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Stress:

Stress is defined as a state of tension experienced by individuals facing


extraordinary demands, constraints or opportunities. The pressure of modern life, coupled with the demand of a job, can lead to emotional imbalances that are collectively labeled STRESS.

Job Stress:

Organisation bears stress on the workforce. Work pressures, tight schedule,


meetings, unhelpful colleagues, critical bosses, incompetent subordinates etc all have a cumulative effect in making the lives of modern day executives quite miserable. Stress can be as disruptive as an accident, leading to poor performance, addiction, poor attendance & an overall poor health.

Organisational Stress:

The

term STRESS normally refers to excessive pressure caused by

extraordinary demands, constraints and opportunities. The above listed components are included in daily organizational life. Extraordinary demands are always ready to be made & fulfilled with constraints & restrictions to be followed without which opportunities cannot be found and adhered to.

Types of Stress:

Constructive Stress:

Constructive Stress or Eustress acts in a positive manner for the individual&


the organization. Eustress can indicate a situation where the individual is in balance or within tolerable limits. The figure shows that low to moderate amounts of stress can act in a constructive or energizing way. Moderate stress can increase effort, stimulate creativity & encourage diligence in ones work. Ex: Working harder before exams, paying attention in class etc.

Destructive Stress:

Destructive

stress or Distress is not healthy for the individual &

organization. Distress would indicate effects that are out of balance or outside the tolerance limits. Excessive stress may lead to overload or breakdown a persons physical & mental systems. Performance can suffer as illness by intense stress or people can react to stress by absenteeism, accidents, dissatisfaction & reduced performance.

Sources of Stress:

A. Organizational Factors.
1. Occupational Demands: Certain jobs seem to contain a high amount of in-built stress in the form of time pressures, too many meetings, difficulty in meeting standards etc, especially at higher levels. Jobs where temperatures, noise levels, toxic levels are high tend to increase anxiety. 2. Role Ambiguity: It occurs when position holders are uncertain about limits of their authority & that of others, company rules, job security and methods of evaluation of performance. More ambiguity leads to lower utilization of intellectual capabilities, knowledge & leadership skills, It is also related to low job satisfaction & job related threats.

4. Role Overload:

At higher, Decisive positions, constant interruptions, stream of visitors, mountain of files, number of subordinates looking for valuable guidance, increase quantitative & qualitative overloads. Persons who experience such conditions show clear signs of stress & report health problems.

6. Interpersonal Relationships: Another source of stress is poor interpersonal relationships with others, be they supervisors, coworkers, subordinates or clients. When relationships at work are not pleasant, employees develop fear for interactions & meetings. Three aspects of interpersonal relationships at work negatively influence Job Stress: Amount of contact with others. Amount of contact with people in other departments. Organisational climate. 7. Ineffective Communication: Stress can result from a lack of communication or from a lack of right kind of communication at the right time. Without proper form of communication, perception & interpretation change and are not in pace with the reality.

8. Responsibility: Different types of responsibility function differently as stressors. Classification can be done in terms of Responsibility for people V/S Responsibility for things. The former face symptoms like high blood pressure & higher cholesterol levels while the latter face lower levels of the above.

9. Job Change: Individuals & work undergo constant changes as organizations try to become more competitive. These changes can cause stress for the job holder. As these changes entail certain amount of uncertainty which lead to stress.

B. Personal Factors:
11. The Impact of Life Change: Various Positive & negative events in the personal life demand adjustments & compromises. Traumatic experiences in life can have significant impact on the psychological well being of an individual. This variable is based on the findings of Holmes & Rahe in 1971.

13. Locus of Control: A persons belief in locus of control is related to susceptibility to job stress. People can be classified under this variable as:

External Locus of Control: People with External Locus of Control look to outside forces as
controlling their fate. They generally feel that their fates are determined by events & forces beyond their control.

Internal Locus of Control:

People with Internal Locus of Control take their own actions under
consideration & make themselves responsible for their fate. They generally feel that their fate is pretty much under their control. The latter ones describe their jobs as less stressful than the formers. The underlying cognitive mechanism is that if the people believe that they can control potential adverse forces in their job environment. They are less prone to the stressors. 14. Other Reasons: Work & familys overlapping demands. Family Responsibilities. Excessive Rules & Regulations. Frustration & resentment. Restrictive Organisational Environment. Feelings of Failure.