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Learning Strategy A. Definition According to Henry Mintzberg, Strategy is a plan, a "how," a means of getting from here to there.

(Henry Mintzberg, 1994). According to Wikipedia, Strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Thus, Strategy is a term that refers to a complex web of thoughts, ideas, experiences, goals, expertise, and expectations that provides general guidance for specific actions in pursuit of particular ends. Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information (Wikipedia). Learning strategies are strategies which contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and affect learning directly (Rubin, 1987) Language learning strategies are the often-conscious steps or behaviors used by language learners to enhance the acquisition, storage, retention, recall, and use of new information (Rigney, 1978; Oxford, 1990) B. Learning Strategies There are 3 types of learning strategies: a. Cognitive strategies b. Meta cognitive strategies c. Social Strategies C. Factors influencing the learners choice of learning strategies 1. Beliefs about language learning 2. Learners Factors 3. Learners Personal Background 4. Situational and Social Factors

D. Research Finding Cohen & Aphek (1981) investigated seventeen English speaking students (9 beginners, 6 intermidiate and 2 advanced) learning Hebrew over a 100 day period. They concluded that the learners need to use mnemonic association aids vocabulary learning (as learning strategy ) to understand vocabularies needed. Naiman, Frohlich, Stern, and Todesco (1978, 1996), Rubin (1975), and Stern (1975) commenting on good language learners suggested a number of strategies that such students employ, ranging from using an active task approach in and watching ones L2 performance to listening to the radio in the L2 and communicating with native speakers. A study by OMalley and Chamot (1990) also supported this fact that successful L2 learners are aware of the strategies they employ and why they use them. An interesting argument is also raised by Skehan (1989) which suggests that there is always the possibility that the good language learning strategies...are also used by bad language learners, but other reasons cause them to be unsuccessful (p.76). Vann and Abrahams (1990:192) study answered this argument which found that both good and unsuccessful language learners can be active users of similar strategies, though it is important that they also discovered that their unsuccessful learners apparently...lacked...what are often called metacognitive strategies...which would enable them to assess the task and bring to bear the necessary strategies for its completion. E. Summary To sum it up, we try to explain about language learning strategies (LLS). We also try to explain what LLS are and how different learners use them. Finding reserachs presented by some researchers have also been reviewed in order to provide us more understanding about LLS. Based on these finding research Our own teaching experience shows that, using LLS in the L2 class helps learners in their language learning and also teachers to improve their teaching. Group 6 Muzakkir Wamil Hanawati Agustina Bangun Damiati Era Wahyu Ningsih Lina Marlia