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2011

The Morphemic Structure of English Words. The Basic Ways of Word-Formation in Modern English.
Working Definitions of Principal Concepts.
Word-formation, the process of forming new words according to certain patterns specific for the language. Affixation, a type of word-formation where the target word is formed by combining a stem and derivational affixes. Conversion, a type of word-formation by means of which a new word is formed through changes in its paradigm and syntactic functions. Composition, a type of word-formation where the target word is formed by combining two or more stems. Clipping, a type of word-formation, which consists in curtailing off a word to one or two syllables. Abbreviation, a type of word-formation, which consists in forming a word out of the initial elements of a word combination. Morpheme, the smallest language unit in which a given meaning is associated with a given sound pattern. Root, the semantic nucleus of a word. Derivational morpheme, an affixational morpheme which, when added to the stem, modifies the lexical meaning of the root and forms a new word. Prefix, a derivational morpheme standing before the root and modifying its meaning. Suffix, a derivational morpheme, following the stem and forming a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class. Stem, that part of a word, which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm and to which grammatical inflections and affixes are added. Paradigm, the system of grammatical forms characteristic of a word. Allomorph, a positional variant of one and the same morpheme, occurring in a specific environment. Free morpheme, a morpheme that coincides with the stem of a word-form. Bound morpheme, a morpheme that occurs only as a constituent part of a word. Semi-bound (semi-free) morpheme, a morpheme that can function both as a derivational affix and as an independent word. Derivational compounds, words built by a simultaneous application of two wordbuilding means, i. e. composition and suffixation or conversion. Motivated (transparent) compounds, words the meaning of which is understood from the meanings of its components. Idiomatic (non-idiomatic, non-transparent) compounds, words the meaning of which cannot be understood from the meanings of its components. Semi-shortenings, words in which the first component is shortened up to the initial letter, the other component being a full word. Graphical abbreviations, signs or symbols that stand for the full words or combinations of words only in written speech.

Hybrid, words made up of elements derived from different languages.

Questions to be discussed
I. The Morphemic Structure of English Words. 1. Discuss the Notion of a Morpheme. Speak about the Semantic and Structural Classification of Morphemes. 1) Give the definition of a Morpheme. 2) State the difference between a word and a morpheme. 3) What is the semantic classification of morphemes? 4) Give the definition of a root morpheme. 5) What kinds of affixational morphemes do you know? 6) What is the difference between a suffix and a prefix? 7) What is the difference between derivational and inflexional suffixes? 8) What is the difference between a free morpheme and a bound morpheme? 9) What is understood by a semi-bound morpheme? 10) What is understood by combining forms? 11) What is understood by allomorphs? Discuss different concepts of allomorphs. 2. Discuss the Principles of Morphemic and Word-Formation Analysis. 1) What is the purpose of morphemic analysis? 2) What is understood by the terms Immediate Constituents and Ultimate Constituents? 3) Describe the procedure of morphemic analysis. 4) What is the purpose of word-formation analysis? 5) What types of stems do you know? 6) What is a correlation of binary oppositions? 7) Describe the procedure of word-formation analysis. II. Basic Ways of Word-Formation. 1.Affixation. Questions to be discussed. 1. What is affixation? 2. What is the difference between prefixation and suffixation? 3. Into what groups do affixes fall from the point of view of their origin? 4. What are hybrids? 5. According to what other principles can affixes be classified in Modern English? 6. What is understood by the term productivity? What is the difference between productivity and frequency? 7. What is valency?

8. What is peculiar about the meaning of affixes? 9. Discuss the problem of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy of affixes? Recommended Literature 1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986, pp. 87-107 2. Ginzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979, pp.102-103( 10); 106-107(14); 108-114; 114-127 3. .. . . ., 2001, .78-86 Additional Literature
1. Khidekel S.S. and others. Reading in Modern English Lexicology. L., 1969, 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

pp. 122-132; 147-153; 164-168 .. . ., 1984 .. . ., 1977, . 1217, 21-23, 31-37 .. . ., 1965 .. . ., 1976, .29-34. . . . . ., 1956, .102114 Exercises

Ex.1.Point out affixes in the italicized words and state their meaning.
1. I arranged all these papers tidily on my desk, now someone has rearranged 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

them all. She told him she never wanted to see him again. She expected him to react sensibly, but he threw himself on the ground and started crying. He overreacted as usual. I estimated the work would take five minutes, but I underestimated how difficult it would be. Which is worse: pre-holiday tension or post-holiday depression? Is the the indefinite article or the definite article? Make sure the information you give is relevant to the question. Irrelevant information may lose your marks. It took us ever such a long time to wrap your present nicely but youve unwrapped it without even admiring the paper. Youll certainly lose marks in the exams if your handwriting is illegible. And untidy work may also lose marks.

9. The students at the university called for a non-violent demonstration to express

their disapproval of the government's education policy. 10. The children were told not to misbehave but they disobeyed our instructions. 11. Careful? Certainly not, she was really careless! 12. I thought the injection would be painless, but it was extremely painful. 13. He took swimming lessons because he knew that if he fell in the water hed be completely helpless. The swimming teacher was rally helpful. 14. It wasnt very tactful of you to mention her divorce. How could you be so tactless? Read the following passage. What is the grammatical function of suffixes according to Newman? Words in English may be grouped into classes of grammatical types, each defined in terms of its behavior. Suffixation is, of course, the most extensive morphological process in English for converting words from one grammatical class to another. Since a suffix operates in the grammatical system by changing the grammatical classification of a word, a proper grammatical definition should take into account the word class (or classes) to which the suffix is added as well as the word class (or classes) formed by the suffix. Thus, both [l] and [ik] are adjective-forming suffixes; but the former is added to substantives and adjectives, the latter only to substantives. In spite of its practical value for referring to suffixes briefly and intelligibly, the grammatical description does not furnish a precise criterion for identifying a suffix. English has many suffixes fulfilling the same grammatical function: e.g. [-l] and [ik] are analogous in grammatical function, for both are adjectiveforming suffixes added to substantives. Ex. 2. Comment on the meaning and valency of the prefixes and suffixes of the italicized words. Analyze them from the point of view of the part of speech characteristics of the words they form.
1. Hasnt forty years altered the circulation of your friends blood? Not a 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

jot, replied Sir Lawrence. It takes forty generations. Luckily, however, for the poor wretch, he had fallen into more merciful hands. They sat down to the meal: boiled ham, eggs, tea, coffee began to disappear with a rapidity which at once bore testimony to the excellence of the fare and the appetites of its consumers. There are many stories for which we are indebted to the old grannies. She is not only a dancer but also a very effective actress. The pre-war overlords of the Middle East were Britain and France. He realized that he had long known subconsciously that his father was not the clean potato. I bemoaned my desolate widow and fatherless children.

9. She looked at him as uncomprehendingly as a mouse might look at a

gravestone. 10. To dogs his conduct was invariably gentle. 11. As she passed out, a yell resounded among the boys about the door, and she was lifted into a sleigh, insensible from the terror. 12. During January, February and part of March, the deep snowthe impassable roads prevented our stirring beyond the garden walls. 13. Montmorency brought a dead water rat as his contribution to the dinner. 14. It has been raining steadily since the morning. 15. It seemed pointless to go on until they were certain of being on the right road. Ex. 3 Use the words from the right-hand column to form new words to fit in the spaces. State the meaning of the affixes; analyze them from the point of view of their valency and the part of speech characteristics of the words they form. 1. We were late because we _________ how long the bus would take. 2. Many buildings had to be _________ after the earthquake in 1980. 3. I _______ the letter because the first draft was full of mistakes. 4. He arrived late for work because he ________ 5. Dont depend on him; he is a very _________ person. 6. Id lost my key, so I couldnt ________ the door when I got home. 7. Dont be so _________; weve only been waiting a few minutes. 8. Please, dont be so _______ I cant do all the work by myself. 9. Sorry about the mistake. I ___________ the instructions you gave me. 10. An athlete who fails a drug test is sure to be _______ 11. It was very_______ of you to break that coffee cup. 12. Thank you for your postcard; it was very _______ of you to send it. 13. It was rather_______ of him to cry when he did badly in the test. 14. We started our trip on a beautiful_______ morning. 15. A very old car is usually a (n) _______ estimate build write sleep rely lock patient reason understand qualify care thought child sun rely

car.
16. Ill always remember that film. It

forget piano violin inhabit immigrate descend class sharp ride cycle narrate write taste

was_______. 17. Who gave the better performance: the_______ or the_______.


18. Most of the_______ of the USA are

_______ or their_______.
19. Would you _______ this book as a thriller

or science fiction? 20. The knife may need_______ before it is used. 21. Can a horse_______ travel faster than a_______.
22. The voice that tells a story is the

_______, who isnt really the same as the _______. 23. The potatoes were_______ without salt.

Ex. 4 Derive new words from the given stems. Make use of the following affixes. Point out synonymous and homonymous, affixes. 1. a) Un-, in-, il-, ir-, im-, dis-, mis-, unb) able, accurate, action, active, agree, button, comfortable, convenient, credible, direct, equal, experienced, fair, fold, formal, fortunate, hear, justice, just, like, necessary, pack, patient, pleasant, possible, printable, pronounce, sensitive, spell, sufficient, tolerant, usual, valid, valuable, willing 2. a) -er, -or, -ant, -ent, -ist b) account, art, assist, collect, correspond, direct, drive, edit, guitar, inspect, novel, paint, piano, report, science, speak, supervise, violin, visit 3. a) -ful, -(e)ous, -at(ive), -ish b) hate, mouth, delight, wonder, courage, deceit, adventure, danger, advantage, mountain, zeal, quantity, yellow, talk, girl, declare, represent, snake, small, brim, instinct, book, hand, offense, sheep, doubt, excess, tall, small Ex. 5 Discuss the problem of allomorphs. Complete each word with either able or ible. Make any necessary spelling changes.

a) Brendas new book is really remark_______. b) The pie looked very well, but it wasnt very easily digest_______. c) That was a really contempt_______ way of getting the boss on your side! d) I think that anything is prefer_______ to having to tell so many lies. e) I do hope that you find your room comfort_______. f) Why dont you go to the police? Its the sense_______ thing to do. g) John takes good care of the children and is very response_______. h) I find your aunt a very disagree_______ person, Im afraid. Ex. 6. Discuss the problem of polysemy of affixes. 1) Point out the meaning of the suffix -bound in the following sentences. -bound-1) limitation 2) movement in a certain direction 1) No one seemed to have any idea what had happened to the luggage belonging to the four London-bound passengers. 2) Britain is still considered by many to be a class-bound society. 3) Morris Zapp slouched in the seat of the east-bound aircraft. 4) Many young mothers become depressed because they are house-bound. 2) Point out the meaning of the suffix -ful in the following sentences. -ful- 1)quantity 2)quality 1) He drank a mouthful of cold black coffee. 2) My legs and back are stiff but not painful. 3) He is one of the most powerful men in the country. 4) He ate a bowl of natural yoghurt served up with a spoonful of honey. 5) She had a whole houseful of furniture. 6) The park lay quiet and peaceful in the early morning. 7) He had nice sad eyes with beautiful lashes. 8) Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them. 9) Pour a bucketful of cold water on top of the ash. 10) He was full of youthful curiosity and idealism. 11) The apple was tasteful. 3) Distribute the following words into columns in accordance with the meaning of the prefix. a. over-1)redundancy 2)position over-anxious, to overawe, overcharge, to overdo, to overemphasize, overhang, overhead.
b. under 1)insufficiency

2)position 3)location under another object. underclothes, underestimate, undergraduate, underline, undernourish, underpass, underprice, undersize, under-manager. 4) The suffix ship has the following meanings: 1) a certain post, or position, 2) the skills necessary to practise certain activities, 3) a certain type of connections or relations: 4) means of transport. Point out the word in which the meaning of the suffix -ship is different from the one it has in the other words of the set. 1) workmanship, citizenship, musicianship, horsemanship. 2) chairmanship, ambassadorship, partnership, professorship. 3) membership, comradeship, friendship, kinship, relationship. 4) spaceship, steamship, gunship, warship, chancellorship. Read the following passage and discuss the difference in the meaning of un-derivatives and non-derivatives of the same base. As for the semantic function of non-, the definition of it given by the NCD seems quite satisfactory: A prefix in common use in the sense of not-, un-, in-, non- is generally less emphatic than in- or un-, being merely negative, while in- and un- are positive, often implying an opposite thing or quality. Cf. nonreligious, irreligious; nonmoral, immoral; non-Christian, unchristian. In our terms, non- generally expresses contradictory opposition, while in- and un- often express contrary opposition. The fact that most derivatives in non- are not compared and are not modified by very, etc., also supports the interpretation of non- as a contradictory negative. There is a considerable number of cases where the un-derivative of a given base seems to imply the absence of a desirable or expected quality, while the non- derivative of the same base does not have this implication (e.g. unremunerative vs. nonremunerative). And often the contrast between x and non-x lies as it were along a different dimension from that between x and un-x (or in-x). Thus the contrast Christian vs. non-Christian appears to be primarily one between related to, pertaining to, characteristic of certain religious doctrines and not related to, etc., these doctrines, while that between Christian and unchristian rather involves a scale of conformity or opposition to certain norms. Comparable contrasts are quite frequent (cf. non-American vs. un- American, non-grammatical vs. ungrammatical). We might say in general that in such cases non- selects the descriptive aspect of the stem for negation, while un selects the evaluative one. Moreover, the evaluative aspect thus

selected appears to be in general a positive one; in un-Cartesian for instance it would seem that certain praiseworthy features of the meaning of Cartesian are negated, so that un-Cartesian sounds evaluatively negative (as opposed to nonCartesian). The selection of an evaluatively positive sense is of course contingent upon the existence of one; it would be interesting to determine whether un-derivatives of certain terms, which have, for most speakers of English, no such positive aspect available (e.g. fascist, totalitarian) would generally be considered as to some extent peculiar. We might further note in this connection that for terms such as maternal, which have both an evaluative and a descriptive aspect, we have two acceptable derivatives (e.g. to take the stem just cited, unmaternal and nonmaternal), while for related terms with a primarily evaluative and positive aspect such as motherly the underivative is often well-established, while a derivative in non- seems quite odd (cf. unmotherly and nonmotherly). / Karl E. Zimmer. Affixal Negation in English and Other Languages: An Investigation of Restricted Productivity. / Ex. 7. Translate the following words. Discuss the difference in their meaning. 1) uninterested-disinterested 2) sensible-sensitive 3) fruitful-fruity 4) industrial- industrious 5) official-officious 6) ceremonial-ceremonious 7) luxuriant-luxurious 8) imperial-imperious 9) tasteful-tasty 10) virtual-virtuous 11) special-specious 12) discover-uncover 13) disgraceful-ungraceful 14) non-human-inhuman 15) non-moral-immoral 16) non-logical-illogical 17) disarticulate-unarticulate 18) disclaim-unclaim 19) manly-mannish 20) exhaustive- exhausting- exhausted 21) respectful-respectable 22) touchy-touching-touched 23) womanly-womanish

Ex. 7 Translate the following words into English. Compare the Russian and English suffixes. 1) , , , , , , , , , . 2) , , , . 3) , . 4) , , , . 5) , , . Ex. 8 Write out from the book you are reading 25 derivatives. Characterize the affixes they comprise from the point of view of their valency, meaning and the part of speech formed. 2.Conversion. 1. What is conversion? Give the definition to conversion as a way of wordformation. 2. Discuss different points of view on the nature of conversion. 3. What parts of speech can be derived by means of conversion? What features of modern English have produced the high productivity of conversion? 4. What semantic groups of verbs converted from nouns do you know? 5. What semantic groups of nouns converted from verbs do you know? 6. Discuss the criteria of semantic derivation within conversion pairs. Recommended Literature
1. Arnold I.V. The English Word, M., 1986, pp.153-165 2. Ginzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology, M.,

1979, pp.127-140 3. .. . , .,2001, .8694 Additional Literature


1. .. , ., 1956, .71-

100. 2. .. , ., 1976, .120-149. 3. .. , ., 1977, .191280. Exercises

Ex.1. Analyze the following lexical units. Determine the derivational source and the semantic group to which the converted words belong: to blue-pencil, to winter, a buildup, to stone-wall, empties, to weekend, the French, to submarine, to water, to eye, gossip. Ex.2. A. Prove that the following verbs are converted: to fish, to dress, to collar, to face, to pocket, to back, to peel. B. Translate the sentences using these verbs. 1. . 2. . 3. , , . 4. . 5. . 6. , . 7. . Ex.3. Express the following in one word. Translate the derived verbs into Russian. to stir with a spoon, to mark smth. with a brand, to cover smth. with sand to put smb. (smth.) into a cage, to put smth. into a pocket, to put smb. into jail, to put smth. into a bottle to act as a tailor, to act in a manner of a slave, to act as a doctor, to act like a money to cause sorrow, to cause pain, to cause disgust, to make or become steady Ex.4. Translate the following into English by means of one word: , , , , , , , , . Ex.5. Find cases of conversion in the following sentences. Discuss the source and the stylistic value of the derived words. 1) Father Frank came by and told me you were sheltering in the old station. 2) A little shower islanded in misty seas of sunshine. 3) He said he would rent the house. Its a very good let 18 months. 4) Scobie dropped asleep into one of those shallow sleeps. 5) He said they should wireless to the capital for military reinforcements. 6) Have you ever wintered in Rome? 7) Its quite a long walk from the station. 8) The viewer-listener is catapulted in the midst of the events. 9) Theres the Mrs.Rolt who was submarined. 10) You arent down. Nothing will down you.

1) 2) 3) 4)

11) I heard a crack of a branch.

Ex.6. Read the following joke, explain the type of word-formation in the italicized words and say everything you can about the way they were made. A successful old lawyer tells the following story about the beginning of his professional life: I had just installed myself in my office, when, through the glass of my door, I saw a shadow. It was doubtless my first client. Picture me, then, grabbing the shiny receiver of my phone and plunging into an imaginary conversation. It ran something like this: Yes, Mr.Smith I was saying as the stranger entered the office, Ill attend to that corporation matter for you though Im too busy with other cases. But Ill manage to sandwich your case in between the others somehow. Yes. Good bye. Being sure that I had duly impressed my prospective client, I turned to him. Excuse me, sir, the man said, but Im from the telephone company. Ive come to connect your instrument.

3.

Shortening. Questions to be discussed:

1. What is shortening? 2. What types of shortened words do you know? What problems do they present? To what part of speech do they belong? 3. Compare lexical and graphical abbreviations. Characterize graphical abbreviations. 4. What are the peculiarities of initial abbreviations? 5. What types of clippings do you know? What are their peculiarities? 6. What is their reference to style? 7. What is blending? Recommended Literature
1. Arnold I.V. The English Word, M., 1986, pp.134-152

2. .. . , .86-94 Additional Literature

.,2001,

1.Khidekel S.S. and others. Readings in Modern English Lexicology, L., 1969, pp.109-110; 141-144.

2.Ka M.A. . Practical Lexicology, L, 1974, pp.123-126. 3. .. , ., 1976, .155-171. Exercises Ex.1. Pick out shortenings. Comment on their formation. Define their type. 1) I learnt nothing at my prep school. 2) You didnt mean to say that British gent is coming to inspect you? 3) He wrote their language in his memos. 4) Did you say wed got to go to a movie? 5) Ive brought you some black undies. 6) I suppose I shall find the address in the phone book. 7) There were two prams in the hall. 8) I told the old lady not to make any more sandwiches, cos I was off. 9) Put on your specs. 10) Wishing you congrats and all the best from my wife. 11) Is Donald coming in this evening? asked Nan. Hes taking junior prep, said Mor. 12) Oh, Matthew, you promised. I know, sis. But I cant. 13) His father died young of t.b. 14) Put the mac over your head. 15) You know we were going to Spain these hols. 16) I do most of the cooking since my old mas had her op. 17) Tony spoke to the vets wife. 18) Its a little anthology, she told the CID man. 19) On the polished lino the old cleaner sounded like a squadron of aeroplanes. 20) Ill leave you those mags, she said. Ex.2. A. What do the following abbreviations stand for? Wed, LSD, YMCA, VIP, Ph.D., AWOL, RSPCA, GMT, NCO, MIT, UNESCO, HF, H-bomb, b and b, FBI. B. What does the abbreviation stand for in the beginning of the following sentence? Jennifer Kline, 23, a.k.a. Mrs.Amerika... Ex.3. Analyze the following lexical units according to the type of wordformation (abbreviation, clipping):] 1) Comp (accompaniment) 2) Agro (aggression) 3) G-7 (Group of Seven, including GB, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, Italy, Spain) 4) Phone (telephone)

5) CALL (computer-assisted language learning) 6) A-Day (Announcement Day day of announcing war) 7) AIDS (acquired immunity deficiency syndrome) 8) COD (cash on delivery) 9) COBOL (common business-oriented language) 10) Bar-b-Q, barb (barbecue) 11) CAT (computer-assisted training) 12) Algol (algorithmic language) 13) Asasp (as soon as possible) 14) Burger (hamburger) 15) Apex (advanced purchased exursion) 4. Compounding. Questions to be discussed: 1. What is compounding? 2. What is the problem of English compounds? 3. What are the criteria of differentiation between cmpounds and phrases? 4. What are the principles of classification of Modern English compounds? 5. How can the components of English compounds be joined together? 6. How can the connecting elements be represented? 7. Characterize English compounds from the point of view of their morphemic structure. 8. What can you say about the meaning of compound words? 9. What is peculiar about English compound verbs? 10.What is the difference between endocentric and exocentric compounds? 11. Discuss the difference between compound words proper and derivational compounds. 12.Characterize reduplicative compounds. Recommended Literature
1. Arnold I.V. The English Word, M., 1986, pp.108-133 2. Ginzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology,

M., 1979, pp.140-159 3. .. . , .,2001, .104-114 Additional Literature 1. Khidekel S.S. and others. Readings in Modern English Lexicology, L., 1969, pp.91-97; 117-122.

2. .. , ., 1976, .172-241. 3. .. , ., 1985 4. .. , ., 1986 5. .. , ., 1956, .114137. Exercises The stems of compounds may be joined: a) without any linking element; b) with a linking element: vowels o or i or the consonant s; c) with form-word stems: and, for, or and the like. Ex.1. Define the way the stems are joined together in the following compound words: handicraft, Anglo-American, mainland, townsfolk, salesman, backbone, hangman, Anglo-Saxon, letterbox, batsman, bridesmaid, get-at-able, stayat-home, mother-of-thousands, mother-in-law, up-to-date, workday. There two semantic types of compound words: idiomatic and non-idiomatic. Ex.2. Pick out idiomatic compounds. Translate them into Russian: bluebell, undertaker, dragon-fly, sea-coast, fountain-pen, red-hot, heartbroken, butter-fingers, wolf-dog, sunfish, school-building, lady-bird, ladyin-waiting, gaslight, passer-by, workday, downfall, armchair. According to their structure compounds are subdivided into: a) compound words proper built by composition; b) derivational compounds built by composition and suffixation. Ex., honeymooner honeymoon + er (honey + moon) + er; c) derivational compounds built by composition and conversion. Ex., to daydream day-dream day +dream; d) compounds built by composition and backderivation. Ex., to fingerprint fingerprinting (finger + print) +ing Ex.3. Point out compound words. Sort them into: a) compound words proper and b) derivational compounds Sort the latter into: a) cases of back formation; b) cases of conversion; c) cases of suffixation.

1) When Isabel entered the drawing-room, she found that some people had

dropped in to tea. 2) He was short and fat and very neat, being dressed generally in pepperand-salt trousers. 3) For some reason, when I was satisfied that the blue exercise book was not in my room, I felt light-headed. 4) I suppose theyre good old stick-in-the-muds. 5) Becker was a heavy grey-haired man in his late forties. 6) And then shell spring-clean the house, said Mrs. Hecoomb. 7) A little brown-haired girl came in at the door. 8) The noise was coming through the load-speaker on the wall. 9) You shouldnt say such things in front of the child, George, shell get swollen-headed. 10) Mrs. Bradly, raising her eyebrows, gave him a look which he was too quick-witted not to understand. 11) He was a level-headed sort of fellow. 12) Arent we baby-sitting? Susan asked. 13) The most important thing was to build two small houses and to whitewash the walls. 14) He dealt not with that section of the buying public who sleep-walked their way into the shops as willing victims. 15) Moore tip-toed round the table and touched the jar. 16) He reached the summit of the bridge and began to freewheel down the other side. 17) I can lip-read. 18) During the holidays he was a tireless cinema-goer. According to the semantic relations between the components compounds are subdivided into: a) endocentric, having the semantic centre within the compound; b) exocentric, having no semantic centre. Ex.4. A. Point out compound words. Classify them into endocentric (which have the semantic centre within the compound) and exocentric (having no semantic centre). 1) Despite police attacks with tear-gas and chemicals they marched through the streets of the capital. 2) The sun came out, a spring sun; not yet too warm in the springtime park. 3) He dipped a test-tube into a jam-jar full of water, and then looked round the room. 4) Fanny always feared bluestockings. 5) But his backbench critics remained worried and unconvinced.

6) It was reported that all the blackguards had been engaged by the

new district agent. 7) Then I asked him some questions, which he took to be a form of blackmail. 8) The smoking-room was large and furnished with modern leather arm-chairs. 9) After their visit to Paris they could go to some watering-place. B. Set off endocentric and exocentric compounds: catchfly, eyelash, flowerbed, kill-time, killjoy, killdevil, makepeace, makebelieve, peacetime, pickpocket, peacemaker, radio-locator, sandwichboard, thunder-storm, toothache, turnkey, turnscrew, wage freeze, waistcoat, makeshift, picktooth. Ex.5. Translate the following into English. Compare the structure of the English and Russian words. Classify the English compounds. 1. , , , , , (), , . 2. , , , , , , , . 3. , , , , , , , , , . Ex.6. Analyze the following compounds. forget-me-not, son-in-law, good-for-nothing, to baby-sit, fair-haired, notebook, blood-thirsty, to front-page, Anglo-Russian, bread-and-butter, counterclockwise, airbus, cease-fire, well-dressed, tip-top, theatre-goer, threecornered, throw-away, sportsman.

Word Meaning

Polysemy

Context

Working Definitions of Principal Concepts.


Semasiology, the branch of linguistics, which studies the meaning of linguistic units. Meaning, the reflection in the human mind of an object (a phenomenon, a relationship, a quality, a process) of extralinguistic reality which becomes a fact of language because of its constant association with a definite linguistic expression. Grammatical Meaning, the meaning of the formal membership of the word, the indication on certain grammatical categories expressed by the words form. Lexical Meaning, the realization of a concept or emotion by means of a definite language system. Denotation, the expression of the notional content of a word. Connotation, supplementary semantic and/or stylistic shade added to the words denotational meaning, which serves to express emotional, expressive, evaluative overtones. Polysemy, the existence within one word of several connected meanings as a result of the development and changes of its original meaning. Main nominative meaning, the meaning immediately referring to objects, phenomena, actions and qualities in extralinguistic reality and reflecting their general understanding by the speaker. Nominative-derivative meanings, other meanings in a polysemantic word connected with the main nominative meaning. Context, a combination of an indicator or indicating minimum and the dependant, the word, the meaning of which is to be expressed by the utterance. Lexical context, the indication comes from the lexical meaning of the indicator. Syntactical context, the indication comes from the peculiarity of syntactical structure. Mixed context, the indication comes both from the lexical meaning of the indicator and from the peculiarity of syntactical structure. Text situation, the indication comes not from within the sentence but from a preceding description or a description that follows. Life situation, the indication comes from a real extra-linguistic situation. Questions to be discussed
1. Read the following extract form F.R. Palmers book Semanties and discuss

the two approaches to the study of meaning. Mark the main points of each of them. Speak about the difference between meanings and concept. Concepts. The view we have just been criticizing relates words and things directly. A more sophisticated and, at first sight, more plausible view is one that relates them through the mediation of concepts of the mind. This view in all its essentials has been held by some philosophers and linguists from ancient times

right up to the present day. Two of the best-known versions are the sign theory of de Saussure and the semiotic triangle of Ogden and Richards. According to de Saussure, as we have seen, the linguistic sign consists of a signifier and a signified; these are, however, more strictly a sound image and a concept, both linked by a psychological associative bond. Both the noise we make, that is to say, and the objects of the world that we talk about are mirrored in some way by conceptual entities. Ogden and Richards saw the relationship as a triangle. Thought or Reference

Symbol

Referentce

The symbol is, of course, the linguistic element the word, sentence, etc., and the referent the object, etc., in the world of experience, while thought of reference is a concept. According to the theory there is no direct link between symbol and referent (between language and the world) the link is via thought or reference, the concepts of our minds. This theory avoids many of the problems of naming- the classifications, for instance, need not be natural or universal, but merely conceptual. But it also raises a completely new problem of its own. For what precisely is the associative bond of de Saussure or the link between Ogden and Richards symbol and concept? The most nave answer to the question is to say that it is a psychological one, that when we think of a name we think of the concept and vice versa, i.e. that meaning consists of our ability (and indeed our practice) of associating one with the other, of remembering that chair refers to the concept chair. This view is totally unsatisfactory. It is not clear what exactly is meant by thinking of a concept. Some scholars have actually suggested that we have some kind image of a chair when we talk about chairs. But this is certainly false. I can visualize a chair in my minds eye, but I do not do so every time I utter the word chair. If this were a necessary part of talking, it would be impossible to give a lecture on linguistics. For precisely what would I visualize? The problem is, of course, that of names and things all over again. More reasonably, perhaps, what is meant is that I relate my utterance of the word chair to some more abstract concept. But that will not help either. For what is this abstract concept what colour is this chair, what size or shape? In any case we ought not to be interested in what

happens on each occasion, but with the more general question of the meaning of chair. As a phonetician, I should not be interested in the precise articulation of chair except as material for many more general statements of phonetics and phonology. Similarly, as a semanticist, I want to know about the general meaning of chair, not what I may or may not do every time I utter the word. As we said earlier, we are not concerned with utterance meaning. A more sophisticated version sees the link not as something we make every time we use a word, but as some kind of permanent association stored in the mind or in the brain. The difficulty with this view is that it really says nothing at all. For how can we, even in principle, establish what the concepts are? There is no obvious way in which we can look into our minds to recognize them, and still less a way in which we can look into the minds of others. In effect all this theory is doing is to set up, in some inaccessible place, entities that are BY DEFINITION mirror images of the words that they are supposed to explain. Wherever we have a word there will be a concept and the concept will be the meaning of that word. This is obviously, a completely circular definition of meaning. It involves what is sometimes called a ghost-in-the-machine argument. We wish to account for working of a machine and present a total explanation in mechanical terms, but for some hypothetical person this is not enough he cannot understand how this machine could work unless there is some kind of disembodied ghost or spirit inside it. Such an argument accounts for the phenomena by setting up an entity whose existence is justified solely as something that explains the phenomena. Science has had many examples of this kind in its long history. Once scholars explained fire by positing the existence of the substance phlogiston. We can only point out that they explain nothing at all, and that, therefore, nothing is gained by arguing for them. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to point out that, as with naming, the sentence is no more satisfactorily defined in terms of concepts than the word. Neither the native or the more sophisticated version of the theory is at all helpful. Certainly when I say There is a horse on the lawn there is no reason to suggest that I actually think of the concept, while a definition in terms of more abstract, timeless concepts is once again to say nothing at all but merely to interpret meaning by its mirrorimage, postulated in an inaccessible place. Sadly, there are many linguists today who accept in whole or in part a conceptual view of meaning. This has stemmed from a new mentalism associated with N. Chomsky and his followers who have, in particular, insisted that intuition and introspection must play a large part in our investigation of language. It is a short and perhaps inevitable step to see meanings in terms of the mental entities called concepts. But this must be rejected for three reasons. First, the ghost-in-themachine objection is overwhelming - nothing is said by moving meaning back one step to the brain or the mind. Secondly, even if there were concepts in the mind they are in principle inaccessible to anyone but the individual and we are left therefore with totally subjective views, since I can never know what your meanings are. (Of course, if we had the knowledge to investigate the brain scientifically and could account fully for language in the structure of brain cells,

both of these objections might be, thereby, overcome, but we are centuries away from such knowledge.) Thirdly, the arguments about intuition and introspection are irrelevant. We CAN introspect and ask ourselves questions about our language without actually waiting for empirical data, actual recording or texts. But in so doing we do not learn more about our language or its structure; we merely produce for ourselves some more examples of our language. As J.R. Firth said, we go fishing in our own tank. What we do NOT do by this process is establish the phonological or grammatical rules or structures; this comes from the investigation and comparison of a great deal of data (even if that data is all introspective). The same must be true of semantics and it follows that we should not believe that there are concepts that can merely be discovered if we look in the right place. It is perhaps worth considering that if scientists had continued to rely on reason (i.e. to look for answers to their problems within themselves and their own rational processes) rather than observation, we should still be searching for the philosophers stone to turn lead into gold, rather than be on the edge of succeeding through nuclear physics. Finally, in this section it is worth nothing that to some extent DUALISM, the view of language described here and in the previous section that sees meaning as part of the signified / signifier relation, is encouraged by the term meaning itself and by the statement that words (and sentences) HAVE meaning. For if this is so it is obviously legitimate to ask what kind of entity meaning is, and to look for it either in the world or in peoples minds. But to say that a word has meaning is not like saying that people have legs or that trees have leaves. We are easily misled by the verb have and the fact that meaning is a noun into looking for something that IS meaning. In practice we all know what it is for a word to have meaning. Knowing the meaning of a word means that we can do a number of things we can use it properly, we can explain it to the others in terms of paraphrases or synonyms. But it does not follow from that there is an entity that IS meaning or a whole group of entities that ARE the meaning of words. For a word to mean something is similar in some way to a notion that a signpost points somewhere; we can understand the meaning of a word just as we can read the signpost. But it does not make sense to ask what it is that words mean any more than ask what it is that signposts point to. It is not sense, that is to say, to ask IN GENERAL what words mean or signposts point to. It is sense only to ask What does THIS word mean?, What does This signpost point to? The problem of semantics is not, then, nor can it be, the search for an elusive entity called meaning. It is rather an attempt to understand how it is that words and sentences can mean at all, or better perhaps, how they can be meaningful. If we are talking of having meaning, it is rather like talking about having length. Having length is being so many feet or inches long; length is not something over and above this. Similarly, meaning is not some entity that words or any other linguistic entities have, in any literal sense of having. Wittgenstein said, Dont look for the meaning of a word, look for its use. This is not a very helpful remark since we are perhaps not much clearer about the

use of a word than we are about its meaning. But it has some value; and we are less likely to think of use as something that words have in any literal sense, and less likely to waste our time in an attempt to discover precisely what it is. 2. What is motivation of word-meaning? 3. What types of semantic components can be distinguished within the meaning of a word? What is the difference between a word? What is a difference between lexical meaning and grammatical meaning; between denotational and connotational meaning? Read the following extract and discuss the problem of polysemy. Polysemy. This name is given, since Breal, to the use of the same word in two or more distinct meanings. Polysemy is in all probability a semantic universal inherent in the fundamental structure of language. The alternative to it is quite unthinkable: it would mean that we would have to store in our brains a tremendous stock of words, with separate names for any possible subject we might wish to talk about; it would also mean that there would be no metaphors and that language would thus be robbed of much of its expressiveness and flexibility. As a philosopher, W.M. Urban, rightly points out, this double reference of verbal signs is a basal differentia of semantic meaning. The fact that a sign can intend one thing without ceasing to intend another, that, indeed, the very condition of its being an expressive sign for the second is that it is also a sign for the first, is precisely what makes language an instrument of knowing. The frequency of polysemy in different languages is a variable depending on a number of factors. The progress of civilization will make it necessary not only to form new words but to add fresh meanings to old ones; in Breals formula, the more senses a term has accumulated, the more diverse aspects of intellectual and social activity it represents. It would be interesting to explore over a wider field the relation between polysemy and cultural progress. Meanwhile, the frequency of polysemy will also depend on purely linguistic factors. As already noted, languages where derivation and composition are sparingly used will tend to fill gaps in vocabulary by adding new meanings to existing terms. Similarly, polysemy will arise more often in generic words whose meaning varies according to context, than in specific terms whose sense is less subject to variation. The relative frequency of polysemy in various languages may thus provide a further criterion for semantic typology, though once again it is hard to see how this feature could be exactly measured. There is, however, another aspect of polysemy which can be more precisely quantified: its relation to word-frequency. By systematically comparing the relative frequency of various words with the number of senses in which they are used, the late G.K. Zipf arrived at an interesting conclusion which he termed the principle of diversity of meaning. According to Zipf, there is a direct relationship between the number of different meanings of a word and its relative frequency of occurrences. He even tried to find a mathematical formula for this

relationship: his calculations suggested that different meanings of a word will tend to be equal to the square root of its relative frequency (with the possible exception of the few dozen most frequent words). In fact it has always been clear that some of the commonest words in a language have a great diversity of meanings: in Littrs dictionary, nearly 40 are listed under aller, nearly 50 under mettre, and some 80 under prendre and faire. Polysemy is a fertile source of ambiguity in language. In a limited number of cases, two major meanings of the same word are differentiated by formal means; for example, [] flection (brother brothers, hanged hung []); word-order (ambassador extraordinary extraordinary ambassador []); spelling (discreet discrete, draft -draught []); etc. In the vast majority of cases, however, the context alone will suffice to exclude all irrelevant senses. When all these safeguards break down, a conflict between two or more incompatible meanings will ensue, and this may lead to the disappearance of some of these meanings, or even to that of the word itself. In the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to say whether there are any general tendencies at work in these conflicts and in the way they are resolved. [St. Ullmann. Semantic Universals] Define polysemy as a linguistic phenomenon. a) In what way can it be defined synchronically and diachronically? b) What is a monosemantic word? c) What factors account for highly developed polysemy in the English language? d) Discuss the interrelation of polysemy and frequency value of the word. e) How are the lexical meanings of polysemantic words established? f) Explain the difference between the two processes of the semantic development of a word-radiation and concatenation. Illustrate your answer with your own examples.
4. Discuss acad. V.V. Vinogradovs theory of the main types of lexical meanings.

Speak about the main and secondary meanings. Explain the difference between free and bound lexical meanings, between phraseologically and syntactically bound meanings. Read the following passages and discuss the notion of context. I In view of the fact that people are expected to speak about a staggering variety of experiences with only a limited number of words or semantic units (perhaps 25.000 to 50.000 for the average person) it would seem that language would be incredibly ambiguous and obscure. Nevertheless, people do succeed quite well in

using this very limited inventory of words to identify, describe, and talk about literally millions of elements in their world, as well as many concepts, ideas, and beliefs which seem to bear no resemblance to anything earthly. The mechanism by which this is accomplished is one of the really remarkable features of language. In most studies of semantics, or the science of meaning, the emphasis is upon the relative ambivalence of terms, i.e., their capacity to have many different meanings. For example, words such as red, chair and man are discussed in terms of the great variety of possibilities. While this is undoubtedly quite true, the real point of all this is that in the actual usage of language there is no such prevailing ambivalence. In fact, in most instances the surrounding context points out quite clearly which of these basic meanings of a word is intended. And it is perhaps from this standpoint that we can best understand the true nature of the semantic structure of language. But when we speak about contextual specification of the meanings of word, we are not talking in vague, nebulous terms. Rather, the linguistic context in the sense in which it is referred to here has two very definite aspects: (1) In many cases, the particular meaning of a word that is intended is clearly specified by the grammatical constructions in which it occurs; this is what we will refer to as syntactic marking. (2) In other cases, the specific meaning of a word that is intended is marked by the interaction of that term with the meanings of other terms in its environment. That is, the fact that term A is found in the context of term B means that only sense x of term A will fit. This conditioning by the meanings of surrounding terms we will call semotactic marking In many instances the meaning of terms is clearly indicated by the syntactic constructions in which they occur. Compare, for example, the following sets: A B 1. He picked up a stone. 1. They will stone him. 2. He saw a cloud. 2. The quarrel will cloud the issue. 3. She has a beautiful face. 3. He will face the audience. 4. He fell in the water. 4. Please water the garden. The distinct meaning of the terms stone, cloud, face, and water are very clearly marked by the occurrence of these terms in quite different construction, i.e., as nouns in contrast with verbs. In this sense the grammar itself points to the correct intended meaning Another frequently occurring grammatical marker of meaning is the intransitivetransitive contrast: he ran vs. she ran him. Certainly run as an intransitive verb has quite different meanings from those situations in which it occurs as transitive. As can be seen from the above examples, the syntactic classes which help in the selection of specific meanings of words are determined by grammatical functions. These syntactic classes, such as verb, noun, and adjective, animate or inanimate, transitive or intransitive, etc., are generally large, comprehensive, and clearly contrastive; they are often formally marked, as, for example, by the presence of certain endings, typical of such a grammatical class of words.

In addition to the syntactic marking which has been described above, in many instances the semantic environment of words is also essential to differentiate meanings. Here we are dealing not with functional grammatical classes but with categories of meanings which can be said to be compatible, and which mutually select or eliminate each other. Here, because we are dealing with semantics, which is far more complex than grammar, the semotactic classes are very numerous, often quite small and even arbitrary, often overlap in multidimensional ways, and are seldom formally marked. A good number of them are highly specific. But, as we shall see, it is possible at least in part to describe the components of meaning that are involved in particular selections of meanings. As a matter of fact, quite often the syntactic and the semotactic marking interact to pinpoint specific meanings. But they remain in essence quite distinct. This distinction between syntactic and semotactic functions will become more evident as special examples and problems are studied. Compare, for example, the following sentences: 4. He cut his hand. 5. He cut off a hand of bananas. 6. Hand me the book. Sentence 3 is clearly distinguished from the other two by syntactic marking, in that hand is used as a verb (as seen from the presence of the indirect and direct object), whereas the other two are both nouns. What differentiates these two? In sentence 1, the presence of his makes it quite clear, in the absence of any contradictory features in the environment, that we should understand the commonest sense of hand as a part of the body at the end of the arm. However, of bananas quite specifically marks the area or domain in which hand is being used: it is the quite specific one relating to bananas, in which hand means a number of bananas in a single or double row and still fastened to each other at the base. (Eugene A. Nida and Charles R. Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation) II

Stephen Ullmann The Word as a Unit of Meaning. The Role of Context.


When I use a word, said Humpty Dumpty, it means just what I choose it to mean neither more nor less. Some linguists, in their eagerness to underline the importance of context and to demolish the belief that there is a proper meaning inherent in each word, go almost as far as Humpty in their dogmatic utterances. Statements like le mot nest que par le contexte et nest rien par lui-mme which are frequently heard nowadays, are neither accurate nor realistic. While it is perfectly true, and even a truism, that words are almost always found embedded in specific contexts, there are cases when a term stands entirely by itself, without any contextual support and will make sense. A one-word title such as Tolstoys Resurrection, Ibsens Ghost or Jane Austens Persuasion can be heavily charged with meaning and even such elliptical titles as Kiplings If and Henry Greens Nothing will conjure up some

sort of idea. In everyday life one is often asked: What does word so-and-so mean? or How would you say word so-and-so in French?, and in some cases it is difficult or even impossible to answer, in others one can do so without a moments hesitation; no one knowing French would have any difficulty in giving the equivalent of an adjective like yellow, a verb like write, a concrete noun like pencil, or an abstract noun like equality. If words had no meaning outside contexts it would be impossible to compile a dictionary. There is no getting away from the fact, writes an eminent semanticist, that single words have more or less permanent meanings, that they actually do refer to certain referents, and not to others, and that this characteristic is the indispensable basis of all communications. This is only common sense, and it has recently been confirmed by experimental data. A series of tests designed to study the influence of context has shown that there is usually in each word a hard core of meaning which is relatively stable and can only be modified by the context within certain limits. At the same time no one would deny the crucial importance of context in the determination of word-meanings. As far as the role of verbal context is concerned, this was already recognized as fundamental by some of the pioneers of modern semantics. Modern linguists, however, have not only placed greater emphasis on context but have considerably broadened its scope and have also probed more deeply into its influence on word-meanings. The range of the term context has been widened in several directions. Even the strictly verbal context is no longer restricted to what immediately precedes and follows, but may cover the whole passage, and sometimes the whole book, in which the word occurs. This tendency is particularly noticeable in stylistic criticism where it has often been found that the complete significance of an important term can be grasped only in the light of the work as a whole. [] In addition to the verbal context, the linguists must also pay attention to the socalled context of situation [] It means in the first place the actual situation in which the utterance occurs, but leads on to an even broader view of context embracing the entire cultural background against which a speech-event has to be set. The conception of context, writes Malinovski, must burst the bonds of mere linguistics and be carried over into the analysis of the general conditions different from our own and possess a different culture, must be carried out in conjunction with the study of their culture and their environment. This widening of contexts, linguistic and non-linguistic, has opened new horizons for the study of meaning. [] [] Broadly speaking there are two kinds of contextual influences: those which affect any word, and those which affect some words more than others. Every word, no matter how precise and unambiguous, will drive from the context a certain determinateness which, by the very nature of things, can arise only in specific utterances. Even proper names, the most concrete of all words, have a variety of aspects only one of which will be relevant to a particular situation; only the context will show whether when speaking of Queen Victoria, we are referring to the young Queen advised by lord Melbourne, to the aged monarch reigning at the time of the Boer War, or to any other stage in the 82years of her life. Another factor which

depends largely on the context is the emotive side of word-meaning. In principle, practically any term may acquire emotive overtones in a suitable context; conversely, even words with a strong emotional charge may on occasion be employed in a purely objective manner. Home, for example, is one of the great emotional words of the language, and is used that way in many contexts (Home, sweet home; England, home and beauty; Home is the sailor, home from the sea, etc.), but it is stripped of all emotion in Home Office or B.B.C. Home Service. Apart from this general influence, context may also play a vital part in fixing the meaning of words which are too vague or too ambiguous to make sense by themselves. To take an extreme case, the verb do has such a wide variety of uses that it is virtually meaningless in itself. It is interesting to note, however, that in less advanced cases of ambiguity there is sometimes a kind of hierarchy between the various meanings, which is largely independent of context. Recent experiments have shown, for example, that when German speakers were asked to make up a sentence containing the word Nagel, all the subjects automatically took it in the sense of metal nail; apparently it didnt even occur to them that it also means finger-nail, toe-nail. Another type of ambiguity which only the context will dispel is found in words belonging to more than one word-class. This is particularly common in English where words can pass freely by a process known as conversion from one class to another. [] Here too there is no doubt a hierarchy of functions: fire is primarily a noun, though it can be used as a verb; have is first and foremost a verb though it becomes a noun in the haves and the have-nots The role of context is even more essential in the case of homonyms. It would obviously be meaningless to ask someone to find the equivalent of the English sole in a foreign language; one would first have to specify which of the three soles is meant the adjective, the fish, or the bottom of the foot - not to mention soul which, though spelt differently, is pronounced in the same way. The Shakespearean pun: Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew, Thou makst thy knife keen. The Merchant of Venice, Act 4, scene 1, is based on this ambiguity. [] Speak about prof. N.N. Amosovas theory of context.
a) b)

c)

What is understood by the term context? Why is context essential in case of polysemy? What kinds of context are discussed by prof. N.N. Amosova? Explain the difference between lexical and syntactical context. What is understood by the terms text situation and life situation? Recommended Literature

1) Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986, pp.37-60 2) Linzburg R.S. and others. A course in Modern English Lexicology. M.,

1979, pp.13-23; 25-29; 33-39; 47-51 3) .. . . ., 2001, .129-142 4) .. . Readings in Modern English Lexicology. L., 1969,pp. 9-22; 26-29; 35-38; 39-41;52-55; 69-73 Additional Literature
1) .. . ., 1987 2) ..

.- .: .., 1976, . 94-122 3) .. . .: . ., 1977, . 162- 192 4) . . ., 1978 5) .. . ., 1974. 6) .. . ., 1983. 7) .. . ., 1997. 8) .. . ., 1986. 9) .. . .,1973. 10) Palmer F.R. Semantics. M., 1982.

Exercises
Ex.1 What kind of meaning do the following words have in common and in which do they differ? 1. epidemiologists, flutes, outposts, pencils 2. to pile, piles, piled, piling 3. to kill to fag (military sl.), enemy foe (poet) 4. a) risqu (fr.), to environ, epicedian, ephetae b) pightle, picker, swig, high-binder Ex.2 Identify the denotational and connotational elements of the meanings in the following pairs of words. head napper tailor cabbage detective nark impudence sauce

Ex.3 Characterize the meaning of the following words from the point of view of motivation. worker, newspaper, nightly, snowdrop, skilful, appetite (; ), ears ( ), leg (; ), coral ( ), brain (), buzz, bang, clatter, to ding. Ex.4. Analyze the words used in their metaphorical meaning. Compare the direct and the figurative meanings of these words with their Russian counterparts. Shes a fiery political figure. After his marriage he became a beast. He showered me with presents. The best British music isnt necessarily made by aping the latest trends from across the Atlantic. 5. The whole world will be watching, anxious for all the juicy details. 6. She kept grilling me about what my connection was with the department. 7. Her face suddenly clouded with disappointment and she turned away. 8. Doing things together cements friendship. 9. Ill stay with the poor little lamb as long as he needs me. 10. He fished some coins out of his pocket. 11. Seeing him on stage fired my enthusiasm. 12. She just froze when she saw her ex-boyfriend. 13. It was warm, but not hot yesterday. She always gave me a warm welcome.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Ex.5. Translate the following word-groups, containing the Russian words and . Give English equivalents of these Russian adjectives. Analyze the meaning of the English words as direct and figurative.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Does the word job coincide with the word ? Adduce example illustrating their use in speech.

Ex.6 Say how the meanings of the same word are associated one with another. Define the type of context which helps you to understand the meaning.

1.

2. 3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

a) I began to search the flat, looking in drawers and boxes to see if I could find a key. b) Someone with a positive manner, perhaps a detective, used the expression madman as he bent over Welsons body that afternoon, and the authority of his voice set the key for the newspaper report next morning. a) Her mouth opened crookedly half an inch, and she shot a few words like pebbles. b) Would you like me to come to the mouth of the river with you? a) I sat for a few minutes with my head in my hands, until I heard the phone taken up inside and the butlers voice calling a taxi. b) The minute hand of the electric clock jumped on to figure 12, and, simultaneously, the steeple of St.Marys began its feeble imitation of Big Ben. a) My head felt as if it were on a string and someone were trying to pull it. b) He was a bull of a man who possessed more power than many heads of the state. a) He loved to kneel down on the cold marble pavement, and watch the priest. b) Its the cold heartlessness of the thing that shocks me. a) If Ronald had moved to Regent Gate, his former address was hardly needed. b) His meeting with Adrian had strangely moved him. a) Mary Ann made pastry that melted in the mouth. b) My heart melted as I sorted him out. a) The child remained ill for 10 days. b) He confirmed his ill opinion of the man.

Ex.7. Group together the pairs of words which represent the same meaning of the headword. Smart a smart garden, a smart repartee, smart clothes, a smart answer, a smart officer, a smart blow, a smart house. Stubborn a stubborn horse, a stubborn child, a stubborn cough, a stubborn fighting, a stubborn look, stubborn resistance. Sound sound views, sound lungs, sound criticism, a sound ship, a sound advice, a sound scholar, a sound whipping, a sound tennis-player. Root cube root, edible roots, the root of the matter, square root, the root of the tooth, the root of all evil. Perform to perform an operation, to perform a dance, to perform ones duty, to perform a play. Kick to kick the ball, to kick off ones slippers, to kick the dog, to kick smb down stairs. Ex.8. Discuss the semantic structure of the adjective cold and the noun cold.

Ex.9. Choose the word or phrase which best completes the sentence. Define the type of context.
1. Well have to wait and see if there is a after this temporary

peace agreement. a) backhand b) backlash c) backdrop


2. The bottom end of our garden is a real a) eye-sore b) eye-strain c) eye-catcher 3. What happened in 1989 was a in European political history.

a) watershed b)borderline c) waterfall 4. I could have been one of the of the game of golf. a) monsters b) mountains c) giants 5. Dont you think the British sometimes have a rather sense of humor? a) creased b)warped c) chipped 6. Mums good to us; she is an absolute a) fairy b) angel c) nurse
7. There should be a of protest if they showed the victims on

TV. a) sea b) stream c) storm 8. The bride suddenly turned on her heels and out of the church. a) soared b) accelerated c) flew 9. My brothers been a of strength through all the problems Ive had. a) tower b) heap c) mountain 10. The poor was absolutely when she left. a) level-headed b) short-sighted c) broken-hearted 11. The boy in the flat above ours is becoming a real for his parents. a) backache b) toothache c) headache Ex.10. Explain the basis for the following jokes.
1.

Booking Clerk. (at a small village station): Youll have to change twice before you get to York. Villager: (unused to

2.

3. 4.

travelling): Goodness me! And Ive only brought the clothes Im wearing. The weather forecaster hadnt been right in 3 months, and his resignation caused little surprise. His abili, however, pleased the city council. I cant stand this town any longer, read his note. This climate doesnt agree with me. Caller: I wonder, if I can see your mother, little boy. Is she engaged? Willie: Engaged? She is married. Professor: You missed my class yesterday, didnt you? Unsubdued student: Not in the least, not in the least.

Semantic Changes Working Definitions of Principal Concepts

Generalization of meaning, the application of a word to a wider variety of referents as the scope of the new notion as wider than that of the original one, whereas the content of the notion is poorer. Restriction of meaning, passing from general usage into some special sphere of communication when a word comes to render a notion of a narrower scope and to name fewer objects whereas the content of the notion becomes enriched. Elevation (Amelioration) of meaning, the improvement of the connotational component of meaning when it acquires positive evaluative connotations. Degradation (pejoration) of meaning, a transfer of the meaning when it becomes worse, the development by the word of some negative derogatory emotive charge, negative evaluative connotations. Metaphor, a transfer of name on the basis of similarity, comparison. A new meaning appears as a result of associating two referents (objects, phenomena, qualities, etc), one of which resembles the other. Metonymy, a shift of names between things and phenomena connected in reality, a semantic process based on contiguity.

Questions to be discussed.
1. What are the causes of semantic changes? Give examples. 2. What is understood by extra-linguistic causes of semantic changes? When discussing the problem (A) read the following passage and give other examples to illustrate the point. Most changes take place because society changes either in its attitude to life o in its formal institutions. Parliament does not mean for us what it meant in the Middle Ages, because the institution which is the referent of the word has changed radically. Hamlet, talking about actors, refers to the humorous men not the comedian, but the emotional actor: the old theory of humours (the primary fluids of the body which, according to the proportions of their mixture, determent a mans temperament) has long gone, but left this word behind to take on a different meaning. It is not long since atom meant what it meant to the Greeks what could not further be divided. The word can no longer mean that, but we retain it. Inertia, conservatism will ensure that a word remains in the vocabulary, but change of meaning will be enforced by the non-conservative elements in man himself. (Anthony Burgess. Words) (B) Read and tell the following passage in your own words. each successive generation behaves linguistically in a slightly different manner from its predecessors. In his teens the young man is impatient of what he considers to

be the unduly stilted vocabulary and pronunciation of his elders and he likes to show how up to date he is by the use of the latest slang, but as years go by some of his slang becomes standard usage and in any case he slowly grows less receptive to linguistic novelties, so that by the time he reaches his forties he will probably be lamenting the slipshod speech of the younger generation, quite unaware that some of the expressions and pronunciations now being used in all seriousness in pulpit and law-court were frowned upon by his own parents. In this respect language is a little like fashions in mens dress. The informal clothes of the one generation become the every day wear of the next, and just as young doctors and bank clerks nowadays go about their business in sport-jackets, so they allow into their normal vocabulary various expressions which were once confined to slang and familiar conversation. But quite apart from additions to the language which result to the admittance into good usage of what was once slang? It is evident that numberless new words and expressions are required in order to deal with the great and ever-increasing complexity of modern life, encompassed as it is by the rapidly changing social and technical conditions of our time. Inventions and discoveries in the scientific domain create whole vocabularies of their own, and inevitably certain expressions taken from such sources find their way into current speech Language faithfully reflects the spirit of the age, so that words of long standing can readily modify their meaning in accordance with the latest outlook of a given society. It is evident that music has a wider connotation today than in the eighteenth century, or even than a generation ago, for we now include within the scope of this same word a number of phenomena which would not formerly have been considered as coming into the musical sphere at all, ranging from concrete music to the use of twelve-ton scale. Similarly in 1945 the unleashing of nuclear weapons against the Japanese caused the harmless little word atom to take upon itself quite literally from one moment to the next, as far as world opinion was concerned terrifying implications of endless destruction (Brian Foster. The Changing English Language, pp. 10-11) 3. Speak about linguistic causes of semantic changes. 4. What are the two most frequent kinds of association between the old meaning and the new? 5. What is understood by metaphor? 6. What kind of metaphor do you know? 7. Discuss the notion of linguistic metaphor. 8. Speak about different kinds of metonymy. 9. Discuss the notion of linguistic metonymy. 10. Discuss the results of semantic changes. 11. What are the results of the semantic changes in the denotational meaning? Give examples. 12. What are the results of semantic changes in the connotational meaning? Give examples.

Recommended Literature

1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986. pp. 60-77


2. Ginzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979. pp. 28-33 3. .. . ., 2001, .147-165. Additional Literature 1. .. . ., 1973, . 190210. 2. Palmer F.R. Semantics. M., 1982. pp. 14-17. 3. . ., 1988. 4. .., .. . , 1993 5. .. . ., 2000. 6. .. . ., 1998.

Exercises
Ex.1 Define the type of transference which has taken place. Explain the logical association in the following groups of meaning for the same words.
1. the wing of a bird, the wing of a mill, the wing of a

building 2. the eye of a man, the eye of a needle 3. the hand of a child, the hand of a clock 4. the heart of a man, Moscow is the heart of our country 5. the bridge across the river, the bridge of the nose 6. the tongue of a person, the tongue of a bell, tongues of flame 7. the tooth of a boy, the tooth of a comb 8. a green bush, a green man, green years 9. black shoes, black despair 10. nickel (metal), a nickel (coin) 11. glass, a glass 12. copper (metal), a copper (coin) 13. Ford (proper name), a Ford (car) 14. Damascus (town in Syria), damask 15. Kashmir (town in North India), cashmere. Ex.2 Point out words used metaphorically. Explain the logic of the transfer of meaning. 1. We were met by a sea of faces. 2. Our presentday youth culture has its roots in the 50s.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

My young nephew is a budding pianist. We need to get to the heart of the matter. The tragic news cast a shadow over the evenings events. Shell be in the seventh heaven after shes passed her exam well. Id rather we didnt show our hand yet, lets keep them guessing. 8. Hes now at a crossroad in his life. 9. Juvenile rebellion has its seeds in the 60-s. 10. Our neighbors daughter is blossoming at secondary school. Ex.3 Establish the nature of semantic changes in the following slang words. Slang Stand Engl.

1. cabbage, lettuce 2. nut, potato 3. peach 4. blinkers 5. kisser 6. hoof 7. mug 8. snow, white 9. ear 10. leg 11. China 12. head 13. iron 14. flash

1. money 2. the head 3. an attractive young woman 4. eyes (to blink , ) 5. mouth 6. foot 7. face (mug ) 8. cocaine 9. handle of a cup 10. infantry soldier 11. teeth 12. person 13. car 14. quick glance (flash - ).

Ex.4. Explain the shift of meaning of the following words underwent in the stylistic layers. Original meaning 1. beast an animal Standard English four-footed wild animal the commonest of all metals Dialect bull( a domestic animal of the ox family) a bumper of a car Slang an especially unattractive woman a car

2. iron 3. pad
()

a metal a bundle of straw to lie on

mass of soft matethe saddle of the a bed on rial used to prevent harness of a cart- which one damage, give comfort horse reclines while smoking opium

4. tacky slightly sticky; sticky; not yet dry ( said of glue or ) varnish nearly dry 5. looker one who looks one who looks

sticky, deseribing shepherd

shabby, vulgar, inferior a childs hand a person who inspects merchandise but does not buy

Ex.5 The word junk was originally a sailors word meaning old rope, now it means rubbish, useless stuff this is an example of extension of meaning. The word meat originally meant food now it means one special type of food this is an example of narrowing of meaning. Consult dictionaries and establish the kind of semantic change involved in the development of the words. Original meaning
1. to starve 2. journey 3. to arrive 4. yoke 5. fowl 6. pipe 7. knight 8. lad 9. deer 10. marshal 11. girl 12. comet 13. silly 14. nice 15. Tory 16. constable 17. angel

to die one day trip, a days travel to come to shore after a voyage, to land joining (two animals) together bird a musical wind instrument which makes a piping sound a boy, a young man male of low status or social rank, male servant beast a horse-servant a child of either sex the long-haired one blessed, happy stupid an Irish guerilla, a highwayman head groom messenger

Ex.6. Read the following extracts and explain the semantic processes by which the italicized words acquired their meanings.
1. Mollusc. Etymologically a mollusc is a soft creature. The word comes from

Latin molluscus soft. It was used as a noun for various soft things, such as a sort of thinshelled nut and a species of fungus that grew from maple trees, but its application to a range of invertebrate () animals was introduced by the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus in the mid 18th century.
2. Cattle. When it first entered English it had the meaning of property.

However, it was applied specifically to livestock thought of as property. In the Middle Ages it was a wide-ranging term in animal husbandry (), being used for horses, sheep, pigs and even poultry, and bees, as well as cows, but from the mid 16th century onwards the word becomes restricted to cows.
3. Venison (). Latin venatio meant hunting, hence hunted animals,

game. English acquired it via Old French in the sense flesh of hunted animals used for food. The modern specialization of deer-meat began to emerge in the 18th cent.
4. Govern. Politicians clichs about steering the ship of state are no new

thing; for the distant ancestor of English govern is the Greek verb Kubernan steer a ship. It developed the metaphorical sense guide, rule, and it was this that passed with it via Latin and Old French into English.
5. Enthusiasm. It meant originally a state of being inspired by a god and

passed into English with the sense divine inspiration. In the stern climate of Puritanism divine inspiration was not something to be encouraged, and as the 17th c. progressed enthusiasm took on derogatory connotations of excessive religious emotion. The modern approbatory () meaning eagerness had its beginnings at the start of the 18th cent. And by the early 19th cent. had ousted the deprecatory sense from leading place.
6. Sandwich. John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718 - 92) is said to have

been so addicted to the gambling table that in order to sustain him through an entire 24 hour session uninterrupted, he had a portable meal of cold beef between slices of toast brought to him. The basic idea was nothing new, but the Earls patronage ensured it a vogue, and by the early 1760s the first evidence of his name being attached to it appeared; the historian Edward Libbon in 1762

recorded in his diary how he dined at the Cocoa Tree and saw twenty or thirty of the best men in the kingdom supping at little tablesupon a bit of cold meat, or a Sandwich.

Homonymy
Working Definitions of Principal Concepts. Homonymy the coincidence in the sound and/or in the graphic form of two (or more) semantically different linguistic units. Homonyms - words different in meaning, but identical in sound or spelling, or both in sound and spelling. Homographs words, which coincide in their graphic expression but differ in sound form. Homophones words, which coincide in their sound expression but differ in spelling and meaning. Full homonyms words, homonymous in their complete paradigms. Partial homonyms words, homonymous in some of the forms of their paradigms. Lexical homonyms words of the same part of speech but of different lexical meaning. Grammatical homonyms words of different grammatical meaning. Lexico-grammatical homonyms words of different parts of speech and of different lexical meaning. Questions to be discussed:
1. What is homonymy? Which words do we call homonyms? 2. What is the difference between homophones, homographs and absolute 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

homonyms? Give examples. What is the difference between full homonymy and partial homonymy? Give examples. What is the difference between lexical homonyms, grammatical homonyms and lexico-grammatical homonyms? Give examples. What is understood by patterned homonymy? Give examples. What are the main sources of homonymy? Illustrate your answer with examples. What is the essential difference between homonymy and Polysemy? What do they have in common? Illustrate your answer with examples. Discuss the Criteria of Differentiation between Homonymy and Polysemy. Recommended Literature

1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986, pp 182-194

2. Linzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979,

pp.39-46 3. .. . . ., 2001, . 166189 4. .. . ., 1956, .159-173 5. Palmer F.R. Semantics. M., 1982, pp.45-49 Additional Literature 1. .. . , 1963, . 3-64 Exercises Ex.1 Dictionaries register bow1 piece of wood curved by a tight string used for shooting arrows and bow2 front or forward of a ship or boat from where it begins to curve What kind of homonymy do they illustrate? Ex.2 Find homophones to the following words, translate them into Russian or explain their meaning in English. (to be) bred (up), course, cent, hare, heir, grate, peace, pail, rein, sea, sum, sight, steel, whet, write, whit. Ex.3 Of the two homophones given in brackets choose the correct one I. My (sole, soul)is dark Oh! quickly string The harp, (eye, I) yet can brook (too, two, to) (hear, here); And let thy gentle fingers fling Its melting murmurs (oer, oar, or) mine ear, If in this (heart, hart) a hope (bee, be) (deer, dear) That sound shall charm it forth again; If in these eyes (their, there) lurk a (tier, tear), Twill (flow, floe), and cease to burn my brain. /Byron/ II. I bring fresh showers (four, fore, for) the thirsting (flours, flowers), From the (seas, seize) and the streams; I (bare, bear) light shade for leaves when (laid, lade) In their noonday dreams. /Shelley/

III. A wind came up out of the (see, sea) And said, O mists, make room for me, It (haled, hailed) the ships, and cried: (Sale, sail) on, Ye mariners, the (knight, night) is gone. /Longfellow/ IV. In a (weak, week) another order followed (no, know) (won, one) was (aloud, allowed) to walk down the (main, mane) (isle, aisle) coming to or from work. /Steel/ V. - (Wood, would) you believe that I didnt (no, know) about homonyms until (too, two) (daze, days) ago? - That day in (hour, our) class in groups of (four, for) We had to come up with (won, one) or more. Mary (new, knew) six; enough to pass (End, and) (eye, I) was the worst among the class. Then a thought ran (threw, through) my head, (Urn, earn) a living from homonyms, it said. I guess I just (set, sat) and (Staired, stared) into space. My (hole, whole) life (seamed, seemed) to fall into place. Our (schools, schools) (principle, principal) happened to come (buy, by) and asked about the (look in, looking) of my (I, eye) Sir, (sad, said) I as (marry, merry) as could (bee, be), My future (rode, road) I clearly (sea, see). I will study homonyms both day and (knight, night) (Four, for) (weeks, weaks) and months, Through thick (oar, or) thin I will pursue my goal ((Eye, I) (no, know) (aisle, Ill) win. Ex.4 Transcribe the following homographs. State their meaning. to desert, slough, lead, row, lower, compact, to bow, invalid, wind, buffet, to tear, polish, bass. Ex.5 Open the brackets. Choose the correct variant. Define group to which the words in question belong. Translate both of them into Russian.

1) Its better to do yoga in (bare, bear) feet. 2) Can plants live without (air, heir)? 3) Doctor Davidson is such a (bore, boar). 4) The (brakes, breaks) failed and the car crashed into a tree. 5) My hat (blue, blew) off as I ran to catch the bus. 6) Who is the (air, heir) to the Johnson fortune? 7) The cashier gave me two (scents, cents) in change. 8) My seat on the planc was near to the (aisle, isle). 9) The bus driver collected the (fares, fairs). 10) I never (break, brake) a promise. 11) Our school book (fair, fare) is going to raise money for a new playground. 12) Autumn breeze (blue, blew) the leaves across the yard. 13) Isnt it funny how a (bare, bear) likes honey. 14) Is the (isle, aisle) of Man situated in the North sea? 15) Strawberries are (deer, dear) in winter. 16) What is it? Its (bean, been) soup, sir. 17) The adult male (deer, dear) is called a stag. 18) Have you ever seen a wild (boar, bore)? 19) Everyone in our family has (fare, fair) hair. 20) My dog can follow a (scent, cent, sent). 21) Lets go out and have some fresh (air, heir). 22) The eldest son is usually the (air, heir). 23) He has been writing since 2 oclock without a (break, brake). 24) Isnt she a (dear, deer)! 25) The (scent, cent, sent) was strong. Ex.6 Find homonyms in the following extracts and classify them. 1) A) He was a lean Yankee who knew which side his bread was buttered on. B) He had a wife of excellent family, finely bred. 2) A) Our college football team got a challenge to a match from the University team. B) Somebody struck a match so that we could see each other. 3) A) Mine is a long and sad tale! said the Mouse, turning to Alice, and sighing. It is a long tail, certainly, said Alice, looking down with wonder at the Mouses tail; but why do you call it sad? 4) A) They will sack you as soon as things slacken. B) Were going to take a sack of coal. C) Ill be obliged to get my breakfast and a draught of sack from the old ladies. 5) A) Iron and lead are base metals. B) Where does the road lead? 6) A) His heart thudded fast. B) He who feasts till he is sick, must fast till he is well. 7) Kikanius invited him for a drink, but Hugo didnt drink. 8) A) He was growing deafer in the left ear. B) I looked down into another cave similar to the one I had left. 9) A) They took up a lot of small fry. B) Its a shame to fry an egg.

10) A) Do you always forget to wind up your watch? B) Crane had an old Ford

without a top and the wind made so much noise. 11) A) He went over to the sink. B) He saw the sun sink beyond the horizon. 12) A) Wait till Ive finished this bit. B) The weight began to lift from the brain. 13) A) Old Sessy had his way in due course. B) Gilchrist gave one of his coarse laughs. Ex.7 Give homonyms to the words in bold type. State their meanings. Classify them. 1) You wouldnt know the mill if you saw it now. 2) He was worried by the perfect storm of wild-cat money, which was constantly coming to his bank. 3) Bill, the heir, slumbered in his cot. 4) Honey is sweet, but the bee stings. 5) The scene was worthy of an artists pencil. 6) He couldnt bear to speak. 7) I didnt lead the man there. 8) Sweet was the sound, when oft an evnings close, Up yonder the village murmur rose. 9) Sow well, reap well. 10) There was a plainness and simplicity about her costume, which bore a suggestion of limited means. 11) They were playing in the back yard. 12) Possibly, I was on the trail of a March hare. 13) Two heads are better than one. 14) All night long he paced the room. 15) All of them bowed low. 16) The wound of Bucklaw was by no means fatal. 17) Dont put your hand between the bark and the tree.

Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Relations. Synonymy and Antonymy as Two Main Types of Paradigmatic Relations

Working Definitions of Principal Concepts.


1. 2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Paradigmatics, associative relationship of words in language as distinct from linear relationship of words in speech. Sytagmatics, linear relationship of words in speech as distinct from associative relationship of words in language. Synonymy, the coincidence in the denotational meanings of linguistic elements which usually preserve their differences in connotation and stylistic characteristics. Synonyms, two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable in some contexts. These words are distinguished by different shades of meaning, connotations and stylistic features. Ideographic synonyms, such synonyms which differ in shades of denotational meaning. Stylistic synonyms, such synonyms which either differ in all kinds of connotations, emotional, expressive, evaluative overtones, or are distinguished stylistically. Synonymic dominant, the most general term of its kind potentially containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of the group. Antonymy, semantic opposition, contrast. Antonyms, words which have in their meaning a qualitative feature and can be contrasted as semantically opposite. Absolute antonyms, antonyms which have different roots. Derivational antonyms, antonyms which have the same roots but different affixes. Contradictory notions, notions that are mutually opposed and deny one another Contrary notions, notions that are mutually opposed but are gradable. Conversives, words that denote one and the same referent or situation as viewed from different points of view, with a reversal of the order of participants and their roles.

Synonyms
1.

Questions to be discussed The problem of the definition of synonyms. How are synonyms traditionally defined? Which aspects of this definition are open to criticism?

2.

3.

4.

What is the modern approach to the definition of synonyms? Give the definition of synonymy. The classification of synonyms. What types of synonyms were singled out in Academician V.V. Vinogradovs classification system? Discuss the problem of absolute synonymy. Speak about contextual synonyms. Synonymic sets. What is a synonymic set? Which word in a synonymic set is considered to be the dominant element? What are its characteristic features? What are the peculiarities of synonymic sets in the English language? What is the difference between a synonymic set and an ideographic group, between the synonymic dominant and the generic term? While discussing points 2-3, comment upon the following extracts taken from the works of St. Ullmann, R. Jakobson, J. Lyons. a) Readings in Modern English Lexicology, pp.29-34; 38-39 b) Mednikova, pp. 64-65 Discuss the difference between the two points of view on synonymy. What are the grounds for asserting that there can be no complete synonymy? What are the most typical differences between synonyms? The sources of synonymy. Which words are called euphemisms? What function do they perform in speech? Recommended Literature
1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986, pp. 149-207 2. Linzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979,

pp. 55-59 3. .. . . ., 2001, . 184216 Additional Literature


1. .. . - . ., 1979,

2.
3.

4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9.

. 500-543 .. . ., 1995, . 216-284 . . ., 1978, . 470-480 .. . ., 1980 Palmer F.R. Semantics. M., 1982, pp. 42-45 .. . ., 1956, . 201202 .. . ., 1956, . 201-202 .. . ., 1997,. 450-454 Khidekel S.S. and others. Readings in Modern English Lexicology. L., 1969, pp. 58; 29-34; 38-39 Exercises

Ex. 1 In column B find synonyms to the words in column A. Classify them. Consult Appendix 1. 1. act 2. avoid 3. battle 4. begin 5. big 6. brawl 7. bright 8. capacity 9. delay 10.depart 11.dim 12.discuss 13.easy 14.enthusiasm 15.frail 16.general 17.jump 18.pain 19.sing 1. ability 2. ache 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.stare 21.suppose 20. universal 21.zeal 3. alone argue believe clever commence detain dusky escape execute facile fight fragile gaze great leap leave quarrel

Ex. 2 Classify the synonyms in the following sentences. Use explanatory dictionaries and dictionaries of Synonyms. Consult Appendix 1.
1. He is a very good man, fine and kind and gentle. Among my friends and 2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

acquaintances, I generally pass for a mild man. For most men of this type, the purpose has been to gain as much power, to obtain as much of other peoples money, as possible. I see ads for all sorts of jobs with twice the pay Im getting now. He possessed an ability to enter any hotel and after a week or two of observation, produce a financial analysis. As soon as they were old enough they began to learn to play the piano, and Charley showed great aptitude. A woman in love is a great spiritual force. He exercised fanatically his strength to recover. A frail middle-aged maid came in. All this beauty of goldgreen lawns is as brittle as glass. The actors were continuing to execute their movements in silence. His successor, Mr. John Steward, will act as charge daffaires. As Rudolf bent to his task he had to admit to himself that Miss Lenaut might be beautiful, but that her imagination left something to be desired. His India

Today was recognized as a classic explanation of the national and colonial question. 8. He wished there were someone who would appreciate the drawing. Unfortunately he had not fully estimated his guest. 9. She spoke as if in a trance, and he had a sensation that she did not see him. There was a sense of danger in the air. 10. The arrangement was clever. I thought her explanation a very ingenious one. 11. Nothing was concealed or hidden from my view, and every piece of information was given. 12. I went upstairs with my candle. It appealed to my childish fancy, as I ascended to the bedroom. 13. Along with the welcome gift for her kinsman she sent a little doll for a present to my Lords little daughter. 14. a) The green glittered in the sunshine and the sky was cheerful. b) She was excited and her fine eyes sparkled. c) Her face gleamed with one of her rare soft smiles. d) Her countenance had a wild vindictiveness in its white cheeks, and bloodless lips and scintillating eyes. 15. a) When I got home the house was empty so I rang up Janets friends mother. b) Is there a vacant room on the floor? c) Linger Ted watched him with a blank face. Ex.3 Write down synonyms and classify them into: a) synonyms differentiated by connotation of manner; b) synonyms differentiated by connotation of duration; c) synonyms differentiated by stylistic connotations.
1. His eyes glittered with malice. 2. He resents their cold stare. 3. I was amazed that one man should have been able to beat down and

capture such battalions of practised fighters. 4. His eyes sparkled with amusement. 5. The whole situation was extraordinary like that of an African explorer who finds himself exchanging glances with a man-eating tiger. 6. I must confess I am a little surprised. 7. In silence the widow departed. 8. You have settled it! cried the astonished parent. 9. The boy was peering into a dark room. 10. When he left the house he promised to return at nine oclock that night. 11. Betty would have liked to peer in but could not. Ex.4 Insert the correct synonym choosing from those given. Account for your choice and classify the synonyms.

1. Affair, business, matter Consult Appendix 1.


a) To Daves pupils the world is a mystery. To find the key would not necessarily

be a simple They do not conceive that the should be either more simple or more complex than that. b) In April I had to go to Cambridge on an official c) There seemed surprisingly little gossip about the within the college. d) That little of the jug of water was forgotten.
2. Odd, strange, queer, quaint

a) Ive got that feeling, he said, that I used to have as a child. b) Niall watched her eyes. She was not angry. Nor was she smiling. She looked rather c) They saw that the consuls all grow a little d) It seemed to Mar a little that she should refer to the boys as children
a)

b)
c)

d)
e)

3. Leap, jump, bounce, spring, hop, skip She about on the little seat facing the driver They came out always at this time and shouted, and with skipping ropes, and , and played. We no longer chased each other in pyjamas about the room, and across the beds. Maria from rock to rock down on the shore. Jane, cried Mrs Tower, to her feet. I wasnt expecting you today. 4. Flash, sparkle, shine, glitter, gleam, glister, shimmer, glint a) The drawing - room and with the spotlessness of a house without children. b) The grass on the lawn wet with dew, in the sun. c) Though the branches the lake. d) A sarcastic smile played upon his lips and his eyes e) Then somewhere beyond the pavilion a patch of white light began to form itself. f) Tim lifted up a diamond necklace and swung it gently to and fro. With a rippling movement the stones g) They walked on in silence until they could see the rosy colour of the bricks and the of windows. h) A bare and lurid reached the trees opposite, but it was too dark to make out the fringes of the park. i) The train was slashing the windows and the room had turned dark except for a diffused reflected from the garden of green light. 5. Look, gaze, stare, glare, glance

a) Philip down at his brother. The two sisters with mingled anxiety and hostility. The other children blankly. b) Larry at his watch. c) He fixed his on Gray, but did not seem at him; he seemed rather through and beyond him. d) Our professor would stop, and drum the edge of the table. e) Its impolite at people like that. f) The little boys stood at each other ready to start a fight. g) The lovers stood into each others eyes. h) The Greek myth runs that Narcissusat his own reflection in the water until he fell in love with it and died. i) People turned in the street and at her with open mouths. a)
b)

c) d) e)
f)

g)
h)

6. Clever, intelligent, ingenious, smart The only trouble is their intellect. They may be than we are. The first word in ninety-five years. We must admit that farms are owned by reasonable, even extremely people. He had a natural wish to enjoy himself and an adventurous temper though and in a way simple. Uncle Biagio, though good and honest, was of mediocre. You thieving young bastard. Well teach you to steal money that doesnt belong to you. I turned my head around: Mum, I called out, get my lawyer on the blower, will you? , arent you? he said in a very unfriendly way. My brokers are the chaps in the City, but I like to keep an eye on my investments. animals let themselves be caught only by children.
7. Change, alter

a) b)
c) d)

I the subject by attacking him. He might have rooms less frequently. It was seeing that girl that me , proceeded Mr. Mc Kinnan. Unfortunately he was carried off the train at Venice right at the start on a stretcher after a stroke. How very sad. It didnt at all his desire for a long life. 8. Comfort, console My aunt had spent many years abroad and this had affected her character as well as her morality. I couldnt really judge her as I would an ordinary English- woman, and I myself as I read Punch, that the English character was un- changeable. I felt a little by that idea. The telephone did not ring and she could not hear his voice. I tried her. Then they all began to cry. No one tried anybody else. I always myself by thinking that my daughter would marry well.

a)

b) c)
d)

e)

9. Vacant, empty, void, blanck, vacuous a) The two boys moved down the row and sat directly behind the LI and his b)

c)
d) e) f)

g) h)

girl. She stood on the side of the road in the hushed Saturday afternoon sunlight. So the diary you started has remained Food secretary said that unless emergency shipment was arranged from abroad, government stocks would be by the end of the month. The Duke drained hid drink then contemplated the tumbler. He was a man without enthusiasm, a confessed failure, shunted off by a mighty family to a Victorian castle in which most of the rooms were closed off. An man in a half house. She sauntered through the room, surprised that it was The enormous watch stared up at me with its great white face. Ex.5. From the words in brackets choose the correct one to go with each of the synonyms given below. suitable, fitting (answer, date) glittering, gleaming (cats eyes, the jewels) acute, keen, sharp (knife, mind, sight) deep, profound (intelligence) quick, swift (revenge, wit).

1) 2)

3)
4) 5)

Ex.6. From the words given in brackets, choose English counterparts of the following Russian synonyms. 1. , , (quick, rapid, swift, fast) 2. , , (persistent, stubborn) 3. , (lovely, beautiful). Ex.7. In the following groups of synonyms, find the synonymic dominant. Explain the difference between the members of the synonymic sets. 1) agree, accede, acquiesce, assent, concur, comply, consent 2) cry, weep, sob 3) hide, conceal, disguise, dissemble 4) recall, recollect, remember 5) quick, fast, swift, rapid, prompt Ex.8. In the following sentences, point out the generic term. 1) A sweet fringe of opening flowers snowdrops, crocus, even primrose bloomed in the sunshine. 2) The business part of the room had the usual furniture: an open cupboard, a folding washstand, some hard chairs, a standing desk. 3) The stockintrade of this old gentleman comprised chronometers, barometers, telescopes, compasses, charts, maps, sextants, quadrants. 4) Twice a week they had to put through hotel linen the sheets, the pillow slips, spreads, table cloths and napkins.

5) You recognize the nature of these trees the cy press, the willow, the

yew. Ex. 9. Find words used metaphorically and metonymically and replace them by synonyms. 1) He was a barrister of Philadelphia, but became more renowned by his gun than by his law cases. 2) He, being under strict petticoat government, was compelled to get home that night. 3) She had a good heart and a sure tongue. 4) Students would have no need to walk the hospitals if they had me. I was a hospital in myself. 5) The had never seen anyone look so thunder and lightningly as June. 6) He passed a greater part of the day over the bottle. Ex.10. In the following sentences, point out euphemisms. Give the words they substitute. 1) He is the image of him that is gone. 2) The driver was stationed thus early in hope that some young buck might need the aid of his vehicle, and pay him with the generosity of intoxication. 3) He would mutter: Gad! Get on with it! 4) That is not quite accurate. Ex.11. Analyse the reasons for using the following euphemisms and classify them according to the following groups: a) superstitious taboos; b) social and moral taboos; c) the need to soften painful news; d) using a learned word which sounds less familiar, hence less offensive 1) to eat to partake, to refresh oneself 2) to die to breath ones last, to depart this life, to pay ones debt to nature, to go to ones last home, to go the way of all flesh, to join the majority. 3) mad deranged, insane 4) cemetery memorial park, necropolis 5) sweat perspiration 6) foolish unwise 7) God - Dear me! Oh, my! Good gracious! Golly! Gosh!] 8) Pawnshop loan-office 9) Pregnant in the family way, in an interesting (delicate) condition.

Antonyms
Questions to be discussed

1. The problem of the definition of antonyms. Which words do we usually

classify as antonyms? To which part of speech do most antonyms belong? Why is the traditional definition of antonyms criticized? 2. The classification of antonyms What are the two main groups of antonyms from the point of view of logic? Live examples. What other types of relations may be found between words considered to be antonyms? How are antonyms classified from the point of view of their formation? What is the semantic difference between absolute and derivational antonyms? What is the role of context in the antonymy of words? What are the peculiarities of contextual antonyms? What is the interrelation of antonymy and synonymy? Recommended Literature Arnold I.V. The English Word. M., 1986, pp. 209-215 2. Linzburg R.S. and others. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979, pp. 59-63 3. .. . . ., 2001, . 216-219
1.

Additional Literature 1. .. . ., 1980, . 32-36 2. .. . ., 1964, . 6-24 3. . . ., 1978, . 485-496 4. .. . , 1997, . 455-512 5. Palmer F.R. Semantics. M., 1982, pp. 53-57 Exercises Ex.1 Live antonyms of the following words and classify them from the point of view of their formation into root and derivational. pleasant, safe, opposed, cheap, honest, accurate, difficult, wrong, win, true, bright, stale, comfortable, tight, arrogant, visible, necessary, lucky, regular, relevant, nervous, beautiful, legal, lucky, cruel, accept, mature, dangerous, find, polite, full, ill, old-fashioned, raise, rude, soft, rise, begin, turn on. Ex.2 Live derivational antonyms to the following:

fortunate, fortune; grateful, gratitude; just, justice; like (v), like (adv.); movable, moved; related, relative; use (v), use (n); frequent, frequented; favorable, favor; able, ability; appreciated, appreciation; arm (v), armed; belief, believer; calculable, calculated; comfortable, comfort; complete, completed; comprehensible, comprehending; conceivable, conceived; connect, connected; consolable, consolation; correct, corrected; decided, decisive; defended, defensible; dependent, dependable; digestion, digested; dignity, dignified; direct, directed; disputed, disputable; distinguishable, distinguished; divided, divisible; equal, equality; explained, explicable; interest, interesting; offensive, offending; perturbable, perturbed; pleasant, pleasure; resistible, resisting; satisfactory, satisfaction; soluble, solved; stable, stability. Ex.3 Fill the gaps with words antonymous to those given in bold type. Classify them according to their meaning.
1. Near the bank the river was shallow and we had to wade out to the middle

where it was . enough to swim. 2. Why did you reject my offer and his? 3. Some of the books were excluded from the list but those that were were obligatory. 4. Im afraid the sweet cream will get if you keep it in the warm. 5. Most of the exercises she did were correct, several were . 6. She didnt fail to get the job, she in getting it. 7. We wont fail the exam, well it. 8. This isnt a hard exercise, its . 9. The bed wasnt hard, it was . 10. I dont want a glass of dry wine, I want a glass of wine. 11. The weather isnt going to be dry, its sure to be . 12. A truck isnt a light vehicle, its . 13. At midnight it isnt light, its . 14. The sea wasnt rough, it was . 15. A babys skin isnt rough, its . 16. Im quite poor but a millionaire is very . 17. His work was very poor, but hers was very . 18. Poor Tom, he lost the match. Jim, he it. 19. He didnt lose weight, he it. 20. I lost my pen yesterday, but now Ive it. Ex.4 Fill in the gaps with adjectives antonymous to those given in brackets. 1) (light): a ___ blue dress; a ___ box 2) (old): a ___ man; a ___ house 3) (hard): an ___ task: a ___ bed 4) (soft): a ___ voice; a ___ cushion 5) (fresh): ___ bread; ___ flowers 6) (wild): ___ birds; ___ flowers

7) (rough): a ___ surface; a ___ person 8) (lose): to ___ a book; to ____ a battle.

Ex.5. Pick out antonyms from the following sentences and classify them. 1. A bad beginning makes a bad ending. 2. A joke never gains an enemy but often loses a friend. 3. Drunkenness reveals what soberness conceals. 4. Better a glorious death than a shameful life. 5. A young pig grunts like the old sow. 6. Better a witty fool than a foolish wit. 7. One law for the rich, and another for the poor. 8. Be swift to hear, slow to speak. 9. He who laughs at crooked men, should walk very straight. 10.That which was bitter to endure may be sweet to remember. Ex. 6 In the following sentences find antonyms and classify them. 1) She looks clean and industrious, Mr. Moore remarked. Look! I dont know how she looks; and I do not say that she is altogether dirty or idle. 2) There were many guests coming and going. 3) He walks up and down the car of the train, and in and out of it, as his fancy dictates. 4) In every specimen of human nature that breathes, vice and virtue are ever found blended, in smaller or greater proportios. 5) I kept my eyes averted from it while I pinned on a dirty apron I couldnt be bothered to look for a clean one. 6) She felt calm and not excited any more. 7) I was miserable when I thought you would not come; Im so happy now! 8) He disappeared in the mysterious way in which he came. 9) There was nothing remarkable about the size of the eyes. They were neither large nor small. 10) The general character of her conversation that evening, whether serious or sprightly, grave or gay, was as something unstudied, intuitive. 11) Is he fair or dark? Neither. Is he tall or short? Average, I should say. 12) The garment that had been limp and crumpled was now fine and smooth. 13) I cannot proceed without some investigation into what has been asserted, an evidence of its truth or falsehood. 14) He uttered the words: Hes come, sir, and vanished. 15) He strode backwards and forwards through the little garden. 16) His imagination was ever at work establishing relations of likeness and difference. 17) However much or little she knows she has never displayed. 18) There was a water-lily in a pool, closed and green, and then it unfolded, waxen and white, and it was the music rising and falling. 19) He was always eager to welcome and unwilling to lose his friends.

20) Fortune, good and ill, does not change men and women. But it develops their character. Ex. 7 Read the following sentences. Find synonyms and antonyms of the words in bold type. 1. A former Olympic ice-skater has accepted the position of instructor at the skating-rink. 2. The foundation of the old hotel was damaged in the earthquake. 3. The man who was leading the group through the jungle had been raised there. 4. The decorated fir-tree in the city square was a marvelous sight to see. 5. The two countries decided that a mutual trade agreement was the solution to the problem. 6. The prairie grass vanished in a summer storm of locusts.