Anthony D. Smith






Pre-Nationalist Commemorations
The language of national celebration and mourning is, of course, an intrinsic component of nationalist ideology. The self-sacrificing citizen, the fallen patriot-hero or heroine, the genius who contributed his or her work (and even life) to the nation, the mass sacrifice of the people, the glory of patriotic valour, the everlasting youth of the fallen, the overcoming of death through fame-these are the stock in trade of nationalist values, myth, and imagery. They have become standard actors and motifs in the national salvation drama, the agenrs and vehicles of the nation's deliverance and subsequent triumph. But this is not the whole story. If we look back to premodern ages, we find many of tbe elements of that salvation drama enacted in epochs that knew nothing of nationalism and its theories of a world of authentic self-realizing nations. In fact, nationalism has drawn on and used such pre-existing 'sacrifice' motifs to weave the fabric of its own salvation myth, in its own very special manner. Let me start with the classical legacy of premodern imagery of sacrifice and celebration. For the Enlightenment, the great exempla uirtutis were to be found in the city republics of ancient Greece and Rome. Thus, 00 the monument of the fallen Spartans of Thermo pylae, the poet Simonides inscribed the simplest of epitaphs:
Go, stranger, tell the Spartans that

9 The Glorious Dead


he drama of the nation has three climactic moments, each of them glorious: its golden age, its ultimate national destiny, and the sacrifice of its members .. Bur, since the ultimate destiny of the nation can never be known, though many may hope [0 divine it, all we can be sure of is that it will come about only throughrhe commitment and self-sacrifice of its members, and that is what the nation must continually uphold, remember, and celebrate. What we might term 'destiny through sacrifice', therefore, forms the final sacred foundation of national identity, at once seen and unseen, actively cultivated, and a silent presence. At the outset, we must be clear that it IS not so much the actions of those held to have made a sacrifice that concerns US, as the memory and report of rhoseactions.Jn this context, public memory and report are more important than private, though the rwo often overlap and reinforce each other, at least as far as their expression is concerned. Grief, like hope and defiance, may start in the privacy of individuals' hearts, but its overt expression, outside the immediate family, becomes a form of public communication, a generalized language of mourning and celebration whose sentiments and messages are standard, if not universal, beneath the variety of national forms. Hence, in this chapter, the linages, symbols, and rituals of commemoration and celebration will occupy our attention, more than the actions that called them forth. '

Here, obedient


their laws, we lie.

His inscription on the monument to the Spartans at P!ataea was more elaborate and revealing:
Having died, they are nor dead; For their valour, by the glory which it brings, Raises them from above our of the house of Hades.

The note of glory in self-sacrifice, and the idea. of transcending death, are even more clearly conveyed in the well-known passage in Pericles' Funeral Oration to the Athenians who had died in the first year of the Peloponnesian War in 430 Be:



there were the holy cities of Qom. biblical times (W. inscribed inhabitants were readily republic eighteenth and little that this was an internecine expressed Greek war. Make up your minds that happiness depends on being free.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD They gave their lives. trans. to her and to all of us. Macpelah (Wailing) The rornb of the Patriarchs along with the Western and pilgrimage for Jews £rom the in and civic nationalism and unwritten was one of the earliest to Jerusalem and other places of pilgrimage. and imagery by Pericles became models of political for the philosophes the French through of undying posterity. Najaf. pilgrimage-s-St and the writers civic virtue were There Themes by simiof Compostela. Among the earliest to purvey the new doctrine and national and examples were the painters in Britain oath.. 121) It matters timents solidarity ment. The senof the EnlightenIdeas of fame and eternal the land and its of the courfrom the city from the later in and images that sacrifice against Brutus's against David. the site where Husain..000). practice. CO Mecca. of their terrible wealth by the Roman women in the campaign Veu. and artists whom tbey influenced heroism sculptors. are wid of the sepulchres on Mount were well known. bur where their glory remains eternal in men's minds. 1967: ch. They were soon fa Hawed by the holiest sites of Christianity. as an immaterial transferred and of emulation of nationalism and beyond age of the self-sacrificing to the nation century.' and framed. the nom Republican was Lucretia's century especially as a political the latter marking Brutus's bad been killed. sages. D. of the Israelites Pisgah is unknown. Jerusalem. Jewish It was reinforced. fourth sacred tical itinerary associated became Thomas certain Medinah. the heart of Egeria's a transference contrast and unwritten made that much easier by Pericles' 'inscriptions on monuments memorials of them 'even in foreign too. a more 'popular' on saints. revolutionaries. heritage. David's tomb lineage. these are messages by the ideology Europe By the end of the and bibnor as a single sacred places From the de too. Roman self-sacrifice through especially history and had lived and died at Santiago In Islam. Prophet's religious of the Holy Sepulchre shortly they formed in Jerusalem and of the Nativity devotional after their location by Helena. individuals (see Rosenblum their personal for a greater cause. the overcoming of death Wall. When sixth century they looked back to ancient Rome. 43. There was the 2. popular. Davies 1982: 48-9). a Becket Wenceslaus In addition in Prague. conceived rhe saints (Hunt where Wales St Mark saints James in Venice. sepulchre. Rex Warner (T 9 59). 2). In all these cases. the sole remaining waH of the Temple. the most splendid of sepulchres-not the sepulchre in which their bodies are laid. as depicted in the play by Voltaire and security and the painting In each case. from antiquity and France. not in any visible form but in people's hearts. no. the philosophes were struck in the Holy Land (and Egypt). and for their own selves they won praises that never grow old. lar exempla uirtutis. bur asa series of separate with the life of jesusand onwards St David such places in southern places objects of increasing their own country' lands'.While the in a and of was. Churches Bethlehem. throughout between century. For famous men have the whole earth as their memorial: it is not only the inscriptions on their graves in their own country tbat mark them out. and more and Christian. (Th ucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ii. Let there be no relaxation in face of the perils of war. glory.commernorpart of later eighteenth began CO be interpreted and Antoine by arion in a specific place and at set times had become a habitual artists such as Gavin Hamilton Beaufort. leaders on Mount Of these. with parallels in Islam. in the act which sites became and Karbala. their memory abides and grows. and freedom depends on being courageous. or by condemnation treacherously interests Rome. as for the Jews. J of pilgrimage. that of tbe welfare of the city repub- lic-e-or the nation self-sacrifice religious heroes greatest tomb chariot kings. in many ways. always there on rbe fight occasion to stir others to speech or action. at Canterbury. fallen. It is for you to try to be like them. in foreign lands also. painted by Nicolas Brenet and Jean~Baptjste of his sons for acting acted against Suvee. Thucydides' Land. one that focused less on and the community are not commemorated-Moses' to heaven the Cave of the Patriarchs Zion. This . by a Butthe classical legacy was only one source of the imagery of and celebration. and Elijah is carried of fire-ewe in Hebron. was continuous monuments. 2. and. later.20 22r . holy places as for their successors. grandson.

one of these examples. we might add. and ideals of sanctity and heroism embodied in exemplary individuals. Judah the Maccabee who cleansed the Temple and defeated Antiochus. and autonomy. the events of the Prophet's life. dignity. which echo incipient ideas of (Florentine) republicanism and resistance to tyranny. Celebrating National Heroes From the eighteenth century the new idea of the nation as a sacred com munion 0 f the people began to emerge in the shad ow of the absoluti~t monarchy. achieved great popularity during the Renaissance.2 223 . authenticity. charismatic leadership. when the Book of Lamentations of the prophet Jeremiah is recited. Vardan Mamikonian=-a battle that was interpreted as martyrdom for both faith and counrryjews likewise commemorate the anniversary of the fall of Jerusalem and. conrinuiry. or rather in which it came to regard itself as the exemplar of heroism and leadership. were commemorated and . the role of great men and women was purveyed in forms of art music.' Not only heroes. The entry of the middle classes into politics and the advent of secular. in which the national community took the place of heroes and heroines. when Husain was slain. Others. identity. These have their Islamic counterparts in the Shi-ite commemorations of the battle of Karbala in 680. All these resources would form a ferrite field for later nationalisms. At the outset. the nation. The first we may term an elite nationalism of the middle classes. autonomy. the crossing of the Red Sea under Moses and the valour of joshua. June of the Armenian defeat at the battle of Avarayr in 45I. defeats more than vjctories. the Hegira tram Mecca. recorded in the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha. both past and present. Smith I98rbj. and. text and image were more important than place. Verrocchio. In the first phase. This imagery and symbolism centred on the ideal of noble self-sacrifice. some of these figures were held up for emulation by kings and peoples throughout the Middle Ages. by themselves. tOO. We saw this already with the annual commemoration every 2. became central-above all. In Judaism and Christianity. but battles. In lslam. like Judith and David slaying Goliarh. This imagery was increasingly permeated by the key assumptions and practices of nationalism-including such notions as national unity. exile impose obligarions more than victories. sites of individual and mass reverence in the form of pilgrimage.. was signalled by a need to identify with great men and women whose virtues and heroism embodied the authentic spirit of a new type of community. in the religious heritage. they provide models for the interpretation of later defeats and persecutions (Renan I882. and the homeland. and their Orthodox parallel in the ~erbian myths and epics of the defeat of King Lazar by the Ottoman armies on the field of Kosovo Polje in 1389. The result was a very public imagery of national communion. As we have seen. and literature. and those of his family and his Companions. which very roughly correspond to two kinds of media and imagery. as witnessed In the great sculptures of these subjects by Donatello. ut J ~ Of COLUse. which created a middle-class public. and the canonization of the Armenian commander. requiring different modes of representation and new! national symbols to attract and envelop the newly emancipated populations. demonstrates n the characteristic concerns of nationalism with authenticity. that were transmitted through Western culture. which ushered in the epoch of mass politics. defeats and. co become the exemplars of faith and sacrifice. of the First and Second Temples on the Fast of Av. commemoration and celebration. as one might expect. As important. and which emphasized the exemplary qualities of heroes and heroines. As Kenan remarked. for it focused primarily on representations of the virtuous actions of charismatic individuals and groups. A. The second reflected. What they have provided is a host of rich cultural resources: models and styles for acts of 2. both individual and collective. pondered. in the tradition.2.. we need to distinguish between two phases of nationalism. Judith who slew Holofernes and saved her city and country. the crucifixion of Christ and the martyrdom of His saints: these were the exploits.. at least within Europe. and propounded. ideas of self-sacrifice and martyrdom. participate. identity. one that was suited to the public ceremonies of celebration and commemoration with which the citizenry could identify and in which they could. D.. designed to encourage reflection and emulation.THE GLORIOUS DeAD THE GLORlOUS DEAD However. unity. eventually. a mass nationalism. and of everlasting renown. David's slaying of Goliath. and Michelangelo. above all.

and. theelement of mora] heroism had been largely absorbed into the decorative aura of royal apotheosis. Fragonard. the focus shifts to rites and ceremonies performed in an orchestra red mass choreography at specific sites. a new. But. Arts Council of Great Britain I97Z). in a Roman morality play. the tragic encounter of Hector. Subjects like the continence of Scipio. with its renewed interest in certain figures from the Bible and [he classical world. only some of which have survived. notably in the historical and religious works of Poussin and Le Sueur. British artists such as J ames Barry and Thomas Banks. Hamilton is interested both in the psychology of Homer's heroes. Such themes lent themselves to a nationalist ideology centred on authenticity and sacrifice.' By the early eighteenth century. Macmillan 1986: 41-2. to which it added a strong didactic message. The breakthrough in painting came around ]_ 760 with the socaUed Iliadic revival-and.). . purveyed in monumental sculpture and architecture and by means of secular liturgies and sacred emblems (see Mosse I994: ch·5)· We can best gauge the national. as it were. sculptors. But only in French art was the drama of moral heroism of the early Renaissance fully cultivated. sculpture). in line with the literary rediscovery of Homer. where the Rococo treatments of this episode from early Roman history had focused on the tragedy of Lucretia's rape by Tarquin and her suicide. began to replace the dominant Rococo decoration. domain (Rosenblum 1961. the Swiss He ill rich Fiissli. exemplars to express a graver and more austere vision of stoic virtue. as I intimated. and are characterized by a new seriousness and purity. Jean-Baptiste Peyron. of We itself. his figures appear like protagonists in a theatrical drama (Waterhouse 19)4. but preserved the Baroque sense of emotional involvement. As a result.AD In the second phase and type. Hamilton's interest was on the subsequent oath of Brutus and Collatinus. There had. been a surge of heroic imagery during the Italian Renaissance. defender of Troy. Irwin 1966: 31-8). and Jacques-Louis David. Here I shall consider three of irs aspects: the sacrifice of a Hie of ease for a higher cause. and decidedly male. and their decision to drive out the tyrants and install a republican government. though with less moral force.6 Hamilton's large-scale Oath of Brutus (I764) also depicts characters from a scene. They reflected the new interest in ancient Greece and the Near East. the Italia n Antonio Canova. with a few exceptions. and the Frenchmen Nicolas Brener. into the succeeding epoch of Counrer-Reformation and absolutism. with its dramatic Baroque allegories of saints and heroes. Masculine. elements of the cults of genius and heroism by considering the development of one of their characteristic art forms: history painting (and to some extent. and architects returned to classical Roman and Hellenistic. The portrayal of the lifesize protagonists pushed up against the picture plane in a horizontal format broke with the depth and diagonal thrust of Baroque conventions and the usual swirling mass of small figures characteristic of the Rococo. themes were favoLUed by history painters and sculptors of the next few decades-the Americans Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley. inspired by the recent discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum and the rediscovery of Poussin. and Achilles. literally set the stage. more severe neoclassical style. and later increasingly nationalist. whose ecstasies and apotheoses were celebrated in great altarpieces and on grandiose ceilings. the sacrifice of things dear to the individual. the wretched fare of Belisarius. as painters. and later Greek. which owes much to Poussin. and the patriotic oaths of Brutus the consul and of the Horarii replaced the allegories of love and luxury of a Boucher or Fragonard-as Gluck's purified drama superseded the often erotic mythologies of Italian and French opera of the period (see Honour I968. Indeed. Gavin Hamilton's great series of paintings on these themes in the I76os. in opposirian to worldly corruption and alien tyranny. or Tiepolo had lost any didactic message of stern resolve and noble sell-sacrifice. and the ultimate sacrifice. the contribution of sacrifice to the general good in its various forms became a central preoccupation of neoclassical and early Romantic artists. after the middle of the eighteenth century. Moreover. and increasingly martial. more particularly. Such imagery persisted. suggesting a shift of concern from the private to a public. even overt historical or mythological subjects by artists like de Troy.THE GLORIOUS DEAD TH E G LOR TOU S DE. and in the moral conflict in their encounters. the death of Socrates.

dated by the Bundesbrief to 1291. but. simple peasant girl. reveals her at the moment of her supreme triumph yet alone in the purity of her faith. and sacrifice for freedom. in his St Joan (191. until I die. warrior maiden. As we saw. and dare. Her heavenward gaze.. formed the basis of the subsequent Swiss nation. was the first of a series of oaths of resistance that cemented the Swiss Eidgenossenschaft. was commissioned by the Zurich council to paint The Oath Ott the Riitli. IX. and others. struggle. which in tum. representing the forest cantons of Uri. Gessler. on his return from Italy. nor His counsel. royalist supporter. and Unterwalden. Robert Rosenblum comments on the 'uncanny realism' created by the shimmering Light and the 'visual splendour' of Ingres's treatment. an equerry. Ingres here responds both to the growing religious medievalism that swept France jn the mid-nineteenth century. defiant male figures embody the ideal of readiness to die for the freedom of the nation. a task made easier by the fact that she presented such different facets: Catholic saint. and candlestick. And so. Fiissli's conception is both abstract and elemental. and adored by a kneeling monk. He places Joan in a richly ecclesiastical setting at the cathedral altar. it is better ro be alone with God. the event in question.7 Nearly a century later. is a tablet with the inscription 'et son bucher se change en trone dans les cieux' ('and in heaven her stake is transformed into a throne'). but if I go through the fire I shall go through it [0 their hearts for ever and ever. 34). taking meticulous care in the depiction of vestments and altar panels. censer. and Joan's medieval armour over her patterned robe. clad in armour and holding the two-pointed oriflamme aloft. below her helmet. an 'authentic' nationalist-especially during and after the Great War: For the many wbo adopted her cult. bur militant female warrior-saint. which was to reach its artistic consummation in David's icon of the Oath of the Horatii (I784) a few years later (see Antal :£956:7I-4. And. Heinrich Fussli. spiritual leader. and to the portrait of a spiritual patriot painted by Michelet. and three pages. Klemm 1986: no. too. God be with me! Of course.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD Sacrifice for a higher cause In 1778.. in the ambulatory of Rheims Cathedral after the coronation: France is alone.. foreshadowing the unification of the cantons in 1798 in the Frenchimposed Helvetic Republic. and points out that Ingres's painting 'is crammed with precise archaeological details that would reconstruct the pious yet sensuous glories of a Christian past' (Rosenblum 985: 160-3). By Fiissli's time. and particularly for right-wing Catholic nationalists (but also for some left-wing Catholics like 2'-7 . His friendship will not fail me. the jewel-encrusted crown with the fleur-de-lys resting on a velvet cushion. Joan herself is shown as a piOUS. Three huge and muscular Michelangelesqae figures. Perhaps this was the very moment later captured by Bernard Shaw. In His strength. You will be glad to see me burnt. I will dare. and dare. we may add.0). p. swear with arms held aloft towards an uplifted sword to unite and resist the encroachments on their ancient freedoms by the Habsburgs and their governor. and let the love in their eyes comfort me for the hate in yours. nor HJs love. Fussli's painting owes much to chis Zeitgeist and to the new ideas of republican liberty and national unity that were percolating through the intelligentsias of Western Europe. At her feet. and the wri rings an d speeches of Bod mer. by comparison with the more routine descriptive paintings ofJoan during this period. It speaks of defiance. I will go our now to the common people. and what is my loneliness before the loneliness of my country and my God? r see now that the loneliness of God is His strength: what would He be if He listened to your jealous little counsels? Well. Ingres's depiction of Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII in Rbeims Cathedral (I8H) also conveys the ideal of self-sacrifice as struggle in the service of a higher cause. of a quintessentially French past. over the centuries. an eventthat by that time had become established as the cornerstone of the myth of Swiss unity and independence. Pestalozzi. my loneliness shall be my strength. Schwyz. rival groups in French society and politics sought to appropriate joan's memory. Its thrusting. the gold reliquaries. God is alone. Brei ti nger. in the memorable scene when Joan confronts those who are about to betray her. oblivious to the mundane affairs of everyday life. above all. a Swiss revival was taking place with the foundation of the Helveric society by the intelligentsia and professionals. unification.

exhibited at the Salon of n89 by Jacques-Louis David. it is the sacrifice that Brutus is called upon to make. even if they were their own children. despite fervent pleas for clemency from friends and family. Sacrifice of things held dear Self-sacrifice may also involve painful loss: above all. slain at the Porta Capena before the eyes of a disbelieving crowd of Romans by her own brother in a fit of righteous indignation. for disobeying his order not to engage the enemy. [he Latins. The effect of horror is enhanced by the rigorous mapping of the frenzied action onto a rectilinear grid. As one might expect. Based on Graveloc's. the loss of that which we hold most dear. The consul is seated on a high podium. Anne-Louis Girodee-Trioson exhibited The Death of Camilla. Titus and Tiberius. Rather than the usual episode of the condemnation. such themes became popular in the revolutionary decades. for his right hand is publicly outstretched in the preservation of justice. to the terror and consternation of the spectators. Crow 1985: ch . Brutus's anguish is the result not so much of the conflict between family ties and republican laws as of the tearing apart of his own family. Jean-Simon Berehelemy exhibited at the Paris Salon his Manlius Torquatus Condemning his Son to Death. As a patriot and liberator of Rome. Though it is unlikely that David's concern with civic virtue was allied to an antimonarchical form of nationalism at this stage. One of the earliest neoclassical moralities m this vein is Nathaniel Dance's Death of Virgil'1ia (I76I). ie already reveals the taut. hears the cries of his wife and the swooning of his eldest daughter as the bodies of his sons are returned to his house. rather than see her dishonoured. there is no doubt that early republicans and later revolutionaries down to Plekhanov so construed his painting (Herbert 1972. in combat-another Roman republican episode from Livy (and Valerius Maximus). if need be. Joan came to represent the 'real' France. For David. Having driven om the Tarquins and helped to institute the Republic. despite the persistence of such Baroque elements as the billowing crowd and the diagonal thrust (Rosenblum I967: 65-6). in front oj the camp. only to discover (according to Livy. a heroine of the sacred communion of the people.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THEGLORIOUS OEAD Peguy). In I7 85. the artist indicates Manlius' dreadful but successful struggle to maintain legal impartiality and the state's welfare over personal interests. But undoubtedly the most celebrated of these stern moralities was the painting of Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons. who. her sin was openly to have mourned her fiance. Torquatus overcomes his paternal feelings and refuses to listen to his son's appeal. and Plutarch) a monarchical plot fostered by his wife's family and supported by his two sons. including. surrounded by licrors and soldiers.earlier neoclassical engraving of 1739 for Rollin's popular Roman History. Even more dreadful was the grim determination of Roman fathers in authority to execute those who had flouted the state's decrees. Though torn by the clash of the demands of State and family. For this chilling morality tale. retold by Rollin.. Dance has chosen the moment. whereas his Left hand clutches privately at a father's agonized heart. that are the [0 228 . recounted by Livy. Brutus was elected consul in 508 Be. who was one of the Curatii brothers (Rosenblum 1967: 67-8). after our own lives. transcending class divisions and party discord in her strenuous struggle to achieve French unity and reveal France's underlying 'goodness' (see Gildea I994: I54-65)·8 With academic rhetoric. This is a scene of David's own invention. and the ensuing conflict in his own soul and in his family.7).. his own sons. spare style of David in its desire to portray the violent grief and resolve of Virginia'S father. when the anguished father holds aloft a butcher's knife. kills his daughter after the decemvir Appius Claudius had tried to take her as his slave. Valerius Maxirnus. as he admitted. David chose the moment when an anguished Brutus. who has returned home after the execution of his cwo sons. As Robert Rosenblum remarks: the same Salon. the only one of the Horatii (whose Oath had been so memorably depicted by David the year before) to survive the encounter with the Curatii enemy. he saw it as his duty to suppress all enemies of the Republic. after plunging it into his daughter'S chest.

I2. However. because.' Self-sacrifice: The fallen patriot-hero The third kind of self-sacrifice for national destiny. Epaminondas. cited in Herbert 1972: app. Alma-Taderna. Paris. These included the long-term exemplary character of the fallen patriot-hero or -heroine. the ability of fame and glory to conquer death. West was in the forefront of artists choosing themes of noble self-sacrifice. Already in the eighteenth century. bur Rome will inscribe these words in Marble: 'To Brutus. Smith 198]: 217-33). many of these ideas. stressing his 'severity' and grandeur. were reflected in didactic history paintings and sculptures. but you owe rhis terrifying example to your fellow citizens . but only in so far as it serves to convince the spectator of the inner truth of the events and the 'rightness' of their depiction (see Erffa and Staley 1986: 44-8. pp. despite the many Roman senators who in West's crowded 23° 231 . who sacrificed his children to his grateful Fatherland. see also A. persuaded his countrymen not to accept the Carthaginian peace terms. with his Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768).. D. which had. as the ultimate sacrifice. which. Here. Le Plaisir proionge. In 2. rendons graces aux Dieux!' (Lettre de graueur de Paris (Collection Deloynes 16. His next work. Rome pities you. over the next century. and has the same flowing lines. the critics seem to have been agreed on Brutus's character. and the figures of his protagonists are based on antique sculptures.55 Be. and Germanicus. in the manner of a frieze on a Roman sarcophagus. in his play. Delaroche. with an ang-uished Brutus seated in darkness at the left beneath the statue of Rome. The Departure of Regulus (1769).' (Pithou. The composition is again arranged horizontally like a classical frieze as Cermanicus's widow bearing her husband's ashes leads her party of children and attendants from the ship along the landing stage beneath the temple and the city. [he Roman general whom Tacitus implies was poisoned in Syria in AD 19 by [he governor of that province at the behest of the Emperor Tiberius.. 437. The lower rear of the picture shows a view of Brundisium based on a plate in Robert Adam's Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletianat Spalatro (1764). but to send him back to Carthage. il suffit. the importance of posterity and immortality for the individual and society. and the belief in resurrection and r-egeneration. both individual and collective. a Roman consul ill the first Punic war. historical scholarship is only a means. The Salon critics were divided in their judgement of the morality of Brutus's action. achieved the fairest report and the greatest fame. Regulus. rhythmic grace. it may help to authenticate the portrayal. premodern antecedents. it clraws upon and radiates a variety of powerful ideas and emotions. the healing afforded by mourning and commemoration. from philosophers such as Socrates and Seneca to generals such as Leonidas. has him proudly say: 'Rome est libre. where he would meet a cruel death. Pithou. West is a precocious example of that trend towards 'archaeological verisimilitude'. that of life itself. What struck contemporary critics was the radical separation of the two parts of the painting. The aftermath of Gerrnanicus's death had already been painted by Benjamin West. no. 1791). proclaimed: Brutus. but one of them.TH!'. This is an elegy for a hero. the idea of ennobling suffering. I79-80). 26). Thomas Banks's marble relief of 1774 of {he Death of Germanicus. GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD centre of his interest and the pivot of the action. but rather with authenticity in the sense of a convincing epic treatment to match the heroic nature of the events. and concern for authentic details in the Roman armour and dress (see Whinney 1964: 176).. on her homeward journey. aware of 'a bad action' =-even though Voltaire. [ogres. no. and fasces. and in this aim he succeeded. coins. Greece and Rome once again provided an array of heroic death scenes. and the PreRaphaelires. cited in Herbert 1972: app. le retour du Salon (Collection Deloynes 17. as we saw. was also concerned with an act of martyrdom. shows the dying nude hero surrounded by his soldiers beneath a Roman temple decorated with an eagle. and on the right in bright light his wife and daughters distraught in their grief. West's interest is not in historical accuracy per se.. will be taken to extremes in paintings by Gerome. your virtue COSt you dearly. symbols of Roman power. To this end.9-30) However.. a figure at once ambitious and suffering. the classical heritage is not confined to the theme of public mourning. aga in.

The Death of DII Guesclin is most representative of this effort. to surrender this as another Poussin. is important for three reasons. 46-50. and at a period of time. promise the siege of Chatea uneuf-de. what amounted undertook ome of beroic Roman for King George who commissioned new form of modern and then Jersey John Singleton even greater ill and William the painting Drummond. scene in the manner archaeology: but simply transposed Ages. Esquire (London. Though tache Middle Rosenblum inherent greatness of . when no such nations. who. and that means that they must be fictions will not conand their and Romans. Classical the Greeks not only because 232 . courage kneeling Bertrand in 178. act that had obvious Archbishop appeal of York. reportage. and West resolved but with a vital difference-in of Reynolds and Drummond. pioneered the British.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD but grandiose Regulus's scene implored him to stay and live. yet exalted emotions in the viewer.. ]n fact. who fell was a minor skirmish against a French of his in the footsteps defending assault to paint wounded treat dress. Studies. in what Benjamin In France. the armor. Quite could evoke identical sentiments place and time. The subject J have to represent is the conquest of a great province of America by British troops. any longer existed. [he fortified stronghold in the background.Randon were moved in I3 80. an entirely new direction. I represenr classical fictions. Nicolas Brener chose a medieval counterpart in his Hommagesrendus au Connetable Du Guesclin par le ville de Rondon of i777. The Death of the Earl of Chatham painted the monumental (1781) in the House of from West (Erffa and Staley i986: didactic materials. West.amin West. bad chosen who was mortally at Quebec in 1759. ii. during ing the Hundred admired. comments Oil the keys to me city... and Works ofBen.. This the sole locus of their artistic interpretation. in direct opposition to the gracious and gallant style of Francois Boucher .jean-Pierre the new type of medieval These themes of homage rendered to courage and virtue represented for painting.1. and accessories. 1759] in a region of the world unknown to the Greeks and Romans. how shall I be understood by posterity! (John Galt. The first is West's must on historical authenticity: the 'facts of the transaction' if not in but convincing. instead of the facts of the transaction. rho). and receive similar treatment. 'the classic the reproof so much so that the English thought of antiquity' and. costume. more costume Guescl in. (Rosenberg et al. more to a to conduct was not only an exemplum virtutis. but if. intended [Q produce strong.. and displays a new conception of the treatment of history painting.9 Rome Britain was not alone in providing Death of Major Pierson (1784).. this work displa ys the elaboration of a new language' served by precise and effective descriptive means. Copley fidelity or. placed in their proper vince people. durwas greatly at the foot of regards by Cuzin pioneered to hold to their it in the epic manner. to past exempla uirtutis . cited in Abrams 1985: I4)" This passage insistence be not just accurate. at that time.. 168). the arms and [he pennons constitute a new medieval archaeology . in the person of their commander classical deathbed the bed. recounted the mourning of the French nobles and soldiery at the Du as a result of illness of the Constable Years' War. involved the Americans in England. The Life. Du Guesdin's of France. record Lords. with Once again. I consider myself as undertaking to tell this great event to the eye of the world. already general over the French in 1770... [the] subject West is reponed to have replied that than the modem garb of war'. the British at the height of victory fellow-American. to modem who 'the became death This was already Answering that a popular theme in English art. The artist strove to recreate the scene with utmost fidelity in matters of setting. For later Romans. But he was only following The Death of Wolfe. in this painting.. ir was the epitself-sacrilice-an accurately. 1975: 338)10 This new quest for archaeological fact always accurate) recent episodes was not confined of noble self-sacrifice verisimilitude (even the event intended to be commemorated took place on the 13 th September 1758 [in facr. nor was CO the persons 47-5 i. The same truth that guides the pen of the historian should govern the pencil of the artist. nor heroes in their costume.

Wolfe. Hannibal. or the arts. with Wolfe himself in the pose of a dying Christ. The culrs of Voltaire and Rousseau during the French Revolution were only the most dramatic examples of the novel appreciation of the national contribution of 'great men'. 2II-q). our work can be judged worthy for all time by the only true judges. the ideal of noble self-sacrifice for one's nation. and in particular of the noble general who expired at the moment when his commanders reported that the French enemy had lost the battle. nor even the 'eye of the world'. Cyrus. To these we could add many others: Martathias and Eleazar. Marat.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD heroes. whether in philosophy." But the commemoration of heroic death was accompanied by a growing interest in other kinds of greatness. Nelson. Moreover. Seneca. and of tbe Apotheosis of Homer by Ingres (I827)·" But the French Revolution marks a new departure: the cult of genius is allied to that of the people . induced by heroic pathos. and had perished at the moment of victory. and posterity requires of us historical '[ruth'. as opposed to fiction. By representing truth. That truth is 3 moral truth. according to the reports. worthy of the heroes of classical antiquity. This return to seventeenth-century Lamentations over the body of Christ underlines both the sacred nature of the action and the Christian legacy of mourning and commemoration (see Abrams I98 5. West's painting fails the test of historical accuracy. reinforcing the message of solemn meditation upon the meaning of patriotic sacrifice. Socrates. Finally. Chronology and geography have become all-Important for the location of peoples. a noble act of self-sacrifice. And this is just what tbe painting conveys. a running soldier with a captured French standard bears the news of victory. This was a true exemplum uirtutis. 8. Not only do they take the 235 . Eparninondas. science. Sydney. Cornelia. Cleopatra. in order to reveal the inner truth of the event. Bara. and were repeated and supplemented well into the nineteenth century. To this end. Le Peletier. whose understanding requires rhe&amework of chronology and geography? Not just the immediate spectator of his work. Cabs. as we saw with the cult and death of Arthur. From rhe late eighteenth century onwards. and its locus was America. among the moderns. Not God the judge of aJJ. in the centre left. Tell. The Cults of Genius and the People I have concentrated on just a few of the many images of selfsacrificing heroes and heroines produced in the later eighteenth century. Portia. The 'conquest of a great province of America by British troops' had just as much significance as a Greek victory over the Persians or a Roman victory over Carthaginians or Gauls. while. notably genius.. Tile event derived its real meaning from the heroic actions of the combatants. the action of dying nobly. and that they therefore merit the same epic treatment. Erffa and Staley I98G: 55-65. not Nature the mother of all. and. ch. to the left. but because British troops and their heroes formed the subject of the 'transaction'. because he had risked all for victory in a daring feat of ascent of the Heights of Abraham. providing the framework or grid of historical understanding. West has a seated Mohawk Indian contemplating the scene. history. Bur. heroes. we have paintings of Virgil's tomb by Joseph Wright of Derby (r779). The response that West sought in his audience was one of reverence. West's work was not just a report of the moment of expiry. a region unknown to Greeks and Romans. or Pieta. Leonidas. Scaevola. For all his protestations. only History that links the generations across time can reward aurhenticity with immortality. West claims that modern events and heroes are every bit as im portan t and worthy as those of class ica 1antiq illty. which is closely linked to the spread of ideas of national destiny. and. Though this appeal to the judgement of posterity is not new-it was familiar in the classical world-it has a new urgency a bout it in the eigh teenth ceo tu ry. and events. Scipio. West takes a longer view: we are judged at the bar of posterity. of Goethe in the Roman Campagna by Wilhelm Tischbein (1786-7). those who come after us. no longer existed. Bayard. of the death of Raphael by Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret (:r8oG). West has contrived a symmetrical composition of three groups of figures around the dying Wolfe in the centre. of course. was a hero. It sought to authenticate and commemorate Wolfe's self-sacrifice by creating an icon of the fallen patriot-hero engaged in a sacred rite. of Leonardo's death in the arms of Francis I by Francois Menageot (I78I). they expressed the same didactic ideal of heroic self-sacrifice. For all their differences in period costume and accessories.

J. His compromise (given the swift decomposition of the body) reveals the 'religious' symbiosis of genius and nation. D. his Marat assassine (179 J. in .. which served as a desk for his inkweU. a wheeled platform with blue draperies sprinkled with gold stars and bordered with the tricolor. a figure of wi. was suspended from the club's ceiling.ut the special property of the French people. suggesting the final iry a f death. above the bath and the packing case. in this innovative painting. There was a full panoply of cardboard trees and mountains. Lagrenee's warercolour of The Burial of Voltaire (I79I) shows twelve white horses pulling a 'chariot'. (Brookner 1980: TI4) The French Revolution marked the transition to mass celebration and commemoration in more ways than one. which lasted six hours. quill.. like Le Peletier and Bara. it is hard not to regard Marat's accessories as holy relics. Rosenblum I967: 82. or the huge void above. the inscri prionbrings together the people and tbeir heroes: 'Aux Grands Hommes La Patrie Reconnaissante'. and they sought to offer a religion of Reason (and. at his head. Marat's friend David was immediately urged by tbe Assembly to paint ills portrait. with a smoking incense burner as the only light.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORiOUS DEAD national genius to their hearts. a benign deism of the Supreme Being) in place of Catholic beliefs and rituals (Herbert I972. after its conversion.1794. art and ritual proceeded hand in hand. they recognize in him or her their own peculiar genius as citizens of this or that nation. ). On the occasion of Marat's murder in July 1793. Smith 1987: 327-8. On its pediment. and an exaggeratedly huge Pantheon dome echoing the tomb designs of Boullee and thereby highlighting the soaring genius of Voltaire (see A. Girls in white with branches of cypress surrounded it.-4)· David also had to supervise the lying in state and funeral of his friend. carrying tbe sarcophagus with four candelabra on which rested an antique bed with an image of the recumbent Voltaire. the municipal authorities. and paper: Despite the fervent antiChristian stance of David's jacobinism. The tall silhouette of its great dome .. silhouettes. Its silent. The Pantheon itself became. Mosse 1:975: 73-4). but adds a romantic nocturnal note. to music by Gossec and poetry by Andre Chenier. and that is why Baudelaire's reaction of religious awe before this triumph of spirituality ('cruel comme la nature. and they were followed by the entire Convention. with stars. with a Christlike wound in his right lung.. cor de Marar=cbanted by the crowd.nged Immortality holding a crown of stars over his head. not just a resting place for famous French men and geniuses. Lagrenee's record faithfully reproduces the 'chariot' with Roman and French flags and standards behind. his heart. as having some sam bre re Iigious signi ficance . Many of these Revolutionary fetes were designed by David. but an eerie innovation was the improvised cantic1e-'O cor de Jesus. placed in a porphyry urn. d. Marat was buried in the garden of the Cordeliers club. J. Brookner continues: The funeral. Something of this new symbiosis of genius and nation can be seen in the celebration of the transfer in July I791 of Voltaire's remains from Sellieres to me newly converted and renamed French Pantheon. Anita Brookner suggests that. The resu It.'~ So did the commemorations for the martyrs of the Revolution. took place at five o'clock ill the evening of r6 July to the accompaniment of muffled drum-beat and cannon. beneath a stark blank wall (David had visited his friend the day before and noted his surroundings). the kind of patriotic festival around a monument that Rousseau had recommended to the Poles. meditative simplicity is underlined by the laconic inscription 'A Marat-David' and below 'L'An Deux' on the wooden packing case. shows with great veracity the Friend of the People dying in his bathtub. with. and the orchestrated appropriation of the national hero by the people. a mausoleum temple in which the citizens could reflect upon the virtues and greatness of France itself. The body was laid 00 a bier drawn by twelve men. ur B it is not that of the Christian after-life. Maras's corpse was exhibited on a high dais in the Cordeliers Church. in effect. and the people of Paris.I~rI 237 . 'art and Life have become indistinguishable'. ce tableau a tout le parfum de l'ideal') is the correct one (Brookner I980: II5~]_6. rather of a this-worldly martyrdom for the people whom Marat so often and so rabidly defended. and whose noble martyrdom we are called upon to commemorate and emulate. b. This commemorative event became a model for the many subsequent mass celebrations of the Revolution. Schama 1989: 561-6) . this was.

rhe student and gymnastic associa tions. and disbarred the majority from any role in the creation and celebration of German nationality (see Masse I97 5: 53-5)' I Celebrating the Nation A more successful attempt to create a sense of identity between the people and the idea of nationhood in the nineteenth century. organized a festival at Wartburg Castle.In 1. But. this identification with national military gloire was expressed in a Bonapartist tradition that saw the return of Napoleon's remains and the construction of a national shri ne to bis memory. at first cultural. this time through the people's anny and its exploits. the Romantic historian Johannes Muller. despite Ludwig'S desire to create a place of pilgrimage to the ideal of German national unity.. but soon politicized in the wake of the Prussian defea tat Jena in I 80 6. Similarly. Set high on its bill overlooking the Danube. the cult of genius took monumental form. the more so as Protestant services were. Ernst Moritz. remained a minority cult. an d ilia t of the army. Leo von Klenze built for Ludwig I of Bavaria q similar temple of fame. begun in rB06. sang Protestant hymns around the fires. and. Near Regensburg. marrying classical architectural ideals to German mythology in the WaLhatla (1830-42. after the 1830 Revolution. though conceived as a festival for the masses and a means of German regeneration through art. at the behest of Friedrich Schleierrnacher. <6 French nationalism was answered bya growing German nationalism. aristocratic nationalism. carrying oak leaves. concluding the proceedings with a (Protestant) church service (Mosse 1975: 77-9)· This was an act of worship at once Christian and national . its ambit extended to cover all who bad served and died for the Fatherland.. but it also derived from the ideas of Rousseau about the self-worship of [he people. it comprised a hall and museum filled with the images of the gods and heroes of a Germanic mythology recently popularized by the Romantics. marched up to the castle by torchlight.At once a Greek temple in severe classical style and the palace of Odin. 8 17. which. Advocating 'a festival commemorating the noble dead'.THE. During the Second Empire. disciples of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn.. joined hands and swore to uphold their Bund. to the tolling of the bells of the church in nearby Eisenach. an architectural counterpart to Wagner's elite Bayreuth music festival centred on his ideal of a sacred Gesamtku:nstwerk. urged on by the powerful. a dramatic allegory of warriors in primordial 'Gallic' armour going into battle. For Arndt. made speeches about justice and the cult of the Volk. the Walhalla remained the shrine of an elite. was originally designed to celebrate the Emperor and his glorious campaigns. it combined a German national shrine with an aesthetic tribute to German Hellenism. The Departure of the Volunteers of Z792 (1B33-6). burned supposedly 'uri-German' books. in the Invalides. The War of Liberation of I 8 I 3 and rhe return of aristocratic regimes after Napoleon's defeat stimulated collective expressions of national sentiment in the form of festivals and monuments whose analysis George Mosse has pioneered. which had so impressed Friedrich Schlegel in 1802 . Cbalgrin's great 'Roman' Arc de Triomphe. can be found in the triumphal arch set up in Paris to commemorate the victories of Napoleon's Grande Armee. in order to heighten religious consciousness. A new sculpture was commissioned that harked back to the early Revolutionary fervour for freedom and citizenship: Francois Rude's massive panel. lit pillars of fire. too. empty spaces provide a perfect setting for the new secular rites of national commemoration and the cultivation of a new co llecti ve memory.. Modelled on a Lutheran service.) . such festivals were sacred 239 . This emphasis onernotional devotion was a legacy of the inwardness and patriotic fervour of Pietism. One result was the incorporation in 1816 of an annual 'festival of the dead' by the Prussian Church for those killed in the war of liberation. Arndt proclaimed that here 'History enters life and life itself becomes part of history'. the students. GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD v and the monumental classical harmony and grandeur of its solemn interior with its vast. But. the Walhalla's lack of any sacred space for the people and its museum-like quality restricted its scope and appeal to an educated elite.' l Outside France. screaming winged figure of Liberty with her outstretched sword. whither fallen heroes were translated in Nordic mythology. and whose busts were selected by Ludwig and his advisor. tracing their role in the transition to mass nationalism in late-nineteenth-century Germany . to become festive and popular. listened to a sermon.

some inscriptions on the tombs of soldiers read 'for freedom and fatherland'. with memorials to Jefferson and Lincoln in Washington. the celebration of great men stretched from the torn superscription of Beethoven'S 'Eroica' Symphony (I 804. The rise of the popular element.r /lKf'\A L cered Varus's Roman legions in 9 AD. the month when ancient Germanic tribes had held their meetings or Thing. and then the delegates sailed across Lake Lucerne to the meadow of the Rucli. Max von Schenkendorf. whose analysis George Masse has pioneered particularly in Germany. the delegates landed at Brunnen at nightfall.'7 (Masse 1975: It was not until I832. chat the nation celebrated itself again. but there was little sense of unity among so large a crowd and the symbols were now more secular and revolutionary. designed by Germans in the German tradition 76). It was sculpted in Gothic style as a 'symbol of Germany's eternal youthful force'. and the desire for popular participation. in Westminster Abbey. This began with the songs of the volunteers for the armies of the French Revolution (it was a volunteer regiment that first sang the 'Song for the Army of the Rhine'.' But. In music.JO~ von Bandel on a hill in the Teuroberg Forest. national shrines of exemplary 'national' individuals. Mazeppa. Prince [gar. such as had been achieved in the Revolution on the Champs de Mars. which symbolizes his barbarian . indeed. the monument to Vittore Emmanuele in Rome. though not of the national dead. which welcomed delegates from aU over the country to Schwyz on I August 1891. in the cemetery of Pere Lachaise. to the Magyar horsemen who founded Hungary in the Millennial Monument of 1896 in Budapest. 400 singers. fires on the hills. and. Lenin's mausoleum in Red Square. Peter tbe Great in St Petersburg. and 120 musicians enacting the history of the Swiss Confederation on a classical-style stage. as well as commemorative statues to William Wallace near Stirling. later known as the 'Marseillaise') and with the volunteer poets and writers like Theodor Korner.. WiJliam Tell in Altdorf. and Ernst Moritz Arndt who joined the Free Corps in the German War of Liberation of I8n against Napoleon. where Arrninius slaugh. The next day saw the festival play re-enacted. In the afternoon. in which everyone sang patriotic songs and wore red. can also be traced in the national monuments and festivals of the nineteenth century.'8 The cult of great men and heroes continued well into the twentieth century. in honour of the great author Manzoni.THE GLORrOUS DEAD THE GLORJOlJS DEAD rites. and built by popular subscription. What was required was an organized choreography in a sacred space for the masses. Arminius is depicted as a knight in armour on a massive pedestal. Then there were the tombs of the illustrious. where they heard 600 voices singing the festival cantata to the text of Schiller's Wilhelm Tell. In the evening. this commemorative festival was soon taken over by the Federal Swiss State. after the national anthem and a church service. . with 960 actors. the later nineteenth century saw greater efforts to invite the 'people' into the sacred communion of the nation through mass celebration of the nation. It turned out CO be a motley affair. After further speeches and a boatride. and Lernrninkainen. in varying degrees. in Santa Croce in Florence. they listened to speeches about Switzerland's past and its place among the nations.. on a more collective level. Siegfried. waving many £lags displaying fasci and wreaths of oak leaves. to Verdi's Requiem (187'1). The huge statue to Arminius or 1t! Hermannsdenkmal (184r-75) initiated and constructed by £rnstfttllll-i . while round about the shores were lit up with bonfires (see Zimmer 2003: 163-5).. as opposed to the more usual 'for king and fatherland' (Mosse I990: I6-2I) . roo. The next day. Nelson in London. is a case In poinr. originally dedicated to Napoleon.. The only coherent part was the procession to the castle ruins.. Although it was initiated from below. alongside the multiplication of statues and tombs of the famous. which have become. there was a banquet to the accompaniment of church bells and bonfires. in Wawe1 Cathedral in Cracow. and gold emblems and ancient Germanic dress. and a noonday meal. For Korner this war was a people's crusade that had no place for kings. and which the Swiss were to achieve on a smaller scale in their festival commemorating the six-hundredth anniversary of the Oath on the Rutli and the foundation of the Eidgenossenscbaft in I29I. Again. Don Carlos. less national (Masse 1975: 83-5). until he crowned himself Emperor). St Joan in Rauen and Paris.. This was at the first mass festival held at Hambach on the Rhine during the 'German May'. black. there were speeches. but was most fully developed in operas and tone-poems evoking the heroic exploits of historic national heroes such as Boris Godunov.. they watched a threehour Festspiel fur die Eidgenossische Bundesfeier.

Memorial that (. /1 was never completed and remains and Johannes could with its great space enclosed this feeling more. were held (Masse points out. depict the history outstretched its climax [he oath proclaimed his arms But it was really only after the First World War. ~G1""""~~1 JIIo Ii. Die Huldejaar . though the mass national they proved none of these monuments sucfor which they had been for rhe growing mass festivals influential a symbol of that godly truth. 295-6).). high-school the most massive theceotenary monument creating fraternities. 1975: 62. designed. N iederu/al ddenkma of German I (I 874-85) by on the banks of the Rhine. In its basement is a granite cenotaph. of I rival in the competition the Kyffhauser where _lik~a fQ__rtr~ss round a to create a worthy setting for Monument (1896) of Bruno the statue of Emperor William Barbarossa was said to Reich. ceremonies like a cathBut once marking its monument Walter massive munity World like the Tannenberg Kruger.. WIth its huge classical unity. just such a monument successfully Cha pter enacted and collective continent. in another in South In the holy mountain the Emperor 4 we saw how the voortre k her cele brations the progress of the ox wagons of the had of the Great Free State and the Transvaal. More promising in this respect . in a 2. that no great ideal can be achieved without its sacrifices. Within wbich tbe pedestal is a Gothic Hall of Fame. and that it is the dead from whom life appears . and for its later use by the Nazis. and was instead in the popular fu§ed with its . panels at surrounded by a marof the by Sarel to heaven.. solid mass.43 . by which time the formed the government there.. C. cult. though commencement the 'people'. designed so that on I6 December a sun ray will fall onto it at noon through an opening in the dome. including his gun is the Hail of Heroes.990: 97) . societies. was monuments. be evoked. The Glorious Dead ill fact. Within crypt for the fallen and various space was created for German halls-the of those who led the war against A sacred museum building with sally 1985: 187-8. and male choir societies. Its twenty-seven carriage. so saliently affirmed by rhe Voortrekkers. it was mass rituals in I949. Africa. completed Afrikaner amidst Yoortrehker Monument. through as in a sacred monumental temple... of their countries 1975: 67-9. towers joined perhaps by walls. The aim of the archi- tects was to lift human beings above their daily routine uniting to create and induce and cosmic of awe..-6). sharpshooting the purpose Cape to the Orange pants laid the first stone nasts. Borha (ed. as Masse ceeded in creating primarily national feelings elemental community. of simple. Akenson I992. 19520). and its ultimately oJ Germania. the aim being CO demonstrate But then the War intervened... of the nation. This huge. ""Crt::c.: 3.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD strength. forms the mystical a higher. also War that there was a decisive shift away from the individual dead to the mass dead who fell in wars fought in the name (Mosse I~dscape (Mosse :1975: 59-60). behind and dancing and of masses Trek from the the partici- @f!ed ~reas in front of the monument of people-the the student That. on a of South celebrations itself stands granite children. edral. see also Masse 1. cited in Thompson 1985: IS?} Above the basement ble bas-relief Cilliers from Vo 0 rtrekkers . which organized The Voortrekker Pretoria. Nationalist Party of these national of the Battle classical the VjilkerSchmitz Africa.). (M. empty. it set a precedent and completion.. tOO. war veterans.. frieze.{ it lacked a definite 'sacred space' for Just as it was only after the First surrounding r_omantic. festival was created. the symbol festivals. Leonard Thompson records thar in his opening speech Malan explained that this was youth to stage gymnastic the vigour and manliness and no competitions competitions.. that it is along the way of the cross that victory is won. is a combines an impression forms with a pyramidal Hall of Fame being filled the French. Ion shaped exemplary were two later monuments. also designed by Bruno co hill overlooking of Leipzig . Yet.d escribed statue by Masse: the so-called __'uohannes Schilling unsuccessful truly national Schmitz.1927) by the brothers by eight cornof organic 14. similar There 9 3 8 re- sleep until the day of the restoration presented singing. a fortress-like ports and ambushrnenrs subsequent Monument squarish (Thompson schlacbtdenhma] commemorate undecorated construction...£949 (Johannesburg. Both gymof the medieval for a time. with statues (1894-19I3. for the movement.

and mass participatory. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. The major cities have 244 245 . especially in crisis). and Decision. (The Voortrekker Monument: Official Guide (Preroria. the rites and ceremonies of ANZAC Day (25 April) are simple. as a key part of the 'sacred history' of Afrikaner nationalism.000 wounded before the main ANZAC withdrawal in mid-December T915. As might be expected in such a version of nationalism. 1960]). Control (of self and others). and this sense continues in the icoaography jnside the Memorial. when the end loomed clear in front of rhem.d. the Voorrrekker gun. 49. emergent from deep religious and ontological foundations. E. at its central shrine. i. Though it is often described as 'Byzantine revival' architecture. which encircles the central pool of Reflection. Bean. so that it appears like a cross when seen from above.. Stand ing upon rhar alone. whose significance has been illuminatingly analysed by Bruce Kapferer. (Kapferer 1988: 137)" Kapferer relates the building's hybrid aspect to its function as the site of a political religion. and that they would build a church to the glory of God. A much more poignanr 'festival of the dead' in yet another continent is the commemoration of ANZAC Day in Australia.THE GLOR10US DEAD THE GlOIHOUS DEAD This panel of'Tbe Taking of the Vow'. and repeats the Vow that if the Lord gave them victory over [he enemy. n. which makes it symbolically appropriate 'to a The qualities that these Australian 'mates' demonstrated are well portrayed in the East Window of the Hall of Memory in the War Memorial. reproduced in Leonard Thompson's book. W. when the whole world seemed to crumble and the heaven fall in. (c. but since then wings have been added. E. Each town has its own memorial at wh ich its service of remembrance is conducted. The landings proved a ghastly failure: ro. W. it was the 'mettle of the men themselves'.. The figures in the tall lancet windows from left to right show the qualities of Coolness (in action.l History of Australia ill the War of 1914-1918 (6 vols . to be followed by social gatherings and much drinking in clubs and hotels. cited in Kapferer 1988: 123) The imposing War memorial in the national capital of Canberra approaches the manner ofa Mesopotamian tomb. Why fight on against such odds? According to Bean.607. They centre on services held at the various war memorials built in the inter-war years. and not subordinate to any of the religious forms from which the nationalist political religion sprang' (Kapferer 1988: 139). and they underline the self-reliant individualism and egalitarianism that marks out Australian nationalism (Kapferer 1988: 138). universal. These are the leadership qualities of Australian manhood in times of war. they would consecrate that day and keep it boly as a Sabbath in each yea. cited in Thompson 1985: 187-8) These. Endurance. then were the heroic dead to be revered and whose exploits were held up foremulation.. their refusal to give way. [c. as retailed by C. The Officia. 198 I). are fairly uniform. but life was not worth living unless they cou ld be true to their idea of Ausrra lian manhood. when help failed and hope faded. And it was here. their endurance and trust in their mates. The ANZAC symbolism and traditions displayed in the memorial are summed up in the ideal of Australian egalitarian manhood. though they are moreelaborare in the major cities. who was the official chronicler of the landings of tbe Australian and New Zealand Army Corps on 25 April £915 at Gallipoli in the Dardanelles. The rituals of this day. Kapferer claims that >0 religious-political form. is explained in the words of the official guide: Sarel Cilliers has mounted Old Grierjie. were killed and 20. egalitarian.. that the rituals of Afrikaner national commemoration and celebration were to be re-enacted for the next forty years in an annual festival of remembrance and thanksgiving. that carried them througb: Life was very dear. yet itself encompassing. primeval quality of ANZAC symbolism and traditions discussed earlier. This Mesopotamian aspect of the war memorial underlines the originary. Audacity. The main War Memorial in Canberra was erected between 1928 and 1941. St Lucia. they faced its ruin undismayed.

and on a global scale.The architect appears co have used geometric forms to reduce the Roman triumphal arch to an expression of what he called an ['elemental_' response to mass death and suffering in the war (Winter 1995: Io6). followed by a silence and wreath-laying ceremonies.107).000 Allied dead in the Battle of the Somme whose bodies were never found. and in Germany i. In Italy. given its association with Napoleon's victories.0 as his French counterpart. the two world wars completed that process. In the West. This was a logical place. Luryens's Cenotaph in Whitehall was unveiled. ordinary (profane) bourgeois cemeteries were now distinguished from sacred national military cemeteries. France. In France it came into being the year after a catafalque was erected beneath the j Arc de Triomphe for the victory parade of 1919. The message of the day is clear: horror at the suffering and waste of war. 'They shall grow not old as we that are left grow old'. If the Napoleonic Wars had begun the process of cementing a sense of national identity among the European participants. This austere. 'civic' monuments to the fallen. recognition of the great sacrifice. This was symbolized by the Tomb of the Unknown Warrio~ The idea choosing. and it served to bring together [he millions of I ' ~. which would remind the living of their. especially at the annual Armistice Day ceremony. a short prayer.~' This same 'elemental mode' also distinguishes Lutyens's most famous war memorial. is abstract and geometrical in design. I The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior served the important function of providing a national centre for the cult of the fallen. It symbolized.. Given the space of the surrounding broad avenue. partly to channel public discontent.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD dawn services along Christian lines ending with tbe Last Post. Winter 1995: 92. heavy and solid like an altar-dearly expressing a Christian symbolism. and by popular acclaim it became a permanent monument to the fallen. reveille. although it had been broached even before the War in France. and a sense of comradeship and rebirth (Kapferer r988: 149-50). and whose names are listed on its internal walls . 'the ideal of the national community as the camaraderie among members of equal status'(Mosse 1990: 95)· . and solemnly burying the body of an unknown soldier who had died on the battlefield seems to have emerged simultaneously in France and Britain at the end of the War. Britain. the First World War was decisive in the institutionalization of collective identity through tbe rites of death and commemoration. and Germany began to create separate miliracy cemeteries under the supervision of special organizations. on the same day in 192. This is followed by the march tothe central memorial area. and has a classical altar and a Christian chapel. The importance of broadly sacred themes in the monuments and ceremonies of the nation in war is evident even in the more abstract. and was intended to be ecumenical in spirit. near the battlefield" of Verdun (Mosse I990: 80-93. and a Crusader sword. to be interred in Westminster Abbey with a trench helmet and khaki belt. though Lutyens himself saw the stone as a pantheistic symbol. Early in the War.. according to Mosse. and the main mid-day service of commemoration along the same lines. Here. a tomb of 00 one and so of everyone. A ) 1 ~!L Similar sentiments were expressed by the British choice of an unnamed soldier exhumed from a French or Flanders battlefield and his transport to London. The sheer simplicity and harmony of the monumental form seemed to evoke tharcomrnunion of spirit that alone could reflect the commonality of grief across the nation. reserved solely for the fallen of one's nation. rhe Neue Wache. mission. all of which is organized by the main Australian voluntary association. in Berlin for this purpose (Masse I990: 95-8). with the British pioneering well-designed cemeteries with uniform headstones centred on Reginald Blornfield's Cross of Sacrifice (with a ) sword within the cross) and Lutyens's Stone of Remembrance.£ (. A case in point is Lutyens's huge memorial for the missing soldiers at Thiepval.. the Returned Services League. 247 . white 'empty tomb'. the tomb was placed on the Vittore Emrnanuele Monument in Rome. returning. in memory of 73. At the same time.n 1931 Prussia at length designated the graceful neoclassical Guard House. Many nations followed suit with their own Tomb of the Unknown Warrior. The way in which the anonymous exhumed soldier was chosen in the Verdun fortress and accorded the highest honours in Paris contrasted with the names of the French generals inscribed on the Arc de Triornphe. the Whitehall Cenotaph. the Cenotaph rather than the enclosed tomb in the Abbey became the focus for national remembrance. as in the newly constructed ossuary at the cemetery of Douaumont. and it bears the simple inscription 'The Glorious Dead'. as in France and Germany.11. and the nation's.

Architecturally. (Winter I995: 104) Yet. the nation is revealed as a sacred communion of the people. and a shorr and solemn Anglican service of commemoration is held. in the annual Remembrance Day ceremony held on the Sunday nearest to II November. and memories. and managed to transform the commemorative landscape by making all of 'official' London into an imagined cemetery. It is a form on which anyone could inscribe his or her own thoughts. Britannia'. The march past evokes conflicting emotions: personal memories of fallen comrades. Speaking of its minimalist simplicity at the heart of government in London. even so minimalist a monument draws on and evokes the dual heritage. in order to evoke ["J'<>( ". broken by gun salutes and the sounding of the last post. and small groups of friends.AJ £7). its 'true self' lodged in the innate virtue of the Unknown Warrior and symbolized by the empty tomb . honor at the enormity of the slaughter. In this moment. so that these dead 'shall not have died in vain'. but reflects something of the theosophical pantheism of its creator. Cerernoni. a silent witness of the vanity of power and the all-encompassing nature of mass death in war. When the official parties have left. The Cenotaph is in no way a Christian.... Here love for friends and family 1S felt to be part of the loyalty to the community of the nation. regiments. and a pride in the courage displayed and the sacrifice made by so many young men. but also the desire to remember them. flags. and solemn music-a liturgy appropriate to the civic religion of nationalism. with surfaces and planes that are parts of parallel spheres (as Lutyens himself explained). the mood changes abruptly. at the excesses of state patriotism.of dei In war (Winter 1995: 103).. It focuses on families. Dido's haunting lament from Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. As the public assembles. experiences. men and women marching and laying wreaths. monument. r: 7\ . reveries. among others-all of which evoke grief at untimely death. regiments of ex-servicemen and -wornen In. and reverence for the sacrifice of lost generations. the sense of personal bereavement becomes an expression of a wider national grief. J. 4 1: ~ (J . that underpins so many modem expressions of self-sacrifice. and the reverence is directed to both the individual and the nation. Nimrod from Elgar's Enigma Variations. . Family and nation are also linked by the bitterness at the senseless waste of war and. the timeless nature. This part of the ceremony is more personal. Perhaps for that reason the Cenotaph has succeeded where so many other more grandiose and rhetorical monuments have failed. with flags flying. national devotion and loyalty are seen as extensions of the solidarity felt by family and friends. Beethoven's Funeral March. perhaps.. with parades of military regiments. Jfl what amounts to a reflexive act of national self-worship. ~ Then the civil. GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORJOUS DEAD bereaved to a focal point and help them by its calm silence to respond to their deep personal loss through an act of public reflection and commemoration. massed bands.'Men of Harlech'. This is a well-orchestrated and choreographed event. military. !. followed by reveille. Wreaths are then laid on the steps of the Cenotaph on behalf of the whole nation. with its l!sepf ancient ~Greek curved surfaces to create the illusion of linearity.... J" a sense of sacred communion with the 'glorious dead' and their ~~e... bands playing.~ The sense of loss displayed on this occasion is both personal and collective. 'Rule. so many of their comrades never to return. a union of the prematurely the massed bands play martial and funereal music.THE.. their dress and colours march briskly and proudly past the Cenotaph. the living and the yet unborn. the many different regiments and organizations recall the camaraderie and equality in death of the men and women who served their country and risked all. Armistice Day. it presides over a mode of commemoration [hat is suffused with Christian symbolism.t drew on a longstanding tradition of classical f~nerary art. i. conversely. their contributions. Jay Winter writes: It sa ys so much because ir says so little. classical and Christian. saluting. sadnesses. which serves to inspire the survivors to work for a happier and more peaceful destiny for the nation. It became a place of pilgrimage.. and. and religious dignitaries headed by tbe rnon~ arch and royal f~m_jlytake their assigned places in a square around the Cenotaph. To the accompaniment of popular marches and songs. This is followed by a two-minute silence at the eleventh hour. or an overtly patriotic.}~e. expressing through its subtle geometrical forms. This 1 ~ T example reveals how the political religion of nationalism draws upon Christian traditions but uses them for national ends. .

99. in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Moscow. with banners. though of indeterminate denomination. Spencer bad served on the Macedonian front as a volunteer orderly. Yet. Leningrad. commemorated in gigantic monuments at Stalingrad. Reveille-the last two with explicit references to the Resurrection. on both Russians and non-Russians. or rather suppressed. In other societies. and they pile up the white crosses that mark their graves or hand them in to a diminutive Christ. after all. and boys and girls marching and singing heroic songs. The soldiers rise from the dead. Typical of this monumental art is the blockade cemetery at Piskarevskoe.000). suggesting. Spencer has given us a very personal tribute to the sacrifices of war. Spencer was undoubtedly a patriot-he had volunteered for war service. He was also a Christian. Here. too. and the side walls depict his experiences there-Map-Reading. which was painted by Stanley Spencer in I927-32. Filling Water-Bottles. as well as personal. by the regime until the late I980s-rhe lies. entirely personal. a great deal was forgotten. An early study shows that Spencer was thinking in terms of a final reveille of the dead. with their mules. such as forms the climax of the Cenotaph ceremony. who sits in the field near the top of the painting. too. have been in vain. the Sandham Resurrection suggests that the immense sacrifice may not. parades and public meetings were held there. For the Soviet Union. Bur this is not the whole picture. and elsewhere. but of the soldiers with whom Spencer had served. realism in depicting the war was a vehicle for hopes of redemption in which he firmly believed-a physical resurrection of each and every soldier who bad made the supreme sacrifice. and to encourage a profound desire to work for selfrenewal and national regeneration.8). older forms of the language of the sacred faded. Dominating the east waH is the huge Resurrection in a Macedonian landscape. and the tum to an abstract art could no longer provide the healing that the traditional rites and monuments had made possible for large numbers of the bereaved. the extreme sufferings. see also Merridale 2.. and the millions of deaths inflicted under Stalin and by the Nazis. like Mosse. emphasize the sober realism of those who entered that war.. the Second World War was the Great Patriotic War. nothing is forgotten'. Perhaps. As Merridale's moving accounr of the terrible hardships and sacrifice of the Leningrad siege and the Great Patriotic War makes abundantly clear. [0 this masterpiece. the faith in human nature on which it rested' (Winter 1995: 22. for many Russians the war and' its commemoration continue to be a source of patriotic pride and dignity (Merridale 200I: 2. and ill the vast military parades of the October Revolution. Some. geometrical and symmetrical cemetery. But his beliefs in fraternity youthful joy. are revealed in the private setting of Sandham Chapel at Burghclere. It is true that the belief in redemption through sacrifice that revolutionary Romanticism or Stanley Spencer's Christian optimism had encouraged no longer answered to the anxietses and the sense of futility that so many in the West had come to feel. but this is the resurrection not of Christ. Bell I980: 96-II3i Causey 1980: 27-8). in marked contrast to the volunteers of previous great wars. The main cemetery inscription concludes with the words 'No one is forgotten. and that on the Last Day the common soldier everywhere will find peace and joy (see K. based on his own experiences and seen through the prism of his mystical form of Christianity. in a world of nuclear and other terrors. After the Second World War For many commentators." Just such a desire and hope. the personal agonies.. significance . then. The enormity of Auschwitz and Hiroshima appeared to render traditional forms irrelevant. to commemorate the death of a friend's brother as a result of wounds received in Macedonia during the First World War. despite their bitterness and the enforced privatization and secrecy of their memories. In the 1970s. He shows no scenes of violence. 'After 1945. in the end. Dug-out. 'colossal sacrifice without evoking agony or disorder'. For Spencer.We have only to . war memorials and ceremonies continue to have a national. and redemption were. For Jay Wime[. outside Sr Petersburg . the collective significance of sacrifice in war has declined since the Second World War.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD posterity. a giant Mother Russia with a stone garland in her arms looks down all the solid. and so had optimism. in the words of Catherine Merridale. marble. preferring only the busy activities of the soldiers between bouts of fighting.

12.2. and usually completely secular (except. Paris. the women mourn the inevitable sacrifice and loss. of course.THE GLORIOUS DEAD THE GLORIOUS DEAD recall [he debate over the political uses of the Yasukuni shrine in Tokyo. Only in Yad VaShem. photos. These books have reinvented a much older tradition of pogrom and Holocaust remembrance books. and which.6 In Israel. for those produced by the religious nationalists). realistic. or does it perhaps signal a new and urgent warning to a world of nations capable of such horrors? We seem to have come fuiJ circle. They have no spaces for public festivals of the innocent dead. and hence the bereaved nation itself. it is. that such acts of commemoration. by definition.1999: . In the sites and rites of genocide. soldiers of Israel's successive wars. III David's great painting of The Oath of the Horatii of I784. black. is there a sacred space. the martyrs of the nation who are commemorated and mourned. we are confronted with an archive and a museum. and a hall in which bums an eternal. of which that in Washington to the Holocaust victims has become the most familiar. which emphasize the martyrdom of the murdered (Panossian 2000: 217 n.7 Mention of the Holocaust is a reminder of that other. there is a specific monument. 5. and London. whose counterpart is the Washing~ ton Vietnam War Mem:orial. the martial heroism of the nation is glorified. or the various khachkar (the classical carved-in-stone crosses) in cities such as Sydney. for example the Armenian Tzitzemakaberd Genocide Monument built in the 1960s in Yerevan in memory of the more than a million Armenian civilians who were massacred in the First World War. and fellowsoldiers for many of the (especially native-born) fallen. novel kind of memorial: to the victims of genocide. was closely linked to the aggressive military policies of the national-fascist regime during the WaL1. but across the courtyard. anti-heroic attitude to sacrifice. outside Jerusalem. will reveal the futility of national wars and of the martial heroism on which they have fed so long. the modern Israeli Yizkor books are quite different in tone and content: sober. More often. rhe service of remembrance for the dead. But the latter are not sites for collective ceremonies. Sometimes. low-lying wall of inscribed names of the fallen. and tributes. in the eyes of critics.177-204). repeated the world over. friends. outside Jerusalem. in addition to the Holocaust museum: a courtyard for Mazkir. too. Sivan . and a hope. Of course. activist. But. with its long. often in memory of whole communities annihilated by the Nazis. But perhaps they also offer another lesson. This reflects a new. 253 . not only are there separate military cemeteries for the fallen soldiers whose deaths are still regarded as more 'sacred' than those of civilians. emphasizing the equality and the accessibility of all the Americans who fell in that war (Gillis 1994: 13. with all kinds of mementoes. often angry and ironic.flame for the millions who perished in the major concentration camps listed by name on the marble floor. which commemorates all those soldiers of Japan who fell in battle for emperor and country. only for private anguish and reflection. a silent reflection on the horrors and waste of war. for whom does the flame bum and for what is the space consecrated? Does it burn solely for the Jewish victims and commemorate their suffering. 3I 5-16). but there is a separate solemn Remembrance Day for soldiers and military ceremonies on Mount Herzl. Such ceremonies coexist with the more private Yizkor (Remembrance) Books put together by families.

Whitney Museum of Art..ANDS tradition are dear enough. at first.orking W Providence of Sions Sauiour. cited in Daniels 1993: 180) t. I6 28. wild-woody wilderness . and I shall confine myself to the link between religion and landscape. and then cheer them upward . Hamilton early example of rhc revival and the passion for republican oaths. Brutus. to carry the career of mankind to its peak.der. Edwin Church.. In I 6 54 Edward] ohn son.11h on the Rljlli. were disposed to create in their minds' eye. Though conditions were. History of New England.EFr) Nowhere is this better exemplified than in rhe vast canvasses of Thomas Cole. 138 . though originally confined to the inner life and social organization of small settlementsand towns. William Gilpin.I.. and his friends swear A well-known neoclassical ro avenge Lucretia. drive out the ryranr Tarquins. Lake Lucerne..'1 th of Everlasting Alliance on the Riirli meadow. (Patricia Hills. an ideal 'American Israel' and a 'New English Jerusalem' in a vast and fertile country. but goes beyond it in some places' made America 'the wonder of the world' (Edward Johnson. The American Puritans' ideal of the 'city on the hill' and their sense of providential guidance. having experienced a perilous exodus across the seas. told how the 'remote. who.'763-7) BrUins). Fra nk lin Jameson (New York: Scribner 1952). or WOI1. Strictly speaking. The American Frontier: images and Myths (New York. (I. The Q. and aholish the monarchy. the first governor of Colorado. far superior to the la nd and soc ial order of England. cited in Greenfeld [992: 407). but it very soon became one for the Puritan settlers. Kaufmann 2002).. 1978). ed.EI. 7-8. As the western frontier expanded and indigenous populations died from disease or were displaced.. the. at least. America was not a promised land in the biblical sense. [and] that nor only equalized England in food. 209-10. 652. rocky. especia Ily after the Restora tion. barren. came from the early nineteenth century to embrace the vast expanses of the continent (see E. the scale and abundance of the continent afforded ample o pportu nities. hard and depressing for the early settlers. In 1846.. [that] through the mercy of Christ becorn a second England for Iertilaess .SACRED HOM. (ABOVE) 2. Gavin Hamilton'S pninring captures the moment in c. referring to the year 1642. belief in a providential and manifest destiny was extended from the chosen people to the land and landscapes of America. declared that the untransacred destiny of the American people is to subdue the Continent-to rush over this vast field [Q the Pacific Ocean-to animate the many hundred millions of its people. bushy.)1o Be when the future first consul of Rome . Sanford Gifford. Heinrich Fussli] r 780) This celebrated image of Swiss liberty and unity by Heinrich Fiissli was cornrnissioned by Zurich town council in ]778 to commemorate rhe fcundarion of [he Swiss Confederation in r 29'. It depicts the towering Michclangelesque figures who represent rhe three origina I forest ca nrons swearing the 0. The Death Gavin of Lucretia (Oath of (.. The American case is instructive here. and Albert Bierstadt. j.

lr shows her in Rheirns Cached ra I as a pi nus but mili [3tH Ch ristian warrjor '1J1d national heroine ar rhe moment of her greatest triumph in !.419. Nicholas-Guy Brener I. Jean Auguste Dum in ique lngrcs ( ! H54 ) Ingres's striki ng lCOI] 'JI rite vrctor of Orleans lind future saint is a memorable conrri burion H) rhe medieval ist religious rcviva I and rhe burgeon iug cul r of Joan. Benjamin West's great tribute to the heroism of Wolfe shows him dying in the arms of h is com pan ions at the moment of the British victory over the French on the Heights of Abraham outside Quebec in 1759. this is one of the earliest examples of patriotism 'i n modern dress'. 77 7) All early example of the medieval revival. (BJ'LO\X/) 3· [oan of Arc at tbe Corolla/hili o( Charles V1/ ill Rheilils Catbedra). Benjamin West (1770) Although modelled on earlier depictions of the Ch ristia n Pietii. The Death n( General l'Vol{e. (LEFT) 5. NicholasGuy Brener's solemn death-bed scene is drawn from an episode in the Hundred Years War in ! 380.4. which mingles classical with Christian rnorils. The Death o( DII Guesclin. Bertrand Du Guesclin. the coronation of the dauphi n as Cha des VII. his noble exploit contemplated by a Mohawk Indian. He shows rhe English honouring their prom ise to hand over the keys of the city ou t or respect ror thei r great enemy and French hero. . the Constable of France.

He shows Manit as he remembered him 'FWO days earlier. Ir was admired by revolutionaries for its depiction of unflinching devotion to 7.assil1lltiOrl MllraJ. after he had condemned his [WO SOilS EO death fur supporting rhe ousred Tarquins in 507 [IC. Rome's firsr consul.6. David's powerful drama of republican parriorisrn shows the anguish uf Brutus. jacques-Louis David (1789) Painted in 178~t. 0 martyr. jacques-Louis Da. . his wound open like that of jesus (wirb whom Marar was compared). and his wooden packing-case resembling a rornb beneath the stark blank wall of death. The )\s:. in his bath. holding Charlotte Corday's letter.vid 1179 31 Da vi d's memoria I tribute to his slain friend is rhe most celebrated icon of rhe French Revolution. <If rhe leming apart of his family. The Lictors Returning 10 Brutus the Bodies of His Sons. or the farherland.

8. The Walhalla. was transformed after the I /!Jo Revolution to include all who had served and died for the Farberland.representing Odin's palace for the fallen heroes uf Nordic mythology recently popularized b)' [he Romantics. Regensburg . and much later (in T919) by the placing of rhe Tomb of the Unknown Warrior beneath its vall IL !Q. .j Chalgriu's great 'Roman' triumphal arch. . Leo von Klcnzc's Creek temple was designed as <! I11\lSC\1111 of Germanic gods and heroes. designed in I Ho6 to commemorate rhc victories of Napoleon and his armies. The Arc de Triomphe.) This was huilr for Ludwig I of Bava ria in r 8 30-4l on 11hill overlooking rhe Danu be.9. Leo von Klenze (r 830-41. This message was reinforced by Francois Rude's heroic sculptures. Jean Chalgrin (IHo6-y. . commemorating the heroic qualities and sacrifice of rhr Australian and New Zealand forces in rhe disastrous landings on Gallipoli in '9'5. Canberra r It 9l/!-4 I\ The Pool of Reflection in the 'Mesopotamian-style' Australian War Memorial in Canberra is surrounded by ANZAC iconography of egalitarian 'mareship'. and was dedicated to rhe ideal of German unity. AI/ stralian W!t/ M ell! 0 ria J. This is also evident in rhe figures in the rall East Window of the Hall of Memory.

But in his later. Sand ham Chapel. including this vast Resurrection on the Easr Wall. Edwin Luryen (1919) ni rna Iisr a rnonumenr as white. the Wilderness (1860). horses a well-kept road a tidy bridge by a lake.. 11£1'"1") . It can be glimpsed already in Church's painting of Mount Katahdin of 853: the foreground is a pastoral scene. 1961) 93. Perhaps his faith in tile civilizing mission of Americans had been shaken by political conflicts. Burghclere. and often a religious framework. with cattle.'0metric mode. even here. celebrated icon of the New England wilderness TWilight in. repro in Maine Woods ( ew York. contemplate the scene and with whom we can identify." This is. r z. started out from the landscapes of the Hudson River area. Instead. in the sure conviction of America's destiny and of its social and economic progress. some hard matter in its home! (Henry David Thoreau.7-32) In a private chapel in Burghclere Spencer painted scenes frorn his experiences of rhe First World War in Macedonia where he erved as a volunreer orderly. of cour e. The goal of many artists in their search for a remote and evocative landscape was Maine and especially Mount Katahdin (or Ktaadn). we can see a proces of rooting. tanley Spencer (192. of finding a home in the promised land of a whole continent. in his absrracr 'elernenra!' 01. 'empty tomb' of 1919. about which Thoreau in I846 had written: Here not even the surface had been scarred by man but it was a specimen of what God saw fit to make chis world. co ee a myriad of particular thing . characteristically. What it is to be admitted to a museum. akin to Thomas Cole's Pastoral or Arcadian Idyll. 'Kraadn and the Maine Woods'. Church excludes alJ reference to humanity. and the figure of small boy. cited in Wilron and Barringer 2002: n6) 11. Church and Gifford. Whitehall. and the American experience. compared with being shown some scar's surface. for.IIIOVIlj Even so III i Luryens's austere.SACRED HOMELANDS displayed in a recent exhibition entitled The American Sublime. be opts for what a contemporary critic called a grand and truly American skylandscape' (Wilton and Barringer 2002: I29). The Cenotaph. i. and headed north in pur uit of wilderness and untamed nature. partly for that reason stands somewhat outside the processes of territorialization of memory found so often elsewhere. in what is <"I very personal message of unive rsal a waken ing and redcmpriun. more a dream of a peaceful. in particular. in terms of a general.. The Resurrection. It continues to serve as the ~ocus of nationwide ceremonie on rhe annual Remembrance Day commemorating 'The Glorious Dead' who fell in the tWO World Wa rs lind in many others. as Tim Barringer explain. He seems to have found solace in his religious faith. Stanley This wa no intimate ethnoscape. Union Magasine ( 848). Yet. according to Barringer. the wilderness for Church represented 139 . draws on classical for~s and Chri dan associations. Eden-like future than a record of rhe present rather brutal early wilderness clearance. who. It is a resu rrection of soldiers who pile 11p 0 r hand over the white ro ses that mark [heir graves to a diminurive Chri or.

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