Chapter 1.

The Problem and its Background  Introduction o Introduction should contain any or all of the following:  Presentation of the problem  The existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt problem that needs a solution.  Rationale of the study  Historical background of the problem  A desire to have a deeper and clearer understanding of a situation, circumstance, or phenomenon  A desire to have a better way of doing something or of improving products.  A desire to find or to discover something.  A link between the introduction and statement of the problem. Background of the Study o This is brief statement of the origin of the problem. It is an account describing the circumstances that suggested the research. It may include a justification of a selection or choice of the study. o The background of the study should contain discussion of the existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt problem that needs a solution. Statement of the Problem / Statement of Purpose o The problem studied must be shown as one that arose from a situation of need or of unresolved difficulties. The readers must be made recognize this need. o There should be a general statement of the whole problem followed by the specific questions or sub-problems into which the general problem is broken up. o The problem/objectives should be stated precisely, accurately, and clearly. o Should specify what the researcher is trying to find out. o Should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-bound) o It can be stated in declarative or interrogative form. o It can be either one main statement/question, or a series of statements/questions, or a combination of these forms. o The problem should be defined in terms of the data that can be obtained.

o Limits of the study need to be properly defined. where the data were gathered or the entity to which the data belong. their number.  Possible solutions to existing problems or improvement to unsatisfactory conditions. Significance of the Study o The significance of the study must contain explanations or discussions of any or all the of the following:  The rationale and relevance of the study. o In technical research.  The period of the study (When?)  Specify what are included in the study and what are excluded.  Who are to be benefited and how they are going to be benefited.  . the potential contribution of the research to new knowledge. The scope is expected to indicate a reasonable area of study in which it is large enough to be significant but narrow enough to permit careful treatment. the variables to be studied. materials used. this section should state why the problems investigated are important and what significance the results have. However. instruments or research design should be stated. o This part is usually required of research proposals so that the research can be justified. It should indicate a statement or relevance to felt needs. The study should justify itself. (Where?)  The population from which the respondents were selected. the significance does not have to be stressed by the researcher. Scope and Delimitation of the Study o The scope and delimitations should include the following:  A brief statement of the general purpose of the study (Why?)  The subject matter and topics studied and discussed (What?)  The locale of the study. and policy implications and other possible uses of its results. in case it is required as part of a report.  Possible implications. the treatments they received. etc must be included. In the final report however. any limitations that exist in the reference population. The nature of the subjects treated. o The scope of the problem should be specifically.

that is. books. o The researcher may develop his own definition from the characteristics of the term defined. clear. dictionaries. o Definition may be taken from encyclopedias. Definition of Terms o Only words or phrase which have or unique meanings in the study are defined. . magazines and newspaper articles. and unequivocal as possible. o Terms should be defined operationally. and other publications but the researcher must acknowledge his sources. o Definition should be as brief. o Acronyms should always be spelled out fully especially if it is not commonly known or if it is used for the first time. how they are used in the study.

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