2

j

b a

b

s

e e t V e t V t V

3

2

V

θ −

π

−

π

⋅

1

]

1

¸

⋅ + ⋅ + ·

( ) ( ) [ ]

b 1 b 1

b

s

t sin j t cos 2 V V θ − ω ⋅ + θ − ω ·

0 b b

t θ + ω · θ

( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] [ ]

( ) [ ]

0 b 1

t j

0 b 1 0 b 1

b

s

e 2 V

t sin j t cos 2 V V

θ − ω − ω

⋅ ·

· θ − ω − ω ⋅ + θ − ω − ω ·

Electric Drives 29

It is obvious that for steady state the currents in the model have to have the

voltage frequency, which is: . Once again for steady state we use

(8.51), with d/dt = as inferred in (8.66).

Consequently from (8.51):

(8.91)

( )

b 1

ω − ω

( )

b 1

ω − ω

1 r

b

0 r

1

b

0 r

r

b

0 r

b

0 s

1

b

0 s

s

b

0 s

/ 1 s ; S j i r V

j i r V

ω ω − · λ ⋅ ω ⋅ + ⋅ ·

λ ⋅ ω ⋅ + ⋅ ·

In the flux equations (8.52) - (8.53) we may separate the main (airgap) flux

linkage :

(8.92)

(8.93)

Equations (8.91) - (8.93) lead to the standard equivalent circuit of figure 8.11.

m

λ

( )

b

m

m

b

r

b

s

m

m m

b

s

ls

b

s

i L i i L ; i L ⋅ · + ⋅ · λ λ + ⋅ · λ

m

b

r

lr

b

r

i L λ + ⋅ · λ

Electric Drives 30

Figure 8.11. Space phasor steady state equivalent

circuit of induction machine

The torque expression (8.54) with (8.91) and V

r0

b

= 0, yields:

(8.94)

( )

0 r 0 r

*

b

r

b

r

e

i p

2

3

i Re p

2

3

T ⋅ λ ⋅ · ⋅ λ ⋅ − ·

Electric Drives 31

From (8.92):

(8.95)

Consequently the electromagnetic torque T

e

is:

(8.96)

Using the equivalent circuit of figure (8.11) and (8.95) we may obtain the

conventional torque expression:

(8.97)

with (8.98)

r

0 r

1

0 r

r

S j i

λ

⋅ ω ⋅ − ·

1

r

2

0 r

e

S

r

p

2

3

T ω ⋅

λ

⋅ ·

( ) ( )

2

lr 1 ls

2

1

2

r 1 s

r

2

1

e

L c L S / r c r

S / r V p 3

T

+ ω + +

⋅

ω

·

m

ls

1

L

L

1 c + ≈

Electric Drives 32

8.13. NO LOAD IDEAL SPEED MAY GO UNDER

OR OVER CONVENTIONAL VALUE ω

1

The no load ideal speed (slip S

0

) corresponds to zero torque, that is, (8.91),

zero rotor current:

(8.99)

Only for short - circuited rotor windings (or passive impedance at rotor

terminals) ( ) the ideal no load slip S

0

= 0 and ω

ro

= ω

1

.

When the induction machine is doubly fed ( ) the ideal no load slip is

different from zero and the no load ideal speed is, in general,:

(8.100)

b

0 r 1 0

b

0 r

S j V λ ⋅ ω ⋅ ·

0 V

b

r

·

0 V

b

r

≠

( )

0 1 0 r

S 1− ω · ω

Example 8.3. For steady state, calculate the stator voltage, stator flux, current,

power factor, torque of an induction motor at 10% ideal no load (synchronous)

speed ω

1

and S = 0.02.

The motor data are: r

s

= 0.5Ω, r

r

= 0.6Ω, L

s

= L

r

= 0.08H, L

m

= 0.075H, λ

r0

=

0.8Wb, ω

1

= 2π60 rad/s, p = 2 pole pairs, V

r

b

= 0 (cage rotor).

Electric Drives 33

Solution:

First we have to calculate the initial conditions, which are implicitly steady

state. Let us use synchronous coordinates:

(8.101)

So

(8.102)

The torque (T

e

) is, (8.96),:

(8.103)

From (8.72) - (8.73) with d/dt = 0 and V

r

b

= 0 we may now calculate the stator

flux :

(8.104)

( ) S 1

1 0 r

− ω · ω

( )

( )

s / rad 45 . 38

02 . 0 1

60 2 1 . 0

S 1

0 t

0 r

0 t 1

·

−

⋅ π ⋅ ⋅

·

−

ω

· ω

·

·

( ) ( ) ( ) Nm 115 . 24

6 . 0

60 2

02 . 0 8 . 0 2

2

3

r

S

p

2

3

T

2

r

1

2

b

r 0 t e

·

π

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

ω

⋅ λ ⋅ ·

·

b

s

λ

s

r 1

b

r

b

s

K

' S j 1 τ ⋅ ω ⋅ ⋅ +

⋅ λ · λ

Notice that the motor parameters are as in example 8.2 and thus τ

r

’ = 0.01614s,

τ

s

’ = 0.01937s, K

s

= K

r

= 0.9375, σ = 0.1211.

(8.105)

1038 . 0 j 8533 . 0

9375 . 0

01614 . 0 60 2 02 . 0 j 1

b

r

b

s

+ ·

⋅ π ⋅ ⋅ +

⋅ λ · λ

Electric Drives 34

Let us consider the d axis along the rotor flux and thus = .

Now from (8.72) with we may find the stator voltage :

(8.106)

The motor phase voltage (r.m.s. value):

(8.107)

The stator current is obtained from (8.69):

(8.108)

b

r

λ

b

r

λ

0

dt

d

b

s

·

λ b

s

V

( )

( ) ( )

V 4 . 328 V ; 69 . 326 j 74 . 33 =

01937 . 0

8 . 0 9375 . 0 1297 . 0 j 066 . 1 8 . 0 01937 . 0 60 2 j 1

'

K ' j 1

V

b

s

s

b

r

r

b

s

s 1

b

s

· + −

⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π ⋅ +

·

·

τ

λ ⋅ − λ τ ω +

·

V 91 . 232 41 . 1 / 4 . 328 2 / V V

b

s

· · ·

[ ]

( ) [ ]

71 . 10 j 76 . 10

08 . 0 1211 . 0

9357 . 0 8 . 0 1297 . 0 j 066 . 1 8 . 0

L

K

i

s

r

b

r

b

s b

s

+ ·

⋅

⋅ − + ⋅

·

·

⋅ σ

⋅ λ − λ

·

Electric Drives 35

The rotor space phasor is (8.95):

(8.109)

The amplitude of the stator current . The results are illustrated by

the space phasor diagram in figure 8.12.

The power factor angle ϕ

1

is:

(8.110)

Finally cosϕ

1

= 0.633.

b

r i

A 05 . 10 j

6 . 0

8 . 0

60 2 02 . 0 j

r

js i

r

b

r

1

b

r − · ⋅ π ⋅ ⋅ − ·

λ

ω − ·

A 181 . 15 i

b

s

·

0 0 0 0

1 1

b

s

b

s

1

74 . 50 156 . 45 9 . 5 90

71 . 10

76 . 10

tan

69 . 326

74 . 33

tan

2

i arg V arg

· − + ·

· − +

π

· − · ϕ

− −

Figure 8.12. Steady state space

phasor diagram in synchronous

coordinates (ω

b

= ω

1

): d.c.

quantities

Electric Drives 36

Example 8.4. Loss breakdown

A high efficiency induction motor with cage rotor has the data: rated

power P

n

= 5kW, rated line voltage (rms) V

L

= 220V (star connection), rated

frequency f

1

= 60Hz, number of pole pairs p = 2, core loss (P

iron

) = mechanical

loss P

mec

= 1.5% of P

n

, additional losses p

add

= 1%P

n

, stator per rotor winding

losses p

cor

/p

cos

= 2/3, rated efficiency η

n

= 0.9 and power factor cosϕ

n

= 0.88.

Calculate all loss components, phase current (rms), then rated slip,

speed, electromagnetic torque, shaft torque and stator current (as space

phasors).

Solution:

The loss breakdown

diagram of the induction

motor is shown in figure

8.13.

Figure 8.13. Induction

motor energy conversion

Electric Drives 37

The input power P

in

is:

(8.111)

The phase current I

n

(rms) is:

(8.112)

The total losses are:

(8.113)

Consequently:

(8.114)

(8.115)

W 55 . 5555

9 . 0

5000 P

P

n

out

in

· ·

η

·

A 58 . 16

88 . 0 220 3

55 . 5555

cos V 3

P

I

n L

in

n

·

⋅ ⋅

·

ϕ ⋅ ⋅

·

∑

p

W 55 . 555 5000 55 . 5555 P P p

out in

· − · − ·

∑

W 75 5000 015 . 0 p p

mec iron

· ⋅ · ·

W 50 5000 01 . 0 p

add

· ⋅ ·

So

(8.116)

(8.117)

(8.118)

W 355 50 75 75 55 . 555 p p p p p p

add mec iron cor cos

≈ − − − · − − − · +

∑

W 355 p

3

2

p

cos cos

· +

W 142 p W; 3 . 213 p

cor cos

· ·

Electric Drives 38

The electromagnetic power P

e

is the active power that crosses the airgap:

(8.119)

(8.120)

(8.121)

The rotor winding loss p

cor

is: (8.122)

and thus the rated slip is:

(8.123)

p

T p P P P

1

e iron cos in e

ω

⋅ · − − ·

W 5267 75 213 55 . 5555 P

e

· − − ·

Nm 956 . 27 2

60 2

5267

T

e

· ⋅

π

·

e n cor

P S p ⋅ ·

02696 . 0

5267

142

S

n

· ·

The rated speed n

n

is:

(8.124)

The shaft torque T

n

is calculated directly from mechanical power P

n

:

(8.125)

( ) ( ) rpm 472 . 1751 rps 1912 . 29 02696 . 0 1

2

60

S 1

p

f

n

n

1

n

· · − · − ·

e

n

n

n

T Nm 274 . 27

1912 . 29 2

5000

n 2

P

T < ·

⋅ π

·

π

·

s i

A 3778 . 23 41 . 1 58 . 16 2 i i

n s

· ⋅ · ·

Finally the amplitude of the stator current , in synchronous coordinates

(d.c. quantities) are:

(8.126)

Electric Drives 39

8.14. MOTORING, GENERATING, A.C. BRAKING

The equivalent circuit for steady state (figure 8.11) shows that the active power

in the rotor (the electromagnetic power P

e

), is:

(8.127)

This expression is valid for the cage rotor (V

r

b

= 0).

Motoring mode is defined as the situation when the torque has the same sign as

the speed:

(8.128)

For generating the torque is negative (S<0) in (8.127) but the speed is positive:

(8.129)

The generator produces braking (T

e

< 0, ω

r

> 0) but the energy transfer direction

in the motor is reversed. The energy is pumped back into the power source

through the stator.

1

r 1

e

r

2

0 r e

1 S ;

p

T

S

r

I

2

3

P

ω

ω

− ·

ω

⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·

1 S 0 0 ; 0 T , 0 P

r e e

< < ⇒ > ω > >

0 S 0 ; 0 T , 0 P

r e e

< ⇒ > ω < <

Electric Drives 40

Braking is obtained when again (T

e

> 0, ω

r

< 0) (or T

e

< 0, ω

r

> 0) but still the

electromagnetic power is positive:

(8.130)

1 S 0 ; 0 T ; 0 P

1 S 0 ; 0 T ; 0 P

r e e

r e e

> ⇒ > ω < >

> ⇒ < ω > >

We may synthesize the results on operation modes as in table 8.1.

Table 8.1. Operation modes (cage rotor)

S -∞ - - - - - - 0 + + + + + 1 + + + + + + +∞

ω

r

+∞ + + + + + ω

1

+ + + + + 0 - - - - - - - - -∞

T

e 0 - - - - - - - 0 + + + + + T

e

(start) + + + + 0

P

e

- - - - - - - - 0 + + + + + + + + + + + + +

mode Generating Motoring a.c. braking

Electric Drives 41

(8.131)

(8.132)

The torque slip (speed) curve is shown in figure 8.14.

( )

2

lr 1 ls

2

1

2

s

r 1

k

L c L r

r c

S

+ ω +

t

·

( )

,

_

¸

¸

+ ω + t

⋅

ω

·

2

lr 1 ls

2

1

2

s s 1

2

1

ek

L c L r r c 2

V p 3

T

Figure 8.14. Torque - speed

curve of induction motors for

constant voltage and frequency

Electric Drives 42

8.15. D.C. BRAKING: ZERO BRAKING TORQUE

AT ZERO SPEED

For moderate braking requirements d.c. braking is commonly used in modern

electrical drives. To calculate the d.c. braking torque we redraw the space

phasor equivalent circuit in figure 8.11, but with a d.c. stator current source

space phasor in figure 8.15.

Figure 8.15. Equivalent circuit for d.c. braking - stator coordinates - in

space phasors; steady state

Electric Drives 43

The electromagnetic torque is still computed from (8.94):

(8.134)

with

(8.135)

Finally:

(8.136)

The peak torque is obtained for ω

rk

:

(8.137)

and its value is:

(8.138)

r

r

2

rdc

rdc rdc e

r i

p

2

3

i p

2

3

T

ω

⋅

− · λ ·

r

r

lr

m

s

sdc

s

rdc

r

j L

L

i i

ω

−

⋅ ·

2

r

2

r

2

lr

r r

2

sdc

2

m

e

r L

r i L

p

2

3

T

+ ω

⋅ ω ⋅ ⋅

− ·

'

1

L

r

r lr

r

rk

τ

≈ · ω

lr

2

sdc

2

m

ek

L 2

i L

p

2

3

T

⋅

− ·

Electric Drives 44

(8.139)

The torque speed curve for d.c. braking is shown in figure 8.16. Notice also

that the rotor kinetic energy is dumped into the rotor resistor and that for zero

speed the braking torque is zero. Also above ω

rk

(which is fairly small in high

efficiency motors) the torque is again rather small.

0

0

0

3

2

j

c

3

2

j

b a

s

sdc i

3

2

cos 2

2

i

i

3

2

e i e i i

3

2

i ·

,

_

¸

¸

π

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

π

−

π

Figure 8.16. D.c. braking torque of induction motors

Electric Drives 45

8.16. SPEED CONTROL METHODS

Variable speed is required in many applications. It has to be performed at high

energy conversion rates.

The no load ideal speed ω

r0

is ((8.100) with (8.99)):

(8.140)

Evidently for the cage rotor = 0 and thus or

(8.141)

ω

2

is the frequency of the rotor current (or of - rotor P.E.C.). There are

three essential methods to vary speed by varying the no load ideal speed (as the

rated slip is small) as suggested by (8.140):

• stator frequency f

1

variation;

•

pole number (2p) changing;

• wound rotor supply (or rotor frequency f

2

variation).

0 r

V

1 1 0 r

f 2π · ω · ω

b

r

V

2 r 1

b

0 r

1

b

0 r

1 0 r

;

V

ag Im 1 ω + ω · ω

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

λ ω

+ ω · ω

p

f

p 2

n

1 0 r

0

·

π

ω

·

Electric Drives 46

Stator frequency control is far more frequently used especially for wide speed

control range. However the level of flux depends on the current in the

machine. Especially on the magnetisation current

(8.142)

Consequently it is crucial to control I

m

properly to avoid excessive

magnetic saturation, while varying frequency f

1

.

b

r

b

s m I I I + ·

• V

1

/f

1

- scalar control;

• constant (controlled) rotor flux (λ

r

) vector control;

• constant (controlled) stator flux (λ

s

) - vector control.

Here only the torque / speed curves obtainable with the above

methods are given. Notice that in all these cases the P.E.C. voltage supplying

the induction motor is voltage limited with the maximum voltage reached at

base speed ω

b

.

Electric Drives 47

8.17. V

1

/f

1

TORQUE - SPEED CURVES

V

1

/f

1

control means that:

(8.143)

(8.144)

1 f 0 1

f K V V ⋅ + ·

sn s 0 0

i r c V ·

Figure 8.17.

Torque / speed curves

for

(V

1

/f

1

control)

a.) V

1

/f

1

dependences

b.) T

e

/ω

r

curves

1 f 0 1

f K V V ⋅ + ·

Electric Drives 48

8.18. ONLY FOR CONSTANT ROTOR FLUX

TORQUE - SPEED CURVES ARE LINEAR

(8.146)

( )

r

r 1

2

0 r

e

r

p

2

3

T

ω − ω λ

·

Figure 8.18. Torque - speed curves for constant rotor flux λ

r

b

= ct.

up to base frequency ω

1b

; constant voltage and variable frequency

above ω

1b

Electric Drives 49

8.19. CONSTANT STATOR FLUX TORQUE -

SPEED CURVES HAVE

TWO BREAKDOWN POINTS

(8.147)

(8.148)

This expression has extreme (critical) values for:

(8.149)

(8.150)

( )

s

r 1

0 r 0 s

K

' jS 1 τ ω +

λ · λ

( )

2

r 1

2

0 s 1

r

s

2

e

' S 1

S

r

K

p

2

3

T

τ ω +

λ ω

·

( )

'

1

S

r

k 1

τ

t · ω

' r 2

K

p

2

3

T

r r

2

s

2

s

ek

τ

λ

·

Electric Drives 50

(8.151)

( )

2

1

2

0 s

r r

2

s

ek

V

' r 2

K

p

2

3

T

b 1 1

ω

⋅

τ

·

ω > ω

Figure 8.19. Torque - speed curves for constant stator flux

amplitude λ

s

up to ω

1b

and constant voltage above ω

1b

**8. INDUCTION MOTORS FOR DRIVES
**

8.1. THE STATOR AND ITS TRAVELING FIELD

Figure 8.1. Cross section of an induction motor with two poles

αe = p ⋅ αg

Electric Drives

(8.1)

2

Figure 8.2. The m.m.f. and airgap flux density of phase a π Fa1 ( x , t ) = Fa1m ⋅ sin x ⋅ sin ω1t τ

(8.2) (8.3) (8.6) (8.8) (8.9) (8.11)

3

i a ( t ) = I 2 sin ω1t

Fs1 ( x , t ) =

**3 π Fa1m ⋅ cos x − ω1t 2 τ dx ω = τ ⋅ 1 = 2τf1 dt π F ( x, t ) Bg1 ( x, t ) ≈ µ 0 ⋅ s1 ge n 1 = f1 / p
**

Electric Drives

8.2. THE CAGE AND WOUND ROTORS ARE EQUIVALENT

Figure 8.3. Induction motor rotors a.) cage - type rotor b.) wound rotor

Electric Drives

4

8.3. SLOT SHAPING DEPENDS ON APPLICATION AND POWER LEVEL

Figure 8.4. Stator or wound rotor slots a.) for low power (semiclosed slots) b.) for high power (open slots)

Electric Drives 5

) double cage .) for high speed inverter .constant frequency g. Rotor slots a.constant frequency e.round for low power and variable frequency motors b.Figure 8.) semiclosed with high skin effect for high starting torque .5.fed motors Electric Drives 6 .) semiclosed with moderate skin effect and starting torque .f.for low noise or high speed motors c.) semiclosed .for superhigh starting torque .) closed .constant frequency d.

13) (8. THE INDUCTANCE MATRIX Figure 8.8.12) (8.4.6.14) 7 Electric Drives . Three phase induction motor with equivalent wound rotor L ms 2π L ab = L bc − L ca = L ms cos =− 3 2 2π L L a r b r = L b r c r − L c r a r = L mr cos = − mr 3 2 L sr ( θer ) = L ms ⋅ Wre cos θer Wse (8.

The inductances may be now assembled into the so called matrix inductance : L r r r ( θ er ) [ a .a r . b r .c r ] [L a . b .c r r r r ( θer ) ] a b =c a r b r c r a L aa b L ab c L ac ar La ra br L bra L ab L ac La ra L bra Lcra L bb L bc Larb L br b Lcr b L bc L cc La rc L brc Lcrc La rb La rc La ra r La r br La rcr L br b L brc La rbr L br br L brcr cr Lcra Lcr b Lcrc La rcr L b r cr Lcrcr (8.18) where: L aa = L bb = L cc = L ls + L ms L ab = −L ms / 2 L ac = − L ms / 2 L a r a = L b r b = L c r c = L srm cos θer L a r a r = L b r b r = L c r c r = Lr lr + Lr mr L c r a = L a r b = L b r c = L srm cos( θer − 2π / 3) L a r b r = −Lr mr / 2 Electric Drives L c r b = L a r c = L b r a = L srm cos( θer + 2π / 3) L b r c r = − Lr mr / 2 8 . b .c .a r .c . b r .

5. r but with L mr → L ms .22) So the new inductance matrix L a .19) (8.18).8. [ ] Electric Drives 9 .c r ( θer ) is similar to that in (8.b .21) (8.20) (8.b r .a r . REDUCING THE ROTOR TO STATOR L srm = L ms i ar i br i cr = r = r = K rs r i ar i br i cr Var Vbr Vcr 1 = r = r = r Var Vbr Vcr K rs rr L lr 1 = r = r rr L lr K rs 2 (8. L srm → L ms .c .

Vcr ] T [ i] = [ i a . rs .b .28) dt dθer dt dθer = ω r = pΩ r where: (8.we obtain: d[ i ] d[ L ] dθer [ V ] = [ r ] ⋅ [ i ] + [ L] + ⋅ [ i] ⋅ (8.24) in (8.23) .b.29) dt Electric Drives 10 . THE PHASE COORDINATE MODEL GOES TO 8th ORDER [ V ] = [ r ] ⋅ [ i] + d [ λ ] [ λ ] = [ L a . i b . i ar . i cr ] T Using (8. Vc . rr . rr . Var .27) [ r ] = Diag[ rs .c. Vbr .24) (8. rs .25) (8.23) (8.6.8.a . i br .26) (8. Vb . rr ] [ V] = [ Va .with θ er variable in time in any case .c ( θer ) ] ⋅ [ i] r r r dt (8. i c .

33) J dω r dθer = Te − Tload .[ i] T ⋅ [ V] = [ i] T ⋅ [ r ] ⋅ [ i] + d 1 [[ L] ⋅ [ i] ⋅ [ i] T ] + 1 ⋅ [ i] T ⋅ d[ L] ⋅ [ i] ⋅ ωr dt 2 2 dθer (8. = ωr p dt dt Electric Drives 11 .32) (8.31) Pe = Te ⋅ Ω r = Te = The motion equation are: 1 T d[ L ] [ i ] ⋅ [ i ] ⋅ ωr 2 dθer 1 T d[ L ] [ i] p ⋅ [ i] ⋅ 2 dθer (8.30) (8.

35) ) ] ( ) ) (8.8. 3 3 [ ] 2π 4π cos θer + = Re a ⋅ e jθer .34) 3 3 λ a = L ls ⋅ i a + L ms ⋅ Re i a + a ⋅ i b + a 2 ⋅ i c + L ms ⋅ Re i ar + a ⋅ i br + a 2 ⋅ i cr e jθer [ ] [ ] [ ] [( ) ] λ ar = L lr ⋅ i ar + L ms ⋅ Re i ar + a ⋅ i br + a 2 ⋅ i cr + L ms ⋅ Re i a + a ⋅ i b + a 2 ⋅ i c e − jθer 2 ⋅ ia + a ⋅ i b + a 2 ⋅ ic 3 2 r i r = ⋅ i ar + a ⋅ i br + a 2 ⋅ i cr 3 is = s [ ] [( (8.7.36) (8.38) ( 1 s Re i s = i a − ⋅ ( i a + i b + i c ) = i a − i 0 3 [ ] 1 r Re i r = i ar − ⋅ ( i ar + i br + i cr ) = i ar − i 0 3 12 [ ] Electric Drives . THE SPACE PHASOR MODEL a=e j 2π 3 2π 4π . (8. cos θer + = Re a 2 ⋅ e jθer .37) (8. cos = Re[ a ]. cos = Re a 2 .

36) become: (8.(8.41) λ a = L ls ⋅ Re i s + L m ⋅ Re i s + i r ⋅ e jθer . i ar + i br + i cr = 0 With definitions (8.43) If to (8. br and c.(8.i a + i b + i c = 0.38). L r = L lr + L m Electric Drives ) (8.45) (8. equations (8.42) .42) (8. L m = s s s ( ) ( ) λr ar = L lr ⋅ Re i r + L m ⋅ Re i r + i s ⋅ e − jθer s r s ( ) s ( ) ( ( 3 L ms 2 (8.(8.46) 13 .35) .44) dλ r di r d i s e − jθer r r r V r = rr ⋅ i r + = rr ⋅ i r + L r ⋅ + Lm dt dt dt L s = L ls + L m .43) we add similar equations for phases b.23) becomes: dλ s di s d i r e jθer s V s = rs ⋅ i s + = rs ⋅ i s + L s ⋅ + Lm dt dt dt s s s r r r s ) (8. cr equation (8.37) .

V s = V s ⋅ e jθ b λ r = λ r ⋅ e j( θb −θer ) . i r = i r ⋅ e j( θb −θer ) .48) (8.53) Te = 3 3 * * ⋅ p ⋅ Re j ⋅ ψ s ⋅ i s = − ⋅ p ⋅ Re j ⋅ ψ r ⋅ i r 2 2 Electric Drives ( ) ( ) 14 . V r = V r ⋅ e j( θb −θer ) r b r b r b dλ s V s = rs ⋅ i s + + j ⋅ ωb ⋅ λ s dt dλ r V r = rr ⋅ i r + + j ⋅ ( ωb − ωr ) ⋅ λ r dt λ s = Ls ⋅ is + L m ⋅ i r λ r = L r ⋅ i r + L m ⋅ is The torque should be calculated from (8.50) (8.49) (8.ωb = s b s dθ b dt b s b (8. i s = i s ⋅ e jθ b .51) λ s = λ s ⋅ e j θ b .42) with the above notations: (8.52) (8.

56) 15 . i r = i dr + j ⋅ i qr .55) dλ d − ωb ⋅ λ q dt dλ q Vq = rs ⋅ i q + + ωb ⋅ λ d dt dλ Vdr = rr ⋅ i dr + dr − ( ωb − ωr ) ⋅ λ qr dt dλ qr Vqr = rr ⋅ i qr + + ( ωb − ωr ) ⋅ λ dr dt 3 3 Te = p( λ d i q − λ q i d ) = pL m ( i q i dr − i d i qr ) 2 2 Vd = rs ⋅ i d + Electric Drives (8. λ r = λ dr + j ⋅ λ qr (8. i s = i d + j ⋅ i q .We may now decompose in plane the space phasors along two orthogonal axes d and q moving at speed ω b [5]: V s = Vd + j ⋅ Vq . λ s = λ d + j ⋅ λ q V r = Vdr + j ⋅ Vqr .

49) .58) [ P( θb ) ] −1 = 3 ⋅ [ P( θb ) ] T 2 Electric Drives (8.59) 16 .Also from (8.47): Vd Va V = 1 [ P( θ ) ] ⋅ V b q 2 b V0 Vc [P(θ b)] is the Park transformation: 2π 2π cos( − θ b ) cos − θ b + cos − θ b − 3 3 [ P( θb ) ] = 2 ⋅ sin ( − θb ) sin − θb + 2π sin − θb − 2π 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 The inverse of Park transformation is: (8.(8.57) (8.50) and (8.

1. (8. Give a graphical description of this process in time. Solution: The three phase currents may be written as: 2π i a .63) (8.Example 8.3 3 s The space phasor in stator coordinates i s is. i = 1.64) 17 (8.62) becomes: Electric Drives . Consider three symmetrical sinusoidal currents and show how their complex space phasor i s s in time through 6 instants.37).2.: s (8.62) with e j 2π 3 2π 2π j 3 4π 4π = cos + j ⋅ sin .61) 2π 4π j 2 2π j 3 4π 3 i s = I 2 cos ω1t + e cos ω1t − + e cos ω1t − 3 3 3 (8.c = I 2 ⋅ cos ω1t − ( i − 1) ⋅ .b . e = cos + j ⋅ sin 3 3 3 3 i s = I 2 [ cos ω1t + j ⋅ sin ω1t ] = i d + j ⋅ i q s 4π (8. The space phasor of sinusoidal symmetric currents.

.7. π 2π 4 π 5π . . π. The space phasor of sinusoidal three phase currents Electric Drives 18 .7. is shown in figure 8. 3 3 3 3 Figure 8.The position of the space phasor for ω1t = 0.

51) .8).8. THE SPACE PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS The space phasor model equations (8.8.q plane with axes d and q rotating at speed ω b = ω 1 (figure 8.(8. The space phasor diagram of induction motor valid for transients (for steady d/dt = 0) in synchronous coordinates b (cage rotor: V r = 0 ) Electric Drives 19 . consider Figure 8.8. Let us b V r = 0.53) may be represented on a space phasor diagram in the d .

2 Electric Drives 20 .d/dt = j(ω 1 . rotor) the rotor current and flux space phasors are orthogonal to each other. For this case the torque expression (8.52) becomes: V r = rr ⋅ i r + j( ω1 − ωb ) ⋅ λ r + j( ωb − ωr ) ⋅ λ r = b b b = rr ⋅ i r + j( ω1 − ωr ) ⋅ λ r b b b (8.67) Only for V r = 0 (short .circuited.54) becomes: 3 b b b (8.66) b Also for steady state of rotor flux the rotor flux equation (8.68) Te = p ⋅ λ r ⋅ i r . cage. (8.ω b). λ r = ct.

71) λr b λs b ⋅ Lm i r = σ −1 − L Ls L r r b Lm σ = 1− Ls L r equations (8.53) become: b dλ s b b b τs ' + ( 1 + j ⋅ ωb ⋅ τ s ' ) ⋅ λ s = τ s ' V s + K r λ r dt b dλ r b b b τr ' + ( 1 + j ⋅ ( ωb − ω r ) ⋅ τ r ') ⋅ λ r = τ r ' V r + K s λ s dt 2 (8.(8.51) .70) (8.9.73) Electric Drives 21 .72) (8.69) (8. ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS WITH FLUX LINKAGES AS VARIABLES λsb λ r b ⋅ Lm i s = σ −1 − L Ls L r s b (8.8.

22 Electric Drives . τs = τr ' = τr ⋅ σ Ls L . Figure 8.9. τ s’ and τr’ are transient time constants of rotor and stator. Ls Kr = Lm Lr (8.73) is shown on figure 8.with Ks = Lm . Structural diagram of induction motor with stator and rotor flux λ s b and λ r b as variables.9.The structural diagram corresponding to (8.74) τs ' = τs ⋅ σ. τ r are the stator and rotor time constants. τr = r rs rr While τ s. random speed (ω b) coordinates.(8.72) .

8. COMPLEX EIGEN VALUES FOR ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS Equations (8.[4.variable system with only two complex eigen values corresponding to the determinant: τ s ' s + 1 + jω b τ s ' − Kr =0 − Ks τ r ' s + 1 + j( ωb − ωr ) τ r ' (8. For an induction motor with the data rs = 0. in general.2.075H. negative suggesting attenuated periodic response. 2 from (8.75) depend on the reference system speed ω b and on rotor speed ω r.10. Electric Drives 23 .60Ω.6] Example 8.72) . but their real part is. in synchronous coordinates (ω 1 = 2π60) for n = 0 and n = 1800 rpm. rr = 0.75) The complex eigen values s1.(8.73) imply a second order complex .08H. Lm = 0. p = 2pole pairs calculate the complex eigen values for constant speed. Ls = Lr = 0.5Ω.

01937 s rs 0.6 2 (8.075 = = 0.76) (8.075 Ks = = = 0.71) .9375 Lr 0.08 ωr = 2πpn = 4πn Electric Drives (8. σ.Solution: The value of ω b = ω 1 = 2π60 rad/s. Ks.5 τ r ' = στ r = σ Lr 0.08 τs ' = στ s = σ = 0. τr’.08 = 0. τs’.1211 2 Ls L r 0.1211 ⋅ = 0.08 Kr = Also L m 0.9375 Ls 0.075 2 σ = 1− = 1− = 0.08 Ls 0.1211 ⋅ = 0.78) 24 .77) L m 0.74): Lm 0.(8. Kr are now calculated from (8.01614 s rr 0.

75) in a canonical form: s τs ' τ r '+s[ ( τs '+ τ r ') + jτs ' τ r ' ( 2ωb − ωr ) ] 2 (8.01614 ) = 0 For n = 0 s12 = 56.000625 (8.01614 ) + j ⋅ 0.01937 ⋅ 0.01614 ⋅ ( 2 ⋅ 376.1177 j) ± − 0.000759 j = 0.8 − 4πn ) ⋅ 0.0355 + 0.797 − 376 .Now we rewrite (8.01387 − 0.8 ⋅ 0.8 − 4πn ) ] (8.01937 ⋅ 0.01614 + 2 + s[ ( 0. 2 − ( 0.79) + ( 1 + j ⋅ ωb ⋅ τ s ' ) ( 1 + j ⋅ ( ω b − ω r ) ⋅ τ r ' ) = 0 s ⋅ 0.82) Electric Drives 25 .80) + (1 + j ⋅ 376.81) s1.01937 ) (1 + j ⋅ ( 376.64 j For n = 30rps (1800rpm): (8.01937 + 0.

84) b λr = 1 + jSω1τ r ' It is more convenient to use synchronous coordinates for equations (8.10).9.72): b dλ s b b b τs ' + (1 + j ⋅ ω1 ⋅ τs ') ⋅ λ s = τs ' V s + K r λ r dt b (8.(8. as the derivative term in the rotor disappears (figure 8.83) dt Using (8.73): b b τr ' V r + K s λ s (8. Electric Drives 26 .85) lead to a simplification in the structural diagram of figure 8.11 ELECTRICAL TRANSIENTS FOR CONSTANT ROTOR FLUX dλ r b = j ⋅ ( ωb − ωr ) ⋅ λ r (8.85) Equations (8.84) .8.83) in (8.

10. Structural diagram of induction motor with constant rotor flux and speed in synchronous coordinates (ω b = ω 1) Electric Drives 27 .Figure 8.

88) (8.86): For steady state: Va ( t ) + Vb ( t ) ⋅ e 3 + Vc ( t ) ⋅ e ⋅e V s = V 2 [ cos ( ω1t − θ b ) + j ⋅ sin ( ω1t − θ b ) ] b (8.90) 28 Electric Drives .89) θ b = ωb t + θ 0 Consequently: V s = V 2 [ cos[ ( ω1 − ωb ) t − θ0 ] + j ⋅ sin [ ( ω1 − ωb ) t − θ0 ] ] = b = V 2 ⋅e j[ ( ω1 − ωb ) t − θ 0 ] (8. 3 (8.C. IN SYNCHRONOUS COORDINATES Steady state means in general that the three phase voltages are symmetric and sinusoidal: 2π Va .b .12. i = 1.8.86) 3 The voltage space phasor in random coordinates is: 2π 2π j −j (8. 2.87) 2 b − jθ b 3 3 Vs = with (8.c = V 2 ⋅ cos ω1t − ( i − 1) ⋅ . STEADY STATE: IT IS D.

91) . Electric Drives 29 .93) Equations (8. Once again for steady state we use (8.66).51).(8. s = 1 − ωr / ω1 In the flux equations (8.53) we may separate the main (airgap) flux linkage λ m: b b b b b λ s = L ls ⋅ i s + λ m .It is obvious that for steady state the currents in the model have to have the voltage frequency.91) b V r 0 = rr ⋅ i r 0 + j ⋅ Sω1 ⋅ λ r 0 .11. with d/dt = ( ω1 − ωb ) as inferred in (8. which is: ( ω1 − ωb ) .93) lead to the standard equivalent circuit of figure 8.92) λ r = L lr ⋅ i r + λ m b b ( ) (8.(8. Consequently from (8.52) .51): V s 0 = rs ⋅ i s 0 + j ⋅ ω1 ⋅ λ s 0 b b b b b (8. λ m = L m ⋅ i s + i r = L m ⋅ i m (8.

94) Electric Drives 30 .91) and Vr0b = 0.54) with (8.11. yields: 3 3 b b* Te = − p ⋅ Re λ r ⋅ i r = p ⋅ λ r 0 ⋅ i r 0 2 2 ( ) (8. Space phasor steady state equivalent circuit of induction machine The torque expression (8.Figure 8.

98) Electric Drives 31 .96) Te = p ⋅ ⋅ Sω1 2 rr Using the equivalent circuit of figure (8.92): λr0 (8.95) rr Consequently the electromagnetic torque Te is: 2 3 λ r0 (8.95) we may obtain the conventional torque expression: 3p V 2 ⋅ rr / S (8.From (8.97) Te = 2 2 2 ω1 ( rs + c1rr / S) + ω1 ( L ls + c1L lr ) i r 0 = − j ⋅ Sω1 ⋅ with c1 ≈ 1 + L ls Lm (8.11) and (8.

: (8. stator flux.99) Only for short .02.08H.8.100) ωr 0 = ω1 (1− S0 ) Example 8. zero rotor current: b b Vr 0 = j ⋅ S0 ω1 ⋅ λ r 0 (8. (8. p = 2 pole pairs.8Wb. rr = 0. Electric Drives 32 . in general.91). Vrb = 0 (cage rotor). b V r ≠ 0 ) the ideal no load slip is When the induction machine is doubly fed ( different from zero and the no load ideal speed is. λr0 = 0.3.6Ω. Lm = 0. that is.circuited rotor windings (or passive impedance at rotor b terminals) ( Vr = 0 ) the ideal no load slip S0 = 0 and ω ro = ω 1. power factor.075H.13. For steady state. NO LOAD IDEAL SPEED MAY GO UNDER OR OVER CONVENTIONAL VALUE ω 1 The no load ideal speed (slip S0) corresponds to zero torque. ω 1 = 2π60 rad/s. torque of an induction motor at 10% ideal no load (synchronous) speed ω 1 and S = 0.5Ω. calculate the stator voltage. Ls = Lr = 0. The motor data are: rs = 0. current.

(8.8) 2 ⋅ 0.01614s.102) 1 − ( S) 1 − 0. which are implicitly steady state.Solution: First we have to calculate the initial conditions.72) . λs = λ r ⋅ b b 1 + j ⋅ 0. Let us use synchronous coordinates: ωr 0 = ω1 (1 − S) (8.101) So ( ω1 ) t =0 = ωr 0 = 0.96). 6 ( ) From (8.8533 + j0. Ks = Kr = 0. σ = 0.73) with d/dt = 0 and Vrb = 0 we may now calculate the stator b λs : flux b b 1 + j ⋅ S ⋅ ω1 ⋅ τ r ' λs = λ r ⋅ (8.1038 (8.105) 0.115 Nm (8.2 and thus τ r’ = 0.: 2 ( Te ) t =0 = 3 p ⋅ λ r b ⋅ Sω1 = 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ ( 0.02 ⋅ 2π60 ⋅ 0.01937s.02 ⋅ 2π60 = 24.(8.01614 = 0.1211.103) 2 rr 2 0.104) Ks Notice that the motor parameters are as in example 8.9375.02 t =0 The torque (Te) is.1⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 60 = 38. τ s’ = 0.9375 Electric Drives 33 .45rad / s (8.

s.72) with dt (1 + jω1τs ') λ s b − K r ⋅ λ r b = b Vs = τs ' 0. value): b = λr .8 ⋅ (1.9357 ] = 10.4V The motor phase voltage (r.107) The stator current is obtained from (8.066 + j0.41 = 232.91V (8.108) 34 .066 + j0.74 + j326.1297 ) − 0.8 ⋅ (1.08 Electric Drives − λr ⋅ Kr = σ ⋅ Ls b ] (8.8 = V = Vs / 2 = 328.1211 ⋅ 0.71 0.106) (1 + j ⋅ 2π60 ⋅ 0.01937 b = −33. b (8.1297 ) − 0.4 / 1.69.8 ⋅ 0.Let us consider the d axis along the rotor flux and thus λ r b b dλ s b Vs : = 0 we may find the stator voltage Now from (8.69): is = b [λ = s b [ 0. Vs = 328.m.76 + j10.01937 ) ⋅ 0.9375 ⋅ 0.

76 b b ϕ1 = arg V s − arg i s = + tan −1 − tan −1 = 2 326. quantities Electric Drives 35 .633.71 (8.74 b Finally cosϕ 1 = 0.156 = 50.181A .12.109) λr 0.9 − 45. The power factor angle ϕ 1 is: π 33.74 10.95): b (8.110) 0 0 0 0 = 90 + 5.69 10. The results are illustrated by the space phasor diagram in figure 8.02 ⋅ 2π60 ⋅ = − j10.c.The rotor space phasor i r b is (8. 8 i r = − jsω1 = − j ⋅ 0. 6 b The amplitude of the stator current i s = 15. Figure 8.05A rr 0. Steady state space phasor diagram in synchronous coordinates (ω b = ω 1): d.12.

Solution: The loss breakdown diagram of the induction motor is shown in figure 8. Calculate all loss components. speed. core loss (Piron) = mechanical loss Pmec = 1. number of pole pairs p = 2. Figure 8. stator per rotor winding losses pcor/pcos = 2/3.13.5% of Pn. Loss breakdown A high efficiency induction motor with cage rotor has the data: rated power Pn = 5kW. rated frequency f1 = 60Hz. Induction motor energy conversion Electric Drives 36 . then rated slip. electromagnetic torque.Example 8.4.88. rated efficiency ηn = 0. shaft torque and stator current (as space phasors).9 and power factor cosϕ n = 0. rated line voltage (rms) VL = 220V (star connection). additional losses padd = 1%Pn.13. phase current (rms).

118) 37 p iron = p mec = 0.115) (8.58A 3 ⋅ VL ⋅ cos ϕn 3 ⋅ 220 ⋅ 0. 9 (8.111) (8.The input power Pin is: Pin = Pout 5000 = = 5555 .3 W.55 = = 16.116) (8.55W in (8.112) The phase current In (rms) is: In = The total losses Consequently: ∑ p are: ∑p = P Pin 5555 .01 ⋅ 5000 = 50 W So p cos + p cor = ∑ p − p iron − p mec − p add = 555.015 ⋅ 5000 = 75W p add = 0.113) (8.55W ηn 0.114) (8.55 − 5000 = 555.117) (8.88 − Pout = 5555. p cor = 142 W Electric Drives .55 − 75 − 75 − 50 ≈ 355 W 2 p cos + p cos = 355 W 3 p cos = 213.

55 − 213 − 75 = 5267 W 5267 Te = ⋅ 2 = 27.02696 ) = 29.121) (8.956 Nm 2π60 Pe = Pin − Pcos − p iron = Te ⋅ (8.c.472rpm (8.124) p 2 Pn 5000 Tn = = = 27.126) .58 ⋅1.274 Nm < Te 2πn n 2π ⋅ 29. quantities) i sare: n 2 = 16.120) (8.122) (8.119) (8.41 = 23.3778A =i Electric Drives 38 (8.123) The rotor winding loss pcor is: p cor = Sn ⋅ Pe and thus the rated slip is: S = 142 = 0.125) The shaft torque Tn is calculated directly from mechanical power Pn: Finally the amplitude of the stator currents .The electromagnetic power Pe is the active power that crosses the airgap: ω1 p Pe = 5555.1912rps = 1751.1912 (8. in synchronous coordinates i (d.02696 n 5267 The rated speed nn is: nn = f1 (1 − Sn ) = 60 (1 − 0.

C.14. ωr > 0 ⇒ 0 < S < 1 Pe < 0. BRAKING The equivalent circuit for steady state (figure 8. is: Pe = 3 ω ω 2 r ⋅ I r 0 ⋅ r = Te ⋅ 1 . Te > 0. Electric Drives 39 . ωr > 0 ⇒ S < 0 (8.11) shows that the active power in the rotor (the electromagnetic power Pe).129) For generating the torque is negative (S<0) in (8.8. Te < 0. MOTORING. The energy is pumped back into the power source through the stator. S = 1 − r 2 S p ω1 (8.128) (8. GENERATING.127) but the speed is positive: The generator produces braking (Te < 0. Motoring mode is defined as the situation when the torque has the same sign as the speed: Pe > 0. A. ω r > 0) but the energy transfer direction in the motor is reversed.127) This expression is valid for the cage rotor (Vrb = 0).

.. ω r < 0) (or Te < 0.... ω r > 0) but still the electromagnetic power is positive: Pe > 0.-∞ + 1+ 0 .0+ + + + + Te (start) + + + + 0 ..c. Te > 0.....1....1.. Operation modes (cage rotor) S ω r Te Pe mode (8..0+ + + + + + + + + + + + + Generating Motoring a. ωr < 0 ⇒ S > 1 Pe > 0....0 + + + + + 1 + + + + + + + ∞ +∞ + + + + ω + + + + 0 .. Te < 0..130) -∞ . braking Electric Drives 40 .. Table 8.. ωr > 0 ⇒ S > 1 We may synthesize the results on operation modes as in table 8.Braking is obtained when again (Te > 0...

14. Figure 8.132) 3p V2 Tek = ⋅ ω1 2c r ± r 2 + ω 2 ( L + c L ) 2 1 s s 1 ls 1 lr The torque slip (speed) curve is shown in figure 8. Torque .speed curve of induction motors for constant voltage and frequency Electric Drives 41 .131) (8.Sk = rs + ω1 ( L ls + c1L lr ) 2 2 ± c1rr 2 (8.14.

stator coordinates .c. braking . braking torque we redraw the space phasor equivalent circuit in figure 8.15.15. BRAKING: ZERO BRAKING TORQUE AT ZERO SPEED For moderate braking requirements d.C. Equivalent circuit for d. but with a d.c.c.c. braking is commonly used in modern electrical drives.11. To calculate the d. stator current source space phasor in figure 8. Figure 8.in space phasors. steady state Electric Drives 42 .15. D.8.

134) (8.94): with Finally: 3 3 i ⋅r Te = pλ rdci rdc = − p rdc r 2 2 ωr Lm s s i rdc = i sdc ⋅ r L lr − j r ωr 2 2 2 (8.135) (8.136) 3 L ⋅i ⋅ω ⋅ r Te = − p m 2 sdc2 r 2 r 2 L lr ωr + rr The peak torque is obtained for ω rk: r 1 ωrk = r ≈ L lr τ r ' and its value is: (8.The electromagnetic torque is still computed from (8.137) 3 L ⋅i Tek = − p m sdc 2 2L lr 2 2 (8.138) Electric Drives 43 .

D. Also above ω rk (which is fairly small in high efficiency motors) the torque is again rather small.c. s 2π 2π Figure 8. Notice also that the rotor kinetic energy is dumped into the rotor resistor and that for zero speed the braking torque is zero.139) i sdc = 3 3 2 3 The torque speed curve for d.j −j 2 2 i 2π i a + i b e 3 + i c e 3 = i 0 − 0 2 cos = i 0 (8. braking is shown in figure 8.16.c.16. braking torque of induction motors Electric Drives 44 .

16. • wound rotor supply (or rotor frequency f2 variation). It has to be performed at high energy conversion rates.99)): V r 0 b (8. • pole number (2p) changing.E.C.140): • stator frequency f1 variation. ω1 = ωr + ω2 ωr 0 = ω1 1 + Im ag ω λr0b 1 b Evidently for the cage rotor V r = 0 and thus or ωr 0 = ω1 = 2πf1 ω f (8.rotor P.140) .100) with (8.8. The no load ideal speed ω r0 is ((8. Electric Drives 45 0 . SPEED CONTROL METHODS Variable speed is required in many applications.141) n = r0 = 1 2πp p ω 2 is the frequency of the rotor current (or of V r 0 .). There are three essential methods to vary speed by varying the no load ideal speed (as the rated slip is small) as suggested by (8.

• constant (controlled) rotor flux (λr) vector control.142) I m = Is + I r Consequently it is crucial to control Im properly to avoid excessive magnetic saturation. However the level of flux depends on the current in the machine.E. Especially on the magnetisation current b b (8. Here only the torque / speed curves obtainable with the above methods are given.scalar control. Electric Drives 46 .vector control.Stator frequency control is far more frequently used especially for wide speed control range. while varying frequency f1. • constant (controlled) stator flux (λs) . Notice that in all these cases the P. • V1/f1 .C. voltage supplying the induction motor is voltage limited with the maximum voltage reached at base speed ω b.

17.) V1/f1 dependences b.SPEED CURVES V1/f1 control means that: V1 = V0 + K f ⋅ f1 V0 = c 0 rsi sn (8.17.143) (8.144) Figure 8. Torque / speed curves for V1 = V0 + K f ⋅ f1 (V1/f1 control) a.) Te/ω r curves Electric Drives 47 . V1/f1 TORQUE .8.

ONLY FOR CONSTANT ROTOR FLUX TORQUE .8.speed curves for constant rotor flux λrb = ct. constant voltage and variable frequency above ω 1b Electric Drives 48 . Torque .18.146) T = p e 2 rr Figure 8. up to base frequency ω 1b.18.SPEED CURVES ARE LINEAR 2 3 λ r 0 ( ω1 − ωr ) (8.

149) 3 Ks λs Tek = p 2 2rr τ r ' (8.147) (8.148) ( Sω1 ) k = ± 1 τr ' 2 2 (8. CONSTANT STATOR FLUX TORQUE SPEED CURVES HAVE TWO BREAKDOWN POINTS Ks 2 3 K 2 s Sω1λ s 0 Te = p 2 rr 1 + ( Sω1τ r ') 2 This expression has extreme (critical) values for: λs0 = λ r 0 (1 + jSω1τr ') (8.8.150) Electric Drives 49 .19.

19.( Tek ) ω >ω 1 1b 3 K s Vs 0 = p ⋅ 2 2 2rr τ r ' ω1 2 2 (8.151) Figure 8.speed curves for constant stator flux amplitude λs up to ω 1b and constant voltage above ω 1b Electric Drives 50 . Torque .

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