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Annual Report 2004-2005

ABATEMENT OF POLLUTION
Control of Pollution
The concern for environmental quality has been an issue of concern in the backdrop of increasing urbanization, industrial and vehicular pollution as well as pollution of water courses due to discharge of effluents without confirming to the environmental norms and standards. Realizing the trend of pollution in various environmental media like air and water, soil etc., Ministry adopted policy for abatement of pollution, which provides multi-pronged strategies in the form of regulations, legislations, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures to prevent and abate pollution. To give effect to various measures and policies for pollution control, various steps have been initiated which include stringent regulations, developmental environmental standards, control of vehicular pollution, spatial environmental planning including Industrial Estates and preparation of Zoning Atlas etc. Major achievements/activities undertaken on various Pollution Control Schemes are: Industrial Pollution Abatement through preventive strategies This scheme is an amalgamation of the three on-going sub-schemes viz. Environmental Audit, Adoption of Clean Technologies in Small Scale Industries and Environmental Statistics and Mapping and activities under each component are as follows:

Environmental Audit
Under the Environmental Audit, various studies relating to preparation of sector specific performa have been initiated. A project has been sponsered to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in this regard for development of environmental statements in the sectors of sugar, pesticide, thermal power stations, cement, textile, iron & steel, tanneries, petrochemicals, oil refineries, pulp & paper and bulk drug industries. For wider dissemination of the model Performa in these sectors, an additional project on awareness has also been sponsored to CPCB. This would be beneficial to entrepreneurs, consultants and those involved in assessing the environmental audit statements.

Adoption of Cleaner Technologies


Adoption of cleaner technologies and cleaner production strategies is considered to provide a balance between development and environment through economic benefits by way of increased resource efficiency innovation and reduced cost for environmental management. The scheme in this regard aims at promoting such technologies and strategies. Significant activities undertaken are as follows: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Studies Different sectors in which LCA studies have been initiated so far include; (i) Steel (ii) Coal/Lignite based Thermal Power Plants, (iii) Pulp and Paper and (iv) Cement. While the studies in steel and thermal power sector were completed earlier, the final Report on pulp and paper sector has been submitted during the year. The Life Cycle Assessment Study in cement sector has also been continued during the year. Four Cement Plants namely, Ambuja Cement, Unagarh (Gujarat), ACC, Bilaspur (Himachal Pradesh), Rajshree Cement (Andhra Pradesh), and Ultratech Cements (Chattisgarh) have been included in the study. Field Demonstration and Development of Bamboo based Composites/Panels During the year the ongoing project on field demonstration and development of bamboo based composites/panels was continued. Commercial production of horizontal and vertical laminates have been made using Bambusa bamboo species. Construction of demonstration houses in north-east using these bamboo laminates has been taken up.
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Recycling of Marble Slurry in Udaipur, Rajasthan The ongoing demonstration project relating to manufacture of bricks and tiles from marble slurry in Udaipur and Rajsamand Districts of Rajasthan, with the aim of utilizing wastes arising out of marble cutting and processing for the purpose of improving the local environment, was continued during the year. Based on the successful demonstration of technology at the above two locations, the Indian Environmental Society, who are implementing the project, have also been asked to set up brick and tiles manufacturing unit utilizing stone slurry at Kota. Awareness workshops were also organized to make the products made out of marble slurry, popular and to promote its usage. Bio-remediation of Railadevi Lake in Thane, Maharashtra The ongoing demonstration project relating to cleaning of Railadevi Lake in Thane District in Maharashtra using bio-remediation technique was continued during the year. The activities inter-alia included cleaning of lake through application of bioclean product. Water quality of the lake is being continuously monitored by Thane Municipal Corporation. Technology Up-gradation for Small and Medium Enterprise Clusters The ongoing project for technology up-gradation in small utensil manufacturing units in a representative cluster at Jagadhari, Haryana has been completed. Under this project, two units from each of the industry sectors namely; (I) steel utensils, (ii) brass utensils and (iii) aluminium utensils were identified for demonstrating the technology up-gradation options. Awareness workshop with the involvement of local industry associations, Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Board was organized to disseminate the information relating to technology up-gradation options. Development, Demonstration and Dissemination of Bio-degradable Emulsion Technology for increasing the Shelf Life of Fruits and Vegetables This multi-ministerial sponsored ongoing demonstration project at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi was continued during the year. Pilot plant for treatment of fruits and vegetables with biodegradable emulsion has also been set up at IIT, Delhi. Utilization of Anode Mud and Chips, the Solid Wastes generated in the Zinc Industry This study has been sponsored to Regional Research Laboratory (RRL), Bhopal and aimed at developing suitable process for making active chemical manganese dioxide from the wastes generated in the cell house in zinc plant and to separate lead from these wastes. The manganese dioxide so generated will be used in battery manufacture. Development of domestic unit employing a complexing resin for removing Arsenic from water The study undertaken by Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, aims at the development of a resin and to establish the relationship between the resin structure coordinating ability for scavenging arsenic from raw as well as chemically treated water. The envisages development and testing of a portable domestic unit to meet the drinking water needs of family of five for a period of one month. Gujarat and its project a small

Environmental Statistics & Mapping


Various studies under this component have been initated through research institutions, organisations, universities and State Pollution Control Boards which are at various stages of completion. Two new studies have also been initiated during the year.
u u

Techno-Economic Suitability of Silt from Beas Saltuj Link (BSL) Project in the manufacture of ordinary portland cement by National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabhgarh, Haryana; and Environmental Mapping of Sutlej Catchment, Himachal Pradesh by Himachal Pradesh State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (HPSEP&PCB).

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Annual Report 2004-2005

Waste Minimization/Cleaner Production


Waste minimization is one of the strategies adopted for prevention of industrial pollution with an objective to optimize the consumption of raw material, save energy and water requirement and reduce waste generation. This approach provides for utilizing the existing production facility without changing the operations. This is especially suitable for small and medium enterprises in adoption of cleaner production practices. As a part of the scheme on Industrial Pollution Abatement through Preventive Strategies, financial assistance is provided for establishment and running of Waste Fig 46. Crude Lindane ETP with improved activated charcoal Minimization Circles (WMCs) in clusters of small scale industries, with a view to facilitate capacity building in the areas of cleaner production and establishment of demonstration units in selected industrial sectors etc. Financial assistance is provided through National Productivity Council (NPC) who have pioneered in the activity. NPC in their continued activity have established a total of 118 Waste Minimization Circles (WMCs) in 41 industrial sectors through which 600 small scale industries have been benefited. Facilitators have been trained for replicating the activities and creating awareness amongst the small and medium enterprises. Financial assistance is also provided for conducting awareness programmes by the Developments Commissioner on Small Sale Industries (DCSSI), Ministry of Small Scale Industry. The Ministry has also taken initiative to facilitate R&D activities under the National Networking programme of Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) on Waste Minimization for the small and medium enterprises. This activity would be carried out by some of the CSIR laboratories. A meeting in this regard was held in April, 2004, at NEERI, Nagpur wherein the detailed programme for the same was worked out. Guidelines detailing eligibility criteria, application format etc. have been developed for submission of the proposal under the scheme. During the year, the scheme has been revisitied and the process for implementation of the scheme has been streamlined. The Screening Committee has prioritized certain sectors for inviting proposals. So far, the implementation of the scheme has helped in identifying the polluting small and medium industries, evaluating the causes of pollution and facilitating them to adopt cleaner production practices leading to preventive strategies. Also it has provided a platform for creating awareness amongst the small and medium industries for adopting simple waste minimization principles.

Environmental Health
The Project Appraisal and Evaluation Committee on Environmental Health considered 14 proposals pertaining to generation of baseline data on environmental health as also on increasing environmental health awareness. Out of these proposals eight projects were recommended for financial assistance. Intervention measures based on the complete environmental health studies were suggested to the concerned State Authorities for taking appropriate measures with the ultimate objective of protecting human health against the environmental hazards. Initiatives have also been taken to identify and assess the environmental health hazards posed by emissions of mercury from industries using mercury as one of the raw materials including chlor-alkali plants based on mercury cell process.
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) The industrial activities without proper precautionary measures for environmental protection creates pollution and associated problems. It is, therefore, not adequate to comply with regulatory norms for prevention and control of pollution but go beyond compliance through adoption of clean technologies and improved environmental practices. After a series of industry specific interaction meetings, the Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP) was released in March, 2003. This charter is a commitment for partnership and participatory action of concerned stake holders and is a road map for progressive improvement in environmental management system for 17 categories of polluting industries. For effective implementation of action points enlisted in the charter, eight task forces have been constituted incorporating experts and members from institutions and industry associations. These task forces meet regularly and have also undertaken site inspections for assessing the compliance to stipulate the standards. A Steering Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary (E&F) has also been constituted to oversee the functioning of these Task Forces and to take necessary policy decisions.

Noise Pollution
Due to various activities, religious functions, festivals and related celebrations, noise levels have been a matter of concern. To regulate and control noise pollution, the Government has issued various notifications under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The general standards for industrial, commercial, residential areas and silence zones had also been notified. To control community noise, Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 had been notified on 14th February, 2000, which makes it mandatory for the local authorities to control noise in their respective areas and empowers the designated authorities to take legal action against the violators.

Fig 47. Noise monitoring at Panchpatmalai Bauxite Mine

Ministry has been encouraging control of community noise through various steps such as awareness programmes though electronic and print media, celebration of functions at community level, training of personnel from regulatory agencies, notification of source specific standards for fire crackers, generator sets, automobiles etc. The fire cracker industry has been directed to indicate the noise levels and colour code on each of their packet for the people to make a choice at the time of buying. The Governments of all the States and Union Territories have been requested to conduct surveys in major cities of the States, particularly, during festivals to assess the noise pollution. The Central Pollution Control Board in coordination with the State Pollution Control Boards is also monitoring the ambient noise levels. The noise limits for Diesel Generator (DG) sets up to 1000 kVA were notified in May, 2002. After review of the preparedness by the manufacturers to comply with the standards and at their requests, the time for its implementation was extended initially up to 1st July, 2004 and subsequently, up to 1st January, 2005 vide notification No. GSR 448(E) dated 12th July, 2004 and GSR 520(E) dated 12th August, 2004. Spatial Environmental Planning The Spatial Planning programme was conceptualised for ensuring protection of environment and its resources through planned and sustainable development. The programme commenced earlier in fourteen volunteering states with district-wise environmental assessment for siting of industries. The programme was extended under the Environmental Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project funded by the World Bank during April, 1997 to June, 2003. To implement the programme, the needed infrastructure
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Annual Report 2004-2005


to undertake spatial environment planning and the technical competence was developed within the State Pollution Control Boards and other executing agencies. The programme has now been extended for the Tenth Five Year Plan and following activities have been evolved under this programme. Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries The Zoning Atlases for Siting of Industries has been taken up for 142 districts in different States and Union Territories of the country. It provides the details of ambient air quality, water quality, noise levels, details of demographic profile of the area and other major natural resources. It enables the planner to decide on the suitable areas and zones for new developmental projects. The studies have been completed in 50 districts so far and some more are at various stages of completion. Industrial Estate Planning & Development of Eco-Industrial Estates To check the haphazard growth of the industries in the non-conforming areas, a scheme has been taken up to evolve the eco-friendly industrial estates. Such Estates are expected to contain pollution within the stipulated norms as the ambient air quality, water quality and other natural resources have been studied in detail before the identification of environmentally acceptable sites for the development of future industrial estates and to control the land use patterns surrounding these industrial estates. Central Pollution Control Board has identified 12 acceptable sites for the development of eco-industrial estates, out of which, three areas, including Special Economic Zone, Visakhapatnam, Industrial Development Area, Nacharam and Industrial Development Area, Mallapur are in the first phase of the development of eco-industrial estates. The status report of these areas are being taken up through Environmental Protection Training and Research Institute (EPTRI) and Andhra Pradesh Infrastructure Investment Corporation (APIIC). A training of Andhra Pradesh Infrastructure Investment Corporation officials was held in Delhi on Siting of Industries, Industrial Estates, Geographical Information System in December, 2004. Another training programme on Eco-Industrial Estates was carried out at Ahmedabad, during December, 2004. The first visit of a group of German experts (Bayer Industrial Services and Bayer Technology Services) to Andhra Pradesh during 21st to 29th September, 2004 to work out a strategy and road map for the Special Economic Zone, Visakhapatnam. Eco-Cities A scheme of Eco cities is under implementation under Tenth Five Year Plan. Twelve towns have been identified for environmental improvement on the basis of population, occupation and environmental constraints of the locality. During the first phase, the towns of Vrindavan, Ujjain, Puri, Tirupati, Kottayam have been taken up. CPCB has signed Memorandum of Understanding with concerned Municipality and State Pollution Control Board. The draft report for five identified town are at different stages of development. A conference of Eco cities in Making for the officials of concerned Municipalities and State Pollution Control Boards was held at Auroville, Pondicherry for exchange of information and networking. Urban Environmental Information System After the 73rd and 74th Amendments of the Constitution of India, the local self bodies, including Municipalities are bestowed with the responsibility of town planning and environmental protection. A programme called URBAN ENVIS has been initiated which targets at developing Urban Environmental Information System involving the local bodies and publishing an environmental statement or environmental profile bi-annually for each of the identified Municipalities to make information and the environment improvement strategy of the local bodies transparent. So far, eight Municipalities have volunteered to carry out this programme.

Air Pollution
Air quality has increasingly been an issue of social concern in the backdrop of rising industrial and vehicular pollution. The air quality of 92 cities/towns is regularly monitored with respect to three criteria pollutants (sulpher dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and respirable suspended particulate matter) by Pollution
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Control Boards, Universities and Research Institutes. Besides this, additional parameters, such as respirable lead and other toxic traces matters and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are also being monitored in selected cities of the country. The whole data generated are transmitted to CPCB for scrutinisation analysis, compilation and publication as a consolidated report. The exceedence factor is calculated as follows: Observed annual mean concentration of criteria pollutant Exceedence factor = Annual standard for the respective pollutant and area class The available data indicates that the levels of sulphur dioxide is within limit and the levels of oxides of nitrogen and respirable suspended particulate matter exceeds the limits at certain times of the day in religious cities of the country. The details of locations where the values of Particulate Matter exceeded the standards for more than 5% of the stipulated norms is given in Table 7. Non-attainment areas Based on the ambient air quality data from 1995-2003, Central Pollution Control Board has devised a list of non-attainment cities as per Table8. It could be observed from the above data that:
u u Table7: Locations where either Annual Mean or 24-hourly Suspended Particulate Matter concentration violated respective standards State Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Delhi Karnataka Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Goa Kerala Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Prdesh Uttaranchal Chandigarh West Bengal Total Number of Monitoring Locations exceeding Standards Industrial Residential Sensitive 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 14 3 1 2 4 1 2 1 2 3 1 3 11 2 2 2 1 9 1 1 3 55 1 1

High levels of SPM is more prevalent form of air pollution. Motor vehicles is the major source of air pollution in almost all the metro ceities. High domestic use of coal or biomass fuel is still a serious problem resulting in high human exposure to SPM and SO .
2

Auto-Fuel Policy

The Government constituted an Expert Committee on Auto-Fuel Policy which proposed policy measures to reduce air pollution in the selected major cities of the country and a road map for their implementation which includes, cleaner fuels, automobile technologies and enforcement measures. The salient features of the proposed Policy are: Suitable auto fuels with their specifications, taking into consideration the availability and logistics of fuel supplies, the economics of processing auto fuels, and the possibilities of multi-fuel use in different categories of vehicles; u Appropriate automobile technologies, and fiscal measures for ensuring that the social costs of meeting a given level of environmental quality are minimised; u Institutional mechanisms for certification of vehicles and fuels, as also monitoring and enforcement measures. The Committee recommended the following road map for implementation of vehicular emission norms and Auto Fuel Policy:
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Annual Report 2004-2005


Table8: List of non-attainment cities in India (Based on Ambient Air Quality Data 1995-2003) S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. States/Union Territory Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh Chattisgarh City Hyderabad Visakhapatnam Guwahati Patna Chandigarh Bhilai Korba Raipur Delhi Panaji Ahmedabad Ankleshwar Jamnagar Rajkot Surat Vadodara Vapi Faridabad Yamuna Nagar Damtal Paonta Sahib Parwanoo Shimla Dhanbad Jamshedpur Jharia Bangalore Kottayam Kochi Thiruvananthapuram Bhopal Indore Jabalpur Nagda 15. Maharashtra Satna Chandrapur Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nasik 16. 17. Meghalaya Orissa Solapur Shillong Angul Rayagada Rourkela Major Sources of Pollution Vehicles Vehicles, industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Industries Industries Vehicles Vehicles Industries, Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries Industries, Vehicles Vehicles, natural Dust Industries, Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Industries, Vehicles Natural Dust Natural Dust Industries, Natural Dust Natural Dust Industries Industries Industries, Natural Dust Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Industries Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles Vehicles, Industries, Natural Dust Industries Industries Pollutants of Concern RSPM, SPM No2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM SPM SPM SPM RSPM, SPM SPM SO2, NO2, SPM NO2, SPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM SO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM 51

6. 7. 8.

Delhi Goa Gujarat

9. 10.

Haryana Himachal Pradesh

11.

Jharkhand

12. 13.

Karnataka Kerala

14.

Madhya Pradesh

Ministry of Environment & Forests


S.No. 18 States/Union Territory Pubjab City Gobindgarh Ludhiana Jalandhar Alwar Jaipur Jodhpur Kota Udaipur Chennai Madurai Agra Anpara Kanpur Lucknow Gajraula Noida Varanasi Dehradun Kolkata Howrah Major Sources of Pollution Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Pollutants of Concern RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM, NO2 SO2, NO2, RSPM, SPM

19.

Rajasthan

20. 21.

Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh

22. 23.

Uttaranchal West Bengal

Bharat Stage II norms for new vehicles except two & three wheelers, which are in place in the four mega cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai to be extended to Hyderabad, Bangalore, st st Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Pune, Surat and Agra by 1 April, 2003 and entire country by 1 April, 2005. Euro-III equivalent emission norms for all new vehicles except Two and Three wheelers to be applicable st st in 11 cities from 1 April, 2005 and extended throughout the country by 1 April, 2010. Euro-IV equivalent emission norms for all new vehicles except Two and Three wheelers to be applicable st in eleven cities by 1 April, 2010. Bharat Stage-II Emission norms for Two and Three wheelers to be applied through out the country st st by 1 April, 2005 and Bharat Stage III by 1 April, 2008/2010. To meet Bharat Stage-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV equivalent emission norms, matching quality of petro and diesel should be simultaneously made available.
Table9: Auto Fuel Policy for new vehicles Passenger Cars, light 2/3 wheelers commercial vehicles & heavy duty diesel vehicles Bharat Stage II 1.4.2005 Euro III equivalent 1.4.2010 Bharat Stage II 1.4.2003 Euro III equivalent 1.4.2005 Euro IV equivalent* 1.4.2010 Bharat State-II 1.4.2005 Bharat Stage III Preferably from 1.4.2008 but not later than 1.4.2010

u u u u

As per the policy decision, a road map for new vehicles is given in Table9. To implement the road map of the Auto-Fuel Policy, f o l l o w i n g enforcement agencies have been delegated:
u

Coverage

Entire country 11 major cities (Delhi/NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur & Agra)

Ministry

of

* These schedules would be reviewed in the year 2006 after the implementation of emission norms of Euro II in the country and Euro II for 11 major cities.

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Environment & Forests for air quality data and improvement plans. Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas for fuel quality. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways for vehicular emission norms at manufacturing stage and for in-use vehicles. State Transport Departments for monitoring Pollution Under Control at the local level. The Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), Pune for Type Approval.

u u u u

Honble Supreme Court in its various judgements has identified 16 cities as equal or more polluted than Delhi in which action plan for control of air pollution are required to be prepared. State-wise details of these cities is given below:
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Karnataka Maharashtra City Hyderabad Patna Ahmedabad Faridabad Jharia Bangalore Pune Mumbai Sholapur Jodhpur Chennai Agra Kanpur Lucknow Varanasi Kolkata

Central Pollution Control Board has circulated format/ guidelines to all the State Pollution Control Boards/Committees for formulation of Action Plans to cover the following aspects
u u u u

Identification of sources of air pollution. Assessment of pollution load.

Preparation of city-wise Action Plan for control of pollution from the identified sources. and To set up inter-agency task force for the implementation of the Action Plan. Ministry has convened meetings with the concerned State Pollution Control Boards to review the status of preparation of action plans as well as steps taken to implement the same in a time bound manner.

8. 9. 10.

Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh

11.

West Bengal

Vehicular Pollution Control

As the vehicular emissions is the major cause for deterioration of urban ambient air quality, Ministry is facilitating and coordinating in the field of controlling of vehicular pollution with the concerned Ministries and its associated bodies/organizations including the Ministry of Surface Transport, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and the Ministry of Industry in the areas such as up-gradation of automobile technology, improvement in fuel quality, expansion of urban public transport systems and promotion of integrated traffic management etc. The Gross Emission Standards for vehicles have been prescribed from time to time and a road map is prepared to improve the quality of fuel. In consultation with this Ministry, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has published draft amendment rules, GSR.614(E), under the Central Motor Vehicles Rules (CMVR), 1989. As per this draft notification, it is proposed to amend Rule 115 of CMVR prescribing future Road Map for Pollution Under Control (PUC) certification procedure. It is proposed that PUC check shall be done every six months instead of earlier prescribed as six months or any lesser period as may be specified by the State Government from time to time. The Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydro Carbon (HC) emission norms for new generation vehicles manufactured on or after the 1st April, 2000 have also been prescribed in this draft amendments and shall come into force from 1st October, 2004. For reduction of pollution from in-use vehicles, some of the recommended measures include: u New improved Pollution Under Control (PUC) checking system u Inspection & maintenance (I&M) system u Performance checking system of catalytic converter and conversion kits for CNG/LPG and u Compliance of emission norms by city public service and inter state vehicles. For new two and three wheelers, Bharat Stage-II and EURO-III equivalent norms would be introduced in the entire country by April 2005 and April 2008/2010.
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


In addition to various steps taken to control vehicular pollution, studies have been initiated for scientific data collection, source apportionment, emission factors etc. An International conference on Better Air Quality Management was jointly organized by Ministry with Clean Air Initiatives (CAI) Asia during 6-8th December, 2004 at Agra, to promote and demonstrate innovative ways to improve air quality of Asian cities through partnership, sharing of experience and networking of information through close interactions. More than 600 delegates attended this workshop at Agra, and exchanged the ways to implement projects and schemes for improved air quality. Promotion of the Ethanol Blended Petrol and Bio-diesel have also been taken up. A notification has been issued by Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in September, 2002 regarding use of 5% ethanol blended petrol in nine States and four Union Territories. This notification is being implemented from 1st January, 2003 in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and in UTs namely; Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Daman and Dadra & Nagar Haveli.

Industrial Pollution Control


The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has identified 2301 medium and large-scale polluting units covered under 17 categories of highly polluting industries. Out of these 2,301 industries, 1,927 have provided the requisite pollution control facilities, 139 are still defaulting and the remaining 235 are closed. The State-wise status of 2,301 industries as on June, 2004 as detailed in Table10.
Table-10. State-wise status of the medium and large scale polluting units covered under 17 categories of highly polluting industries. Sl. No. State/UT Total 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Meghalaya Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura UT Chandigarh UT Delhi UT Pondicherry Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal TOTAL 54 269 16 46 25 8 283 107 11 10 21 116 43 78 392 1 51 102 108 1 216 5 1 5 8 38 263 77 2301 Status (No. of Units) Complied 240 12 27 21 8 273 69 11 7 16 102 37 61 356 1 42 58 96 1 187 5 0 4 7 20 232 34 1927 Closed 29 3 19 2 0 10 24 0 3 3 14 6 15 26 0 2 17 8 0 2 0 1 1 1 2 27 20 235 Defaulting 0 1 0 2 0 0 14 0 0 2 0 0 2 10 0 7 27 4 0 27 0 0 0 0 16 4 23 139

Annual Report 2004-2005


Legal action has been taken under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 in respect of the defaulting units and in many cases, the matter is pending before the various Courts. Almost all the defaulting units are either in the advance stage of installing the pollution control measures or under legal action for default. The Ministry is also pursuing number of court cases on different subjects like stone crushing, brick kilns, air, water & noise pollution from the industries in High Courts of various states. Industrial Pollution Complaints During the year, Ministry received more Fig 48. Effluent settling plants with greenery than 200 complaints from various individuals/organization/NGOs etc. regarding various pollution problems. These complaints were attended to by calling reports along with the status and comments from the state Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees. The complaints were mostly related to pollution being caused in environmental media like air, water, land and noise resulting in degradation of the eco-system. Some of the complaints were also related to discharge of untreated or partially treated effluent thereby contaminating water bodies, land and ground water. Air pollution complaints were received for certain cement plants, thermal power projects and brick kilns units and complaints for water pollution were received for sugar mills, distilleries, tanneries, paper and pulp industries. Action as required, based on the reports of the Pollution Control Boards were taken and the industries were directed to provide the necessary pollution control measures. The Ministry also under took visits to some of the persistently polluting industries and directed the respective boards for necessary actions.

Environment Protection Authorities


National Environment Appellate Authority (NEAA) The NEAA was established under the National Environment Appellate Authority Act 1997 (22 of 1997) to hear appeals in regard to restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and for matter connected therewith or accidental thereto: The composition of NEAA is as follows:
q q q

A Chairperson (retired Judge of the Supreme Court or Chief Justice of a High Court); A Vice Chairman Members not exceeding three, as the Central Government deems fit

The Authority is located in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Complex, New Delhi and continued to function during the year. The Loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payments of Compensation) Authority for the State of Tamil Nadu In compliance with the Honble Supreme Courts order dated 28th August, 1998 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 914 of 1991 namely; Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum Verus Union of India and Others; the Ministry constituted the Loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payments of Compensation) Authority for the State of Tamil Nadu under the Chairmanship of a retired Judge of Madras High Court (vide notification SO 671(E) dated 30th September, 1996) to deal with the situation created by the tanneries and other polluting industries in Tamil Nadu. The tenure of the Authority has been extended up to 30th September, 2006.
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Environmental Protection and Control Authority (EPCA) Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) for the National Capital Region was constituted under sub-section (1) and (3) of the Section 3 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 on 29th January, 1998 under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhure Lal initially for two years. Subsequently, the composition of the Authority has been enlarged and its tenure extended up to 28th January, 2006. A large number of meetings of the Authority were held and various sites/projects were inspected. The issues considered by the Authority during the period include development of new forest area in Delhi, strengthening of CNG refilling infrastructure, RSPM control in various cities, adulteration of fuels and the matters referred by Honble Supreme Court in its various judgements. The EPCA also reviewed Action Plans for Air Quality Improvements for the cities of Banglore, Kanpur, Hyderabad, Chennai, Sholapur, Lucknow & Ahmedabad and reports are being submitted from time to time to the Honble Supreme Court. Development of Environment Standards In order to control pollution from various sources, the Ministry notifies general as well as industry specific emission and effluent standards for various categories of industries under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The standards are reviewed from time to time and new ones are notified. The standards which are under consideration for notification include emissions from coke oven plants and asbestos units, in effluents of pulp and paper mills, emission standards for Boilers using Agricultural Waste (other than the bagasse) as a fuel, pollution control in Ginning Mills and guidelines for disposal of Drill Cutting and Drilling Fuels for Offshore and On-shore Oil Drilling Operation etc.

Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)


The Ministry has undertaken a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for enabling the Small Scale Industries (SSI) to set-up Common Effluent Treatment Plants in the country for installation of pollution control equipment for treatment of effluents. The criteria for consideration for financial assistance are as follows:
u u u u

u u u u u

u u

CETPs should be in industrial estates or in a cluster of Small Scale Industrial units. Central Assistance will be available only for clusters of SSIs. Projects for assistance will be prioritized on the basis of toxicity of pollutants; Pollution load being generated and to be treated; and number of units covered. The CETPs are to be set up and managed by the State Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (by whatever name known) or through an appropriate institution including a cooperative body of the concerned units as may be decided by the State Governments/SPCBs concerned. The project should be self-supporting for repayment of the loan and meeting operation and maintenance costs. The project must formulate adequate institutional arrangements for cost sharing, recovery of dues and management and ensure observation of prescribed standards. The scheme must have the technical recommendation of the State Pollution Control Boards. The CETP project should have the conveyance system from the individual units to the CETP. Sludge characteristics (i.e. hazardous vs. non-hazardous) from the primary and secondary treatment of the CETP should be estimated. Therefore, the CETP should have a sludge management plan which should be prepared based on the sludge characterization and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project. Possibility of recycling/reusing the treated effluent from the CETPs by the member units should be explored and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project. Possibility of recycling/reusing the treated effluent from the CETPs by the member units should be explored and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project.

56

Annual Report 2004-2005


An environmental management and monitoring plan/programme to be prepared for the CETP and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project. u A legal agreement between the CETP Co. and its member units to be executed be reflected in the feasibility report of the CETP project. u The cost recovery formula developed for the CETP project should be ratified by all members and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project. u Necessary clearance be obtained from the concerned State Pollution Control Board for discharging the treated effluent and be reflected in the feasibility report of the CETP project. u All hazardous waste facilities associated with these CETPs should obtain clearance from the concerned State Pollution Control Board and be documented in the feasibility report of the CETP project. Pattern of Financial Assistance and other related criteria u State subsidy 25% of the total project cost; u Central subsidy 25% of the total project cost; u Entrepreneurs contribution 20% of the total project cost; u Loan from financial institutions 30% of the total project cost. (e.g. IDBI, ICICI or any other nationalized banks, State Industrial Financial Corporation etc.) u If the CETP Co. does not desire to have loans from financial institutions/banks they may augment the same out of their own resources/contributions, i.e. the entrepreneurs would then contribute 50% of the project cost. u Central assistance upto 25% of the total cost of the CETP would be provided as a grant to the Common Effluent Treatment Plant(s) on the condition that a matching grant is sanctioned and released by the State Government. The CETP Company should meet the remaining cost by equity contribution by the industries and loans from financial institutions. u Central assistance will be provided only for the capital costs. No assistance will be provided for recurring costs. The assistance will be released in four equal installments. The first installment of 25% of the assistance will be released when a body has been identified for the purpose of implementing the project, financial arrangements have been tied up, institutional arrangements have been finalized, consent has been obtained from the State Pollution Control Board and State Government has committed its contribution. u It may be of advantage to combine some components of CETP with the municipal system. On such schemes, the municipalities have to pay their share of the cost. u An assessment may be made about the present physical and financial status of the CETPs. Funds released for the CETPs should be utilized for the CETP only and not for payment for debts/banks loans etc. u Large and medium scale industries other than 17 categories of heavily polluted industries may join the CETP after the primary treatment or as considered necessary by the State Pollution Control Board for the purpose of hydraulic load and for techno-economic viability of the CETP. The 17 categories of industries need to provide their own full-fledged effluent treatment facilities to confirm to the prescribed standards before the effluent is discharged. However, the large and medium scale industries would not be entitled for any subsidy meant for SSIs. Financial assistance has been provided for the on-going project in the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. Three new projects have been received and are being reviewed for consideration of financial assistance.
u

Taj Protection Mission


As per the Honble Supreme Courts Order the protection of the Taj Mahal is a national priority for the country. In order to implement various schemes for the protection of the Taj, the Planning Commission approved Rs.600 crores on a 50:50 cost sharing basis with the State Government of Uttar Pradesh to
57

Ministry of Environment & Forests


implement various schemes in the Taj Trapezium Zone in the context of environmental protection of the Taj Mahal. In the first phase during the Ninth Five Year Plan, ten projects were approved and are being implemented by the State Government of Uttar Pradesh. The projects are:
u u u u u u u u u u

Improvement in Electric Supply at Agra, Improvement in Electric Supply in and around the rural areas of Agra and Fatehpur Sikri, Water supply (Agra), Water Supply (Mathura-Vrindavan), Gokul Barrage Solid Waste Management, Storm Water Drainage System (Agra), Consruction of one part of Agra bye-pass, Widening of Agra Bye-Pass, and Improvement of Master Plan of Roads of Agra City.

The Ministry has decided to have a post-evaluation study through National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) for the approved ten projects. The State Government is providing the details project reports and the status to NEERI. No new proposals have been received by the Ministry from the State Government of Uttar Pradesh so far for consideration. UPDATES 2004-05
A project has been sponsored for development of environmental statements in several sectors under environmental audit for the benefit of entrepreneurs, consultants and those involved in assessing the environmental audit statements.
q q

The final report of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on pulp and paper sector has been completed during the year. Studies on techno-economic suitability of silt from Beas-Satluj Link (BSL) project in the manufacture of ordinary portland cement and environmental mapping of Satluj catchment has been taken up during the year. A total of 118 Waste Minimization Circles (WMCs) in 41 industrial sectors have been set up in clusters of Small Scale Industries to facilitate capacity building

in the area of cleaner production.


q

Initiatives have been taken to identify and assess environmental health hazards posed by emissions of mercury from industries using mercury as one of the raw materials. Eight task forces have been constituted by the Ministry for effective implementation of action points enlisted in the Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP). The Ministry has extended the time limit upto 1st January, 2005 to comply with the standards for noise limits of the diesel generator sets up to 1000 KVA, Monitoring of the available air quality data of 92 cities/towns conducted by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) revealed that while the levels of Sulphur Dioxide is within the standard limit, but those for Oxides of Nitrogen and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matters (RSPM) exceeded the limits at certain times of the day in religious cities of the country. It also revealed that high levels of Suspended Particulate Matters (SPM) is more prevalent form of air pollution and motor vehicles were the major source of air pollution in almost all the metro cities. As per Auto Fuel Policy, Euro-III equivalent emission norms for all new vehicles except two and three wheelers will be applicable in 11 cities from 1st April, 2005 and for other cities/towns from 1st April, 2010. Bharat Stage-II Emission norms for two and three wheelers will be applied throughout the country by 1st April, 2005 and Bharat Stage-III by 1st April, 2008/2010. An international conference on better air quality management was jointly organized by the Ministry with Clean Air Initiatives Asia during 6-8 December, 2004 at Agra to promote and demonstrate innovative ways to improve air quality of Asian cities through partnership, sharing of experience and networking of information through close interactions.

58

Annual Report 2004-2005

Central Pollution Control Board


The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), an autonomous body of the Ministry was set up in September, 1974, under the provision of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) and also advises the Central Government on all matters concerning the prevention and control of environmental pollution. Central Pollution Control Board, SPCBs, and PCCs are responsible for implementing the legislation, regulations and guidelines relating to prevention and control of pollution; They also develop rules and regulations which prescribe the standards for emissions and effluents of air and water pollutants and noise levels. CPCB also provides technical services to the Ministry for implementing the provisions of the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986. Air Quality Assessment The air quality of different cities/towns has been compared with the respective National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The air quality has been categorized into four broad categories based on an Exceedence Factor (EF) (the ratio of annual mean concentration of a pollutant with that of a respective standard). The four air quality categories are:
u u u u

Critical pollution (C) : when EF is more than 1.5; High pollution (H) : when the EF is between 1.0 1.5; Moderate pollution (M) : when the EF is between 0.5 1.0; and Low pollution (L) : when the EF is less than 0.5.

It could be seen from the above categorization, that the locations in either of the first two categories are actually violating the standards, although, with varying magnitude. Those, falling in the third category are meeting the standards as of now but likely to violate the standards in future if pollution continues to increase and is not controlled. However, the locations in low pollution category have a rather pristine air quality and such areas are to be maintained at low pollution level by way of adopting preventive and control measures of air pollution. The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out by CPCB at 201 monitoring stations and adequate data for annual average concentration (with 50 and more day of monitoring) for SO2 was received for 182 stations and for NO2 for 180 stations, for RSPM for 166 stations and for SPM for 160 monitoring stations. Details of Monitoring Stations where Ambient Air Quality Monitoring was carried out during 2003
Details of Monitoring Stations where Ambient Air Quality Monitoring was carried out during 2003 Area Type Number of monitoring stations

Ozone

Ozone is monitored at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, Delhi using chemical method. Adequate data Inadequate data formation in SO2 NO2 RSPM SPM SO2 NO2 RSPM SPM Ozone troposphere occurs as a result Residential 105 104 96 91 5 6 8 18 of oxidation of NO to NO2 by Industrial 76 75 69 68 7 8 7 12 reaction with hydrocarbons Sensitive 1 1 1 1 followed by photodissociation Total 182 180 166 160 12 14 15 30 of NO 2 and combination of nascent oxygen with oxygen molecule to form ozone. The range of annual average concentration varied from BDL to 88 g/m3 which is less than the USEPA standard of 235 g/m3 (BDL not detectable below 20 g/m3).
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide is also monitored at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, Delhi using Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectrometry (NDIR) method. The annual average concentration of CO was 2831 g/m3 and monthly average concentration varied from 2143 g/m3 to 4481 g/m3 . The percentage violation of NAAQS (8hourly average) of CO was 63%. High levels of CO might be attributed to increase in vehicular population especially passenger cars in Delhi. Benzene Benzene was also measured in Delhi using Passive method (GC-FID) at various locations in Delhi. The monthly average concentration varied from 2 g/m3 (JNU in July 2004) to 26 g/m3 (ITO in Nov. 2003). The UK standard for Benzene is 16 g/m3 (running annual average concentration). Conclusion It is revealed from the assessment that NAAQS of RSPM and SPM are violated at most of the monitoring stations. NAAQS (Annual average) of SPM was violated at 76% of the monitoring stations in residential areas and 16% of the monitoring stations in industrial areas. NAAQS (Annual average) of RSPM was violated at 75% of the monitoring stations in residential areas and 48% of the monitoring stations in industrial areas. There was no violation of NAAQS of SO2 at any monitoring station. NAAQS (Annual average) of NO2 was violated at six monitoring stations and NAAQS (24 hourly average) of NO2 was violated at ten monitoring stations.
Number of Monitoring stations violating NAAQS (Annual average and 24-hourly average). Area Class SO2 24-Hourly Residential Industrial Sensitive Total 0 Annual 0 8 2 10 NO2 24-Hourly Annual 4 2 6 85 48 133 RSPM 24-Hourly Annual 72 33 105 SPM 24-Hourly 75 31 1 107 Annual 69 11 80

Pollution level

Ambient Air Quality in India during 2003 Annual Mean Concentration Range (g/m3) Industrial (I) SO2 & NO2 RSPM SPM 0-180 180-360 360-540 >540 Residential (R) SO2 , NO2 SPM and RSPM 0-30 30-60 60-90 >90 0-70 70-140 140-102 >102

Low (L) Moderate (M) High (H) Critical (C)

0-40 40-80 80-120 >120

0-60 60-120 120-180 >180

Water Quality Monitoring of National Aquatic Resources


The Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has established a network comprising of 784 stations in 26 States and five Union Territories spread over the country for water quality monitoring of aquatic resources. The monitoring is done on monthly or quarterly basis in surface waters and on half yearly basis in case of groundwater. The monitoring network covers 168 Rivers, 53 Lakes, five Tanks, two Ponds, three Creeks, three Canals, 12 Drains and 181 groundwater Wells. The monitoring results obtained indicate that organic pollution continues to be the predominant pollution of aquatic resources. The organic pollution measured in terms of Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and coliform count gives the indication of extent of water quality degradation in different parts of our country. It is observed 67% of the observations, out of nearly 3000 observations are having BOD
60

Annual Report 2004-2005


List of Cities in which National Ambient Air Quality Standards are violated S.No. State/Union Territory City Major Sources of Pollution Air Pollutants Violating NAAQS (Annual Average) SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM SPM SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM Air Pollutants Violating NAAQS (24 hourly average) RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM SPM SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, SPM SPM SPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM RSPM RSPM RSPM 61

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh Chattisgarh

6. 7. 8.

Delhi Goa Gujarat

9. 10.

Haryana Himachal Pradesh

11.

Jharkhand

12. 13.

Karnataka Kerala

14.

Madhya Pradesh

15.

Maharashtra

16. 17. 18.

Meghalaya Nagaland Orissa

Hyderabad Visakhapatnam Guwahati Patna Chandigarh Bhilai Korba Raipur Delhi Panaji Ahemadabad Ankleshwar Jamnagar Rajkot Surat Vadodara Vapi Faridabad Damtal Paonta Sahib Parwanoo Dhanbad Jamshedpur Jharia Sindri Bangalore Mysore Kottayam Kochi Thiruvananthapuram Kozhikode Bhopal Indore Jabalpur Nagda Satna Chandrapur Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Solapur Shillong Dimapur Angul Rourkela Talcher Gobindgarh Ludhiana Jalandhar

Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Industries Industries Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries, Vehicles Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Industries, Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Natural Dust Natural Dust Industries, Natural Dust Industries Industries Industries, Natural Dust Industries, Natural Dust Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Natural Dust Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Industries Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries, Natural Dust Industries Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries

19.

Punjab

Ministry of Environment & Forests


S.No. State/Union Territory City Major Sources of Pollution Air Pollutants Violating NAAQS (Annual Average) RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM RSPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM Air Pollutants Violating NAAQS (24 hourly average) RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM NO2, RSPM, SPM RSPM

20.

Rajasthan

21.

Tamil Nadu

22.

Uttar Pradesh

Alwar Jaipur Jodhpur Kota Udaipur Chennai Madurai Coimbatore Tuticorin Agra Anpara Kanpur Lucknow Gajraula Noida Varanasi Dehradun Kolkata Howrah Haldia

23. 24.

Uttaranchal West Bengal

Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles Vehicles, Industries Industries Vehicles, Industries Vehicles Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust, Industries Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Natural Dust Vehicles, Industries Vehicles, Industries Industries, Vehicles

less than three mg/l, 18% between three to six mg/l and 15% above six mg/l. Similarly Total and Faecal coliform, which indicate presence of pathogens in water, are also of major concern. About 45% observations are having Total coliform and 58% observations are having Faecal Coliform less than 500 MPN/100 ml. The trends of percentage of observation obtained during different levels of pollution with respect to BOD and Total coliform and Faecal Coliform are presented ahead, indicating different ranges of BOD and Coliform organisms. It is revealed from the data that there is an increasing trend in percentage of observations having BOD below three mg/l. This indicates that there is a gradual improvement in water quality with respect to organic pollution.

Fig 49. National Water Quality Monitoring Network 62

Annual Report 2004-2005

UPDATES 2004-2005
The CPCB has identified 2,301 medium and large scale polluting units under 17 categories of highly polluting industries. Out of these units, 1,927 have provided the requisite pollution control facilities, 139 are still defaulting and the remaining 235 were closed as on June, 2004.
q q

The tenure of Loss of Ecology (Prevention and Payments of Compensation) Authority for the State of Tamil Nadu has been extended upto 30th September, 2006 to deal with the situation created by the tanneries and other polluting industries in Tamil Nadu.
q

Financial assistance was provided for the on-going Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) in the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh during the year as per the norms of central assistance of CETP Scheme.

The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out by CPCB at 201 monitoring stations and adequate data for annual average concentration for oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, RSPM and SPM were received for analysis by CPCB. It has been revealed from the assessment that National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of RSPM and SPM are violated at most of the monitoring stations. NAAQS of SPM was violated at 76% of the monitoring stations in residential areas and 16% of the monitoring stations in industrial areas. The same for RSPM was 75% in residential areas and 48% in industrial areas. No violation of NAAQS of SO2 was observed at any monitoring station. The CPCB in association with State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) continued water quality monitoring of aquatic resources at 784 stations in 26 States and five Union Territories of the country. The monitoring results revealed that organic pollution continued to be the predominant pollution of aquatic resources. It is also revealed from the data that there is an increasing trend in percentage of observations having Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) below 3 mg/litre which indicates that there is a gradual improvement in water quality with respect to organic pollution.

Management of Hazardous Substances


Planning and overseeing the implementation of policies and programmes on management of chemical emergencies and hazardous substances are carried out by the Hazardous Substances Management Division (HSMD) in the Ministry with a mandate to promote safe handling, management and use of hazardous substances including hazardous chemicals and hazardous wastes, in order to avoid damage to health and environment. The activities of the division can be grouped under three main thrust areas, viz., Chemical Safety; Hazardous Wastes Management and Solid Waste Management. The following three International Convenions are also handled by HSMD:
u u u

The Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. The Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals & Pesticides in International Trade. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

Activities carried out during the year in these areas are as follows: Chemical Safety
u

The main instruments for ensuring chemical safety in the country are the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical (MSIHC) Rules, 1989 and the Chemical Accident (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996. As on date, there are 1,580 Major Accident Hazard (MAH) units in 236 Districts, 17 States and two UTs) of the country. As per the latest report, 1,107 Onsite Plans and 138 Offsite Plans have been prepared. State level Crisis Groups have also been constituted by all States/UTs except Andaman & Nicobar, Arunachal Pradesh, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Lakshadweep, Mizoram, Nagaland, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Manipur.
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


u

The Red Book containing details of duties to be performed during emergency, names, addresses and telephones of key functionaries of State Governments, State Pollution Control Boards, Chief Inspectorate of Factories, Experts/Institutions has been updated and published. Out of 180 identified hazard prone industrial pockets, Hazard Analysis studies have been undertaken for 78 pockets. Out of these 78 studies, 77 studies have been completed. A Feasibility Study on Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Transportation of Dangerous Chemicals has been completed for four States having a large number of Maximum Accident Hazardous (MAH) units namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu (i.e., two stretches in Gujarat and Maharashtra and one stretch in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu having maximum traffic for transportation of hazardous chemicals). The objectives of the study included identification of risk, consequences, mitigation measures including preparation of Disaster Management Plans, assessment of status of compliance of the provisions laid down in the Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 for hazardous materials transportation and development of emergency response procedures. The study has been extended to a few more high traffic density transport corridors in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Financial assistance was provided during the year to National Safety Council, Disaster Management Institute (DMI), Bhopal, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry and other State run institutions for conducting training programmes on Emergency Preparedness, Accident Prevention and Hazardous Waste Management. The main objective of the programme is to effectively prepare, prevent and mitigate emergencies arising due to the handling of chemicals and to impart training in chemical emergency/disaster management and hazardous wastes management. Ministry has initiated a project on developing the National Chemicals Management Profile (NCMP) for India under the Indo-Canada Environment Management initiative. The main objective of the project is to develop a national profile to assess Indias infrastructure for managing chemicals, as an important first step to strengthen national capacities and capabilities for sound management of chemicals. A workshop aimed at sensitizing all concerned stakeholders to various aspects of chemical safety in the country was organised in New Delhi where experts from UNITAR provided guidance on the process of preparation of the NCMP for India. The study on Rapid Ranking of Chemical Industries (Batch type handling based on Risk Potential initiated earlier through CPCB was continued. The manual is customized for situations arising out of chemical accidents or emergency situations, which result in sudden loss of containment, rather than chronic or continuous type of emissions. These accidental releases typically cover losses where the entire hazardous material inventory is released within a very short time. A rapid ranking method has been employed for chemical industries handling hazardous chemicals in terms of i) Hazard (basically a combination of consequence effect and frequency of occurrence) and ii) Management Capability for handling the identified hazards. The pilot study entitled GIS based Emergency Planning and Response System with respect to chemical accidents in Major Accident Hazard (MAH) installations in major industrial clusters in four identified industrial States namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh initiated earlier has been completed. The system has been designed to help response agencies namely Central Crisis Group (CCG), District Crisis Group (DCG) and Local Crisis Group (LCG), for planning and rehersing responses to chemical disasters and also during actual emergency situations so as to organise a well planned response and minimize the damages. To ensure proper implementation of the software at the district level, training programmes have been conducted involving personnel of the State and District Crisis Groups of the districts covered under this project. This project has now been extended to cover Delhi-NCT, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab.

u u

64

Annual Report 2004-2005


u

Under the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 as amended in 1992, all the MAH units handling chemicals in excess of the threshold quantities referred to in the Schedule, are mandated to take an insurance policy and deposit an equal amount in the Environment Relief Fund (ERF) to ensure immediate payment to the chemical accident victims. Discussions have been initiated to streamline the implementation of the Act.

Hazardous Waste Management


u

The legal instruments for management of hazardous wastes are the Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules (HW Rules), 1989, as amended in 2000, 2003 and 2004, the Biomedical Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998/2000/2003 and the Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001. Major responsibility for implementing these rules is with the Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)/Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) and also with the State Departments of Environment. The status of implementation of all these rules is regularly monitored by the Ministry. The HW Rules enable the regulatory authorities to control the handling, movement and disposal of hazardous wastes, both indigenously generated as well as imported. The Rules were amended in May 2003 with a view to streamline the implementation of these Rules in an effective manner. The HW st Rules were further amended during July August 2004 to provide time upto 31 December 2004 to used oil reprocessors to switch over to any of the Environmentally Sound Technologies (EST) specified under Rule 21(1) of the HW Rules 2003. As per the earlier available assessment, 4.4 million tonnes of hazardous wastes get generated annually by 13011 units spread over 373 districts of the country, of which the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu account for over 63%. This data was based on the waste categories as per the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989. In view of the amendments to the HW Rules carried out in 2003 and also in view of the directions of the Supreme Court in the matter of W.P. No. 657/95 on hazardous wastes management, fresh inventorisation programmes for hazardous waste generation have been initiated in all the States/UTs of the country by SPCBs/PCCs. So far twenty two States have completed inventorization as per 2003 amendments. CPCB is carrying out random checks on the inventories prepared by the SPCBs after which a National Inventory on hazardous wastes shall be compiled. Preliminary results indicate that the figures relating to the quantity of hazardous wastes generated in the country are likely to be higher than the current available figures. As per the HW Rules, all hazardous wastes are required to be treated and disposed off in an environmentally sound manner as prescribed. During the Tenth Plan period, focus has been given to the setting up of common Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) in different parts of the country. While support would be provided for setting up two such common facilities in major hazardous waste generating states, one facility would be supported in other states. The Ministry has so far supported the setting up of one common TSDF at Maharashtra at TTC-Belapur area, two in Gujarat (Anklesher and Surat) and one in Andhra Pradesh (RR District). The States of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Orissa, Haryana and Punjab are in the process of setting up such facilities. During the year the implementation of the Ankleshwar and Surat TSDF projects were monitored. The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 were notified in
Fig 50. A view of the secured landfill after capping and closure at the TSDF, Ankleshwar 65

Ministry of Environment & Forests


May, 2001 to regulate the colelction, channelization and recycling of used lead acid batteries both indigenously generated as well as imported. These rules inter-alia make it mandatory for consumers to return used batteries. All manufacturers / assemblers / reconditioners / importers of lead acid batteries are responsible for collecting used batteries against new one sold as per a schedule defined in the rules. During the year, one time Registration of importers of new lead acid batteries has been initiated as per the provisions of the Battery Rules. Over 65 importers have been Registered with the Fig 51. Rotary kiln furnace of the common hazardous waste incinerator Ministry till date. The list of Registered importers of new lead acid batteries has been put up in the web site of the Ministry and is updated regularly. The importers have been directed to file the returns regarding collections of used batteries to the concerned SPCBs/PCCs.
u

Comprehensive directions on hazardous wastes management have been given by the Honble Supreme th Court on 14 October 2003, in the matter of W.P. No. 657/95 filed by the Research Foundation for Science Technology and Natural Resource Policy, against Union of India and others. Major directions relate to immediate closure of industries operating in violation of HW Rules, preparation of a National Inventory on hazardous wastes by CPCB based on State Inventories to be prepared by all SPCPs, inventorisation of illegal dump sites of hazardous wastes and preparation of rehabilitation plans for the same, disposal of hazardous wastes lying at various Ports/ICDs/Docks of the country, rationalisation and amendment of Hazardous Wastes Rules 2003, strengthening of SPCBs, CPCB and HSM Division of the Ministry etc. A Supreme Court Monitoring Committee (SCMC) on Hazardous Waste Management constituted by the Ministry in November 2003, in accordance with the directives of the Supreme Court, oversees the compliance to directions of the Court. During the year, four meetings of the SCMC have been held. Based on the discussions of the Committee and inputs provided by the CPCB and other SPCBs/PCCs, three quarterly Monitoring Reports have been filed to the Honble Court. Hearings in respect of W.P. No. 967/89 filed by Indian Council for Enviro Legal Action against UoI and Others on Ground water Pollution and Soil Degradation in Bichhri Village, Udaipur (Rajasthan) due to indiscriminate disposal of toxic wastes, are still continuing in the Supreme Court. The Biomedical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules first notified in 1998 seek to regulate the management of wastes generated by Health Care Establishments of the country. Ministry, through the network of CPCB and SPCBs/PCCs, ensures strict implementation of the Rules. The project on the monitoring and analysis of Dioxins/Furans emissions from the Bio-medical Waste Incinerators has progressed satisfactorily and has been extended during the year. The project being carried out by the Regional

Fig 52. Wheel wash facility at the common TSDF at Surat

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Annual Report 2004-2005


Research Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala is targeted to be concluded by May 2005. Solid Waste Management The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, the Fly Ash Notification, 1999 as amended in September 2003 and the Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules 1999 as amended in June 2003 constitute the regulatory framework for the management of solid wastes in the country. The utilisation of fly ash by Thermal Power Plants is being continuously monitored. The total ash generation by Thermal Power Plants including Captive Power Plants was reported as 106 million tonnes in the year 2003-04. Of this, about 31 million tonnes have been utilised by different sectors which include cement, road embarkments, fly ash bricks and products and back filling of mines. During the year the status of implementation of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules was reviewed. All the SPCBs/PCCs have been requested to take up the matter with the relevant local authorities/civic bodies for preparation of time bound action plans for management of Municipal Solid Waste in accordance with the rules. The Honble Supreme Court also, in the matter of W.P. No.888/96 filed by Ms. Almitra H. Patel against the Union of India and others, has given directions regarding preparation of action plans for metro cities and State capitals for proper management of municipal solid waste. During the year, the project relating to development of a model system on solid waste management being implemented in Kozhikode city in Kerala was reviewed. The Ministry is regularly following up the implementation of the Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999/2003 with the SPCBs/PCCs, who have been empowered to register the manufacturers of carry bags or containers of virgin/recycled plastics. International Conventions/Protocols Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-Boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
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India is a signatory to the Basel Convention since 1992, which requires countries to ensure that hazardous wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner and transboundary movements of such wastes are reduced to a minimum. An Indian delegation led by Honble Minister for Environment and Forests participated in the 7 th Conference of Parties to the Basel Convention held at Geneva during 25-29 October, 2004.
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Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
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The Ministry participated in the 11 Session of the Inter Governmental Negotiating Committee Meeting as well as in the first Conference of Parties held in September 2004. A high level official delegation participated in these meetings. Action has been initiated to ratify and accede to this Convention, which has come into force in February, 2004.

th

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) India has signed the Stockholm Convention on POPs in May 2002. The Convention seeks to eliminate production, use, import and export of 12 POPs wherever technol-economically feasible and in the interim period restrict the production and use of these chemicals. This Convention has come into force in May 2004. Ministry has assigned Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow the study A preliminary Enabling Activity Project to prepare a National Implementation Plan (NIP) as a fist step to implement the Stockholm Convention on POPs with UNIDO as an Executing Agency, under GEF assistance. Under this study, 10 interactive workshops were organized in different cities to collect and collate POPs related data. Based on the studies, ITRC has prepared the Final Project Brief. The Inter-ministerial Steering
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Ministry of Environment & Forests


Committee has reviewed the report and further follow up actions on the recommendation and findings of the study are being taken by the Ministry. Institutional Strengthening The scheme for strengthening the manpower and infrastructure of the SPCBs/PCCs to ensure effective implementation of various Rules relating to Hazardous Substances Management was continued during the year.

UPDATES 2004-2005
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Feasibility study on vulnerability and risk assessment of transportation of dangerous chemicals were completed for four States, namely, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu having a large number of Maximum Accident Hazard (MAH) units. The pilot study entitled GIS based Emergency Planning and Response System with respect to Chemical Accidents in MAH Installations in major four industrial clusters in the four States, namely, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has been completed and now been extended to cover other States including NCT of Delhi.
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q The Ministry has provided financial assistance for setting up of one common Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) in Maharashtra, two in Gujarat and one in Andhra Pradesh. q

An Indian delegation led by Honble MEF participated in the VII Conference of Parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, held at Geneva during 25-29 th October, 2004. A high level official delegation of the Ministry participated in the XI Session of Inter-Governmental Negotiating Committee Meeting as well as in the First Conference of Parties held in September, 2004 on Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure (PIC) for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade.

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