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What is Social Dimension development of rural social structures and social cohesion, participation of rural population, improvement of quality

of life in rural areas, among the agricultural population in particular, social infrastructure, social security systems; Social Dimension The social dimension of the envisaged European Higher Education Area aims at: equality of opportunities in higher education, in terms of: access, participation and successful completion of studies; studying and living conditions; guidance and counselling; financial support, and student participation in higher education governance. This implies also equal opportunities in mobility, when it comes to portability of financial support, removing barriers, and providing incentives. Both enhance the quality, attractiveness and competitiveness of the European Higher Education Area. Framework of the social dimension in the Bologna Process With the London Communiqu of May 2007, Ministers responsible for Higher Education in the countries participating in the Bologna Process confirmed the relevance of the social dimension: "Higher education should play a strong role in fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities and raising the level of knowledge, skills and competences in society. Policy should therefore aim to maximise the potential of individuals in terms of their personal development and their contribution to a sustainable and democratic knowledge-based society. We share the societal aspiration that the student body entering, participating in and completing higher education at all levels should reflect the diversity of our populations. We reaffirm the importance of students being able to complete their studies without obstacles related to their social and economic background. We therefore continue our efforts to provide adequate student services, create more flexible learning pathways into and within higher education, and to widen participation at all levels on the basis of equal opportunity." The social dimension has been an integral part of the Bologna Process since the first ministerial follow-up meeting in Prague in 2001. The social dimension was included in the Prague Communiqu at the suggestion of the student representatives. In subsequent communiqus the social dimension has been recognized as crucial for the success of the European Higher Education Area. With the 2005 Bergen Communiqu, Ministers declared the social dimension an integral part of the Process of creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA):

"The social dimension of the Bologna Process is a constituent part of the EHEA and a necessary condition for the attractiveness and competitiveness of the EHEA. We therefore renew our commitment to making quality higher education equally accessible to all, and stress the need for appropriate conditions for students so that they can complete their studies without obstacles related to their social and economic background. The social dimension includes measures taken by governments to help students, especially from socially disadvantaged groups, in financial and economic aspects and to provide them with guidance and counselling services with a view to widening access." Given that considerable differences exist in relation to the social dimension of higher education between the countries participating in the process of creating the European Higher Education Area, it was not considered appropriate to narrowly define the social dimension or to suggest a number of detailed actions for all countries to implement. Instead, the 2005-2007 social dimension working group, which had been set up after the Bergen ministerial meeting, recommended that each country develops its own strategy, including an action plan, for the social dimension. To help countries with devising national strategies on the social dimension and to facilitate the necessary national debates, the working group proposed a structure and topics for such a debate (see Annex 2 of the 2007 working group report). For more background information and the detailed recommendations read the full 2007 working group report. Past events

"Equality in a knowledge based society - How to widen opportunities?", Bologna Seminar organised by Hungary, Budapest, 10-11 November 2008 "The social dimension of the European higher education area and world-wide competition", Bologna Seminar organised by France, Paris, 27-28 January 2005 "Students' Participation in Governance in Higher Education", Bologna Seminar organised by Norway, 12-14 June 2003 "Exploring the Social Dimensions of the European Higher Education Area", Bologna Seminar organised by Greece, Athens, 19-20 February 2003

The Social Dimension of Globalization Globalization is a term that is used in many ways, but the principal underlying idea is the progressive integration of economies and societies. It is driven by new technologies, new economic relationships and the national and international policies of a wide range of actors, including governments, international organizations, business, labour and civil society. Broadly speaking, the process of globalization has two aspects. The first refers to those factors such as trade, investment, technology, cross-border production systems, flows of information and communication - which bring societies and citizens closer together. The second refers to policies and institutions, such as trade and capital market liberalization,

international standards for labour, the environment, corporate behaviour and other issues, agreements on intellectual property rights, and other policies pursued at both the national and international level which support the integration of economies and countries. In terms of the latter aspect, the existing pattern of globalization is not an inevitable trend - it is at least in part the product of policy choices. While technological change is irreversible, policies can be changed. Technological advances have also widened the policy choices available. The social dimension of globalization refers to the impact of globalization on the life and work of people, on their families, and their societies. Concerns and issues are often raised about the impact of globalization on employment, working conditions, income and social protection. Beyond the world of work, the social dimension encompasses security, culture and identity, inclusion or exclusion and the cohesiveness of families and communities. Globalization brings new potentials for development and wealth creation. But there are divergent views and perceptions among people as concerns its economic and social impact, and indeed widely varying impacts on the interests and opportunities of different sectors and economic and social actors. Some argue that the present model of globalization has exacerbated problems of unemployment, inequality and poverty, while others contend that globalization helps to reduce them. Of course, these problems predated globalization, but it is clear that for globalization to be politically and economically sustainable, it must contribute to their reduction. Hence the goal of a globalization which meets the needs of all people.