The Abbreviated Letters (the Muqatta`at ) in the Quran – a Solution

Robert Kerson
The Quran has a mystery of disconnected letters at the beginning of a number of Surahs
(Chapters). Over the centuries many attempts have been made to explain this. What I purpose is
another in a long line of attempts done over many centuries. The reader must be aware this is
presented as a theory, and as such is only as strong in making a case as the evidence I am
presenting. It was never considered possible to explain the Muqatta’at in a unified and in a
completely comprehensive manner. But this paper does just that with statistical, geometric and
mathematical proofs.
The theory that the letters were old abbreviations of the Basmalah has a number of problems
to overcome: explaining why the number of Surahs having groups of two to five Muqatta’att
letters were the same number of letters constituting the 28 letter alphabet? Why did an additional
single unique letter (nuun) making a total of 29 Muqatta’at letters correspond with the addition of
a single unique special letter called hamza to the 28 regular letter alphabet making a total of 29
letters? Why were the number of alphabet letters used exactly half the number of regular letters
(14 is half of 28)? Another example of the use of the number 14 concerns the grouping of letters.
Why were the letters grouped from single letters, two letters, three letters, four letters, and five
letter combinations?1. This paper easily answers all of these questions and more.
This requires the current new Arabic alphabetic order (called the hija`i order) –an ordering of
the alphabet which groups letters by similar appearance.
1. With a pen draw this alphabetic order of letters in a particular arranged pattern which I have
rediscovered residing in a non- Arabic source predating the Quran by many centuries and also
being utilized by a number of different cultures. (These facts are fully discussed in my book. I
have not made up conceived this pattern by any means.) I call this the Cos2 Pattern (see Fig. 1).


“The Mysterious letters of the Koran. Old Abbreviations of the Basmalah”, James A.
Bellamy, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 93, no 3(Jul-Sept.), 1973, pp. 267-285

See appendix at end of article concerning the Cos Pattern

Fig. 1. The Arabic alphabet placed on the Cos Pattern
Numbering of letters shown below letters. Black bars placed over Abbreviated Letters.

2. Taking the abbreviated Letters (the Muqatta`at), line by line as written in Quran, without
lifting the pen between letters draw lines from each of the twelve points representing each
grouping of two or three letters in the Cos Pattern. The resulting design3 is a solution. Thus you
would draw the letters Alif, laam, miim r q U a line from the letter Alif ( U ) grouping to the

letter laam ( q ) grouping, and without lifting the pen draw another line from the letter laam ( q )
to the letter miim ( r ). ( see Fig. 2).


The design drawn out is not a real image of any living thing and hence is not an offence
to the Quran. The design has even less realism then can be seen in images of animals such as
lions drawn out of strokes of Arabic letters which was and still is an ancient art form. Also, the
drawings are very crude for example, the descending dove has no feathers or joints drawn, the
body has no head nor feet nor even a body but consists merely of a vertical stroke to represent the
body of a dove.

Fig. 2. letters alif laam miim draw these lines:

The next line repeats the first, so no change occurs in the drawing. The reputation of lines allows
the final count to be 29 lines, the significance of which will be discussed later.
The next line creates the closed pattern h r q U
Fig. 3. Letters alif laam miim saad draws out these letters
Previously drawn lines shown dashed. New drawn line shown solid.

The next line creates the mirror imaged pattern d q U.


The next line creates a closure d r q U Fig. 5. 4 . 4. Letters alif laam raa draws out these lines Previously drawn lines shown dashed. New drawn line shown solid.Fig. New drawn line shown solid. Letters alif laam miim raa draws out these lines Previously drawn lines shown dashed.

) color coding described in text. 7. 19. 3. 10. 7. 11. Fig. 50. Letters are not abbreviations. If you do not know the Cos Pattern nor do you know that the hija’i alphabetic pattern must be laid out on the Cos Pattern. 38. 12. nor do they represent numbers. 42. 13. The full completed pattern (This figure is redrawn in the appendix to show the mirror image of two of the lines. 10. then the letters are a complete mystery as you are lacking the keys. If the alphabet order 5 .Note the perfect pattern of creating one wing then another of a descending dove created by the letters in Surahs 2. and that the abbreviated letters are used to draw connecting lines. 14. They simple are placed to create the above pattern. 26. The entire pattern can be drawn out without repetitions by 11 lines which are found in the following Surahs (Chapters) 2. and 15. but a definite geometrical plan. 6. a major proof this was not a random use of letters. 13. 68. 40.

i. Note. 6a. A particular olive leaf bearing dove is described in the Torah’s story of Noah and the great flood. the two ambiguous ink spots [yellowish circles]. Dove lines but after the Addlines. can be seen as an olive leaf in the beak of the descending dove (D. then changing back into the upright staff. A letter meaning ‘snake’ is one of the letters drawing out this snake. Detail of addlines– a snake into a staff 6 . I can subdivide the pattern into the following six parts: the Descending Dove (D.) (Because the serpent. This makes the image even less representational of a descending dove holding an olive leaf in its mouth.) Fig. they may be part of the D.were different.e. I have put them separately here. The Moses snake/staff add lines draws out a pattern of an upright staff thrown down on the ground to become a horizontal snake. draws out a single penned unambiguous ink spot (this ink spot was neither an add line nor a line making the descending dove. Note how near vertical staff can be lowered to the ground and vice versa. Dove) [black lines]. Dove or part of the addline portion of the design. the Leaf Line [light blue line]. A single line in the beak of the dove. Also note how the cobra like head seems to stretch out on the ground. Two single Arabic letters will draw out two ambiguous ink spots. and the single fish/pen unambiguous Ink Spot [blue spot]. A single letter meaning ‘fish’ or ‘pen’ appearing nowhere else in the letter order. This dove involves the story of Jonah (a dove in Hebrew and Arabic) and a great fish. the Moses snake/staff addlines [red lines]. other letters in place would still create this same pattern. The lines drawing the Descending Dove created the pattern of a dove at the moment of touchdown with wings uplifted.cobra like addlines are somewhat hard to envision.the Leaf Line is not drawn after the D. which means the dove’s image does not have a leaf in its mouth until after the extra addlines are added. Dove).

The mirror image of the letter o on the Cos Pattern is the letter b . Noting the existence of the following absolute rule offers very important proof that I am duplicating the Segment Letters as they were first worked 1600 years ago. so they could have removed the latter. But the line by line rule consistently introduces letters left to right. Examination of Table 1 from line (29) to line (1) reveals the proceeding sentence is true.or half of 28 (a special letter called hamza ( — ) or 29th letter and the significance of the numbers 14. Thus this three letter grouping unitizes each of the three letters in order from left to right. This rule of introducing letters left to right is never violated. the letters always are introduced (first letter to be written) line by line in the Qur'an left to right. 1 and Table 1 for all of the following. j because the letter means snake and a snake / staff of Moses are in the design as explained later. only letters of a unique shape or dot free forms of letters were chosen. These letters were mandatory: s because the letter means fish and pen and the design was drawn by a pen and fish is important as explained later. 28. As we added the former letter. The letter o also was mandatory to be used as a letter because it was needed to complete the drawing of the lined figure. ) 2. 11th.) The rule: In any location having two or more Segment Letters. but which one to remove? 5. (Turn to Fig. This allows thirteen letters: w o r q p h j h f d b ` U 4. which reads before Kaaf ( o ) at location in bottom row. Now we have a total of 14 letters which are: w o o s r q p h j h f d ` U which are the 14 letters used in the Quran’s Segment Letters. The statistical probability of this being do to random chance is 1 chance in 1x10 13. The letters X Z c e k u ( these letters are the 3rd. 3. The total number of letters used in the Muqatta`at is half the number of letters in the alphabet-14-. 9th. and 29 will be detailed later. This is even more remarkable considering the alphabetic order in Figs. The reader can find many more examples of introducing new letters left to right. We now have a total of 15 letters: w o s r q p o h j h f d b ` U If one letter was removed the total would be 14 letters. Examples: Laam( q ) is introduced before Qaaf ( p ). reversing the alphabetic order of the bottom half. 17th . 5th. 1 and 6 is reading left to right in the top half and is reading right to left in the bottom half. Of the letters which are in groups connecting lines. and 27th letters of this alphabetic order) were rejected because they are in groups not part of the line pattern. 7 .Which letters were chosen and which were rejected may have been chosen by the following method: 1.

Right hand side shows in round brackets the first 14 numbers of first and second GoRounds and single number in third GoRound.Arabic letters per Surah number. First column– The counting pattern of 2-7-2-7-2 consecutive lines. Third column . Dove rqU 1 (2) [2] 8 . Adding twelve to previous numbers are shown with fancy brackets { }.Type of line shown color coded as in Fig.Table 1 Table is fully discussed within the text. 6. Fifth ColumnLeft hand side shows GoRound number. Fourth column. Dove rqU 1 (1) [1] 2 3 D. The pattern is advanced by 11 lines shown in bold. The square brackets show the total Go Round count. Asterisk on two related Surahs. count lines Surah number type of line (color coded) Surah letters GoRound/counts 1 2 {2+12=14} D.Surah number. Second column .

Dove dqU 1 (8) [8] 7 15 D. Dove hrqU 2 10 D. Dove dqU 1 (6) [6] 5 13 D. Dove rqU 2 (3) [17] 7 32 D. Dove dqU 1 (9) [9] 1 19 Snake/Addline hlw o p 1 (10) [10] 2 20 Snake/Addline o j 1 (11) [11] 1 26 {26+12=38} Snake/Addline rf j 1 (12) [12] 2 27 Snake/Addline f j 1 (13) [13] 3 28 Snake/Addline r f j 1 (14) [14] 29 D. Dove rqU 2 (2) [16] 6 31 D.1 7 D. Dove dqU 1 (5) [5] 12 D. Dove 3 11 1 (3) [3] dqU 1 (4) [4] D. Dove d rq U 1 (7) [7] 6 14 {14 +12=26} D. Dove rqU 2 (1) 5 30 D. Dove rqU 2 (4) [18] 4 4 9 * * [15] .

on head of dove.1 36 Snake/Addline fw 2 --------- 37 skip a space - - - 2 38 {38+12=50} Ambiguous ink spot on line pattern h 2 39 skip a space - - - 1 40 Leaf Line r ` 2 (7) [21] 2 41 Leaf Line r ` 2 (8) [22] 3 42 Leaf Line-. in mouth. Three letters finish connecting design on feet of dove 4 5 43 Leaf Line r ` 2 (10) [24] 44 Leaf Line r ` 2 (11) [25] 45 Leaf Line r ` 2 (12) [26] 46 Leaf Line r ` 2 (13) [27] 1 50 Ambiguous ink spot on line pattern o 2 (14)[28] 2 68 {56+12 = 68} Unambiguous The Ink Spot s 3 (1) [29] 6 7 10 .two letters on top. r ` 2 (9) [23] ----------- (5) [19] (6) [20] of l addline.

Numbers above 114 in the fifth GoRound are of no significance in this paper and are not discussed. four letter combinations. The bottom row of numbers in the next above squares are the numbers of the second GoRound. The Cos Pattern is drawn as red lines. Just as letters may be placed on the Cos Pattern. The Cos Pattern is drawn as red lines. There is a theory that the letters are initials of the compilers of the surahs. two letters combinations. 11 . Fig. The bottom row of numbers in the next above squares are the numbers of the third GoRound. This is most noticeable in with the placement of the letters o and s. 7. and five letter combinations within 29 surahs (chapters or ) as shown in Table 1. the specific order of surahs having these letters as detailed in the next section makes it highly unlikely this was randomly arranged.The segment letters were composed of single letters. Counting from 1 to 180 on the Cos Pattern The bottom row of numbers in the bottom squares are the numbers of the first GoRound. Likewise. This is highly unlikely since I have demonstrated the letters are following a specific order to draw out this pattern. Below is the counting of numbers from 1 to 180. so too can numbers be placed on the same pattern. three letters combinations.

12 .

13 .

numbers 113 and 114 are linked as the start of the fifth GoRound row. rides or is seen placed over number 1— the letter alif ( U ) (This letter occupies the position of the tip of a cow’s horn. This position can also be the base of a house and the non Abbreviated Letter meaning ‘house or bet’ is at this position. If we see what numbers are directly above these two numbers in the fifth GoRound row. This letter called the hamza cannot exist without being attached to another letter. As in the pattern. The Quran nominally is composed of 112 (the end of the fourth GoRound) Surahs or with two– 113 and 114 closing the entire book. Likewise the number ending the previous fourth GoRound row is 112. A number of important facts are revealed. so also were Surah’s 113 and 114 linked in the Quran. as seen in Fig. (Indeed.Twenty eight numbers will count out one repetition around the twelve two and three groupings of this pattern. The design may be the germinal idea for the hamza. The first GoRound row of 28 numbers also can represent the 28 letters of the Alphabet. The start of the second GoRound begins with the number 29. The letter means ‘cow’. ( — ) The hamza riding over the alif looks like this : Q . Thus the major fact that there are exactly 114 is very significant because this matches perfectly the numbering on this pattern. These are the important numbers of days within one month or the number of days the moon takes to repeat a phase. have to ride over the alif ( U ) . This letter. GoRound number beginning number ending number first 1 letters start here 2 8 letters finish here second 29 56 third 57 84 fourth 85 112 fifth 113 142 only hamza here 2.) The number of surahs having letters is 29 or one GoRound plus the first number of the second GoRound (28+1= 29). The number of surahs having letters is 14 . The first number of the second GoRound row – 29 can be a 29th letter. 1. 1. followed by 30. Table 2 The GoRound row numbers Table shows locations of beginning and ending GoRound row numbers. The following table shows first five GoRounds starting at the lowest or the first GoRound row having the numbers 1 through 28. Then there are three more GoRounds plus the first two numbers of the fifth GoRound makes the entire book [112 +(113 and 114)]. I call each row a ‘GoRound’. Surah 2 is called ‘the Cow’. we reach the numbers 113 and 114. early copies did have 112 Surahs since two Surahs 93/94 and 105/106 were once combined.) A special Arabic 29th letter does exist which does in fact. (The fifth GoRound is important as the number 5 is also the number to times one is to pray daily.

We can say that the number 14 is half the number of letters in the Arabic alphabet (14+14=28). Top pattern lacks these two elements. you can draw the entire line pattern without ever lifting the pen or retracing over a line. 15 . In the first GoRound there are 14 numbers. If we add the single letter hamza( — ) as the 29th letter. Ambigous spots] and the final letter of the pattern the nuun ( s ) which creates the final drawing-the Ink Spot.) The former two letters of the line design also has a unique property: excluding the short central horizontal Leaf Line (drawn by haa miim ( r ` ) seen in the bottom design. A very important fact is revealed. you can start at the grouping where the right hand letter is Saad ( h ) seen as the upper left hand spot position in the top design. The number 14 is important because there are exactly 14 letters making up the (and also the number of days in half a month). and 1 in the third. 7 above shows where these Surahs are located on the Cos Pattern. to reach the right hand letter Kaaf ( o ) seen as the lower spot position in the top design. (see Fig. we get 14 +14+1= 29. 8. 8 below) Fig. Table 1 shows which of the 29 Surahs have letter combinations. (The other two are Kaaf ( o ) the final letter completing the drawing of the line design [D.about 1/4 the total number of surahs. Addlines. 14 letters in the second. Another important use of the number 14 is that the fourteenth letter of this order is the letter saad ( h ) which happens to be one of three single letters in the Muqatta’at. Leaf Line. This is identical with the Surah count of 14 letters in the first GoRound row. in the second GoRound there are 14 numbers. but it also can be seen in terms of GoRounds. Table 1 and Fig. and in the third GoRound row there is one number. Full pattern below includes Leaf Line and Ink Spot.Dove.

3. These 7 Surahs (do not seem to fit the pattern. See Fig. 6). These are the only two Surahs consisting of four letters. 7. This is the first 2 Surahs.32) draw out D. but something else is occurring. The added fourth letters are both in top corners of the Cos Pattern (see Fig. (We cannot add 50+12 = 62 because 62 is in the third GoRound row. This accounts for five Surahs (Remember 5 is an important number of this design. (It is quite impossible for this being pure coincidence. and 50. We get 2+12 = 14 then 14 +12 = 26 then 26+12 = 38 then 38 +12 = 50.31. we will start with the lowest number other then Surah 1. 12. 3. 14. 6 and Table 2 ). 13. 27. ( Does not work well if we start with 1 and Surah 1 is the opening Surah. The division between addline and D.) We must add the very significant number “12" because the Cos Pattern is composed of “12" groupings. 2. 5. ) What of the other 24 Surahs (12*2=24) making a total of 29 Surahs having letter groupings? The master plan of how the Surahs were chosen and which letters were assigned to which Surah could be the following: Consecutive Surahs have this arrangement— 2. If we examine the single 5 letters and two letters of Surah 19 and 20. 7.Use of Cos Pattern on the placement of lines Now I shall demonstrate how the placement of lines could have been worked out using this numbering placement on the Cos Pattern.) (See Table 1) We started with Surah 2 having r q U . This letter draws the addline snake. 30. you will notice they appear to have some different letters. 2. 4. They are at the start and finish of this 7 count. 11. There are 1. Why number 26? Remember we have to use Surah numbers 2. Then the consecutive Surah 3 has the same three letters. Also if you count you will notice these are the 14 16 . 27. 15) we reach another four letter Surah (15) which adds the letter d after the letters r q U . but when you examine Figs. The first three consecutive Surahs (26.Dove lines.(7. 20). and they both make up the two tips of the dove’s wings. 6 and 6a you will note that they both are drawing out an identical segment of the starting five letter addline! Surah 20 has the letter j which in Arabic means snake. 5 letters in the various lines of letters. Then comes 7 consecutive Surahs all having the letters either d q U and an additional fourth letter either a h or d . 28) draw addlines. Keeping in mind we must have 14 Surah numbers within the first GoRound row and 14 Surah numbers with the second. 10. Also all three Surahs in the Quran mentioning Mose’s staff and snakes (20. and 28) have this letter which is very significant. Next we count another 7 consecutive Surahs starting at Surah 26. 7. 38. Note the pattern: Surah 7 which adds the letter h after d q U . The last four consecutive Surahs (29. If we count 7 consecutive Surahs starting on from 7--. 2. Starting with Surah 2 we consecutively add the number 12 to each previous number.Dove occurs exactly at the end of the first GoRound and the beginning of the second (number 28 is the last number of the first Goround and 29 is the first number of the second. We have concluded drawing the dove and will commence drawing out the Addlines starting with another group of 2 Surahs (19. 14. 2. 26.

28). Look at the Leaf Line drawn by the letters r ` in Fig. 20. you will notice after the numbering of 40. 6. The last letter ends in o.Dove lines. This is the second 5 letter arrangement (The other is the start of drawing Addlines in Surah 19. These five letters in Surah 42 hold 17 . 44. Now you will count the 14 Surahs of the second GoRound starting on 29. Next comes a grouping to 2 consecutive Surahs. 43. Now compare it with the locations of the 7 Surahs which draw out this line (40. 41. (The letter r means water in Hebrew and in Egyptian hieroglyphs. 6 and 9 and 9a. They are identical locations on the Cos Pattern! Number 40 is the left most number of its grouping and number 46 is the right most number if its grouping. Surah 36 is a special surah as it is considered the heart of the Quran in which all major themes are contained within.) This arrangement has the Leaf Line drawing by two letters above three letters.all are discussed in this paper. but both letters draw out the same line making the horizontal line at bottom of the design. 41. Another fact: If you examine the design of the Cos Pattern. 32 ) repeating the first letter sequence of D. 42. 38. 13. This will not work with any other arrangement such as utilizing Surahs 39. 47 since the former is out of the two groupings. the line goes on a diagonal to numbers 43. 12. Cow--snake– fish— water--.) Here are very important facts which help to prove this paper correctly explains the Muqatta’at. 44. 44. Thus the five letters of two above three you see in the Quran are the actual arrangement of these same two above and three below for a total of five letters made visible in Figs. 3. (This surah is named for its abbreviated letters and not named as a word. 14. All three letters are o f l . 42. The Leaf Line is draw out by the two letters r ` . 31. 6 and you will notice the head of the dove has the two letters r ` drawing out the Leaf Line. 41. Dove lines. one of three letters as discussed previously in this paper. 45. So we have the pattern of alternating D. 46) in Fig. 7. These are further proofs my theory of the Abbreviated Letters is valid. 27. 45. Next comes the final group of 7 Surahs. 19. Thus the numbering of the Surahs follows the design of the Cos Pattern and is a major piece of evidence that the Cos Pattern existed and was utilized in the Muqatta’at. 14. 50. 45 or Surahs 41. Now examine Fig. This letter has an association with water because the olive leaf carried by a dove meant the waters of the flood was drying up. These three letters draw out the final lines of the figure with the final letter actually completing the pattern. 10.Dove lines with Addlines. and the latter goes beyond the starting number of this grouping which is 46. the first important single letter h . 45. 15. 43.Surahs of the first GoRound (2.) Next we arrive at surah 38. 44. 7. One line must have the number 38 as it is one of the 6 mandatory numbers 2. 6 and their respective Arabic letters match details giving in their respective Surahs. If we were to count backwards from 38 and skip one number 37 we would reach number 36 a single addline after a group of D. Thus a number of letters have meanings which match the design seen in Fig. 42. and the feet position of the dove has the three letters o f l drawing out the final addlines completing the pattern. 40. 30. 26. Here we have the single Olive Leaf Line held in the beak of the descending dove. 42. 43. 46. 11. 46 then a vertical line up to number 46. 26. There are four consecutive numbers (29. Surah 26 has the letter j and surah 36 w has a different letter. Surah 42 presents another major piece of evidence. This concludes this grouping of 7 Surahs.

(( r ) is the 24th letter of the Arabic Alphabet. 9. See Figs. A red and a blue lines are parallel only between two points highlighted in yellow – where the five letters of Surah 42 ( r ` of l) are located.Dove and Addline letters at surah 36. Overlapping Cos Pattern and Letter Muqatta’at. but only here. the vertical line from the letters laam q to miim r does match a line of the Cos Pattern. Fig. are found at the top (the head of the descending dove) and bottom (the feet of the descending dove) of the design and are on either side of the leaf line r ` as if framing the leaf line. For example the letters alif laam draws a diagonal line not matching any line of the Cos Pattern . 9 and 9a) Also.another important fact: this is the only place were the lines drawn match the lines of the Cos Pattern. ( q ) is the 23rd letter of the Arabic Alphabet. Cos pattern in red. the two letters which are in combination with other letters and are also found as single letters h o (the ambiguous letters in table 1). Letter Muqatta’at in blue. The letters o f l are the last of the addlines after the final grouping of D. 1 and 6) 18 . (See Figs. The letters r ` to o f l are on the same vertical line.

Also the letter sequence is r ` and not ` r . ( occurring as a single letter in Surah 38) we would see this as a drawn ambiguous ink spot – can be part of the D. The lines are always drawn toward the dove and never away from it. A single Surah can be added to make 29 Surahs. 1. as with the letter h .Fig. 26. 10) We have 14 Surah numbers in the first GoRound row. (2. Dove or part of the Moses snake/staff addlines. 38. (see Fig. Finally we come to the final piece of the Muqatta’at. The letters of Surah 42 last letters are at top and bottom of descending dove. Also note that we find the second of the three single letters o the final letter within Surah 42 and as a single letter in Surah 50. 10 and Table 1) First notice these are 5 numbers where the number 5 is very important as it is the number of times one is to pray daily. 14. and another 14 Surah numbers in the second making a total of 28 Surahs. Again. No new letter combinations occur between Surah 42 and 50. identical with the added hamza — making the 29th letter of the alphabet. 9a. Thus the line figure is drawn completed. 50 ). (see Figs. This Surah must be a number within the third GoRound row (a number 19 . Next we come to the final Surah from the first and second GoRounds– the mandatory number 50.

6. Also it shows the series of letters such as alif.greater than 56 see table 2). laam. and five letter combinations. This pattern also is composed of a single line. and five line combinations just as the Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at is composed of single letters. Another relationship between Surah 68 and 96 is that the word ‘pen’ on the Abbreviated Letter nuun ( s ) in Surah 68 occurs in the beginning of Surah 96 where the word ‘pen’ is written.Surah 68 (This Surah talks about Jonah– the word means ‘dove’ and he was the friend of a fish). in the second.yes-. The preceding facts help to demonstrate that the Surahs of the Quran were laid out using the principles demonstrated in this paper and go far beyond the statistical probability of being pure chance. Dove begins with the letter alif (U ). The pattern of Fig. the resulting design would be a random series of lines and not the perfect design of Fig.the number 56 and added the number 12 as shown previously with the additions of 12 starting on the number 2. miim( r q U ) etc. 7. since thousands of other groupings of letters would never create this exact design. four letter combinations. two letter combinations. As Surah 68 has the second oldest revelation. and 68 in the third. this letter must be drawn as an ink spot not connected to any line. 7 and 9. The first wing of the descending dove is closed by the letter saad ( h ) in surah 7. or if another arrangement of the alphabet were to be laid out on the Cos Pattern. three line combinations. 6. 20 . 6 is composed of 13 lines and adding the nuun (s ) ink spot we get a 14th part. If a random pattern other then the Cos Pattern was to be chosen. I believe someone took the last number of the second GoRound row . the number 96 does have a hidden association with the last Surah of the Muqatta’at– Surah 68. four line combinations. This strengthens the argument. If a single new letter is used it may or may not connect with any of the lines drawn in previous lines. 42. 41. Both letters occupy the same location.) Here are important facts concerning these letters (see table 1): The D. the last number of third GoRound row. 6 is the correct design. 40. Although no number within the fourth GoRound exists in the Muqatta’at. a grouping has the numbers 7 in the first GoRound row. three letter combinations. the number 12. Surah 68 is the location of the second oldest revelation revealed to Mohammed. If we add to 84. Dove or addline part of the pattern. Fig. Notice in Figs. Notice the tie in between the placements of these important Surahs both having a connection with the Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at. These two letters h and o are singles classified as ambiguous since they can be either part of the D. we get 84+12=96 – a number in the fourth GoRound row. (Also the pattern is composed of no (0) lines which matches Surahs having no (0) letters. so also does Surah 96 have the very first revelation revealed to Mohammed. is the correct letters needed to create Fig. two line combinations. A single letter nuun ( s ) meaning fish or pen is in-. The number then becomes 56 + 12= 68 falling within the third Goround row. This number can be seen directly over number 68 in Fig. The first addline begins with the letter p and ends with the letter o both letters occupy the same location. Since this letter is not paired with any other in the Muqatta’at.

The 14 numbers (2. Fig. 11. 15. Taken from chapter 6 of my book Sacred Stones Sacred Stories vol. The 14 numbers (29. Only one Surah number ( 68) exists. 7. such as substituting ( n q g ) for ( r q U ) ]. 36. 50 ) in the second GoRound are shown with blue dots. 19. 12. 1. 46. 44. The third GoRound over the second has only one number shown drawn in green with a yellow background. 41. 26. 45. 30. 31. 20. 10. the highest or last number in the third GoRound shown with a green dot. 14.[There are other letters which can create the design. 40. 43. The second GoRound up over the first is highlighted in blue. 27. 32. 38. 28) in the first GoRound are shown with red dots. 42. Surah number locations on the Cos Pattern The first or lowest GoRound is highlighted in red. 21 . 3. 10. 13.

68. making a very short line. 40. (See Fig. 11. 38. 7. we get a pattern that begins as long lines. 11 below) Fig. progressively becoming shorter until we are drawing very short lines at the end. then becoming progressively shorter with the final Surahs and the first revealed (Surah 96) located over Surah 68. the final Surah of the letter Muqatta’at.A design matching the length of Surahs in the Quran Another interesting fact is that if we draw lines from the first of the eleven Surah numbers to the last of the eleven Surah numbers utilized in the Muqatta’at (2. 10. and including the Surah 96 both discussed previously. This pattern mimics a characteristic of the Surahs having the longest Surahs at the beginning.) . 13. 26. 42. On the Cos Pattern Surah Numbers connected by lines 22 . 50. 19.

The Quran states there are 19 angels (Surah 74:30) Looking at Fig.The Number 19 on the Cos Pattern Here are examples showing what the number 19 does on the Cos Pattern. Ambiguous Ink Spot lines including the single letter Saad ( h ). The first number 19 and the last number 114 divide evenly. 25. We know the top number must be 114 from Fig. 23 . 95) has no connection to the pattern whatsoever. Then numbers 19. This particular pattern is unique as only counting by 19 will draw these three groupings in this arrangement. 12. Dove. The number 6 makes half the total of 12 locations on the full pattern. 6 and 7 for the following) One grouping (with Surahs 57. 19 only the number 19 divides evenly into the last number 114. 38 and 57 would all work. you get 19*1= 19 19*2= 38 19*3= 57 19*4= 76 19*5= 95 19*6= 114 Of the numbers 5. Addlines. but only number 19 will create this particular pattern seen in Fig. and one grouping having two numbers in a vertical column. Only the number 19 is in the lowest first GoRound. 7. and the single Ink Spot. 12 below. It also represents each half of the pattern. 76) has the single Ink Spot. Thus all three parts of the pattern is represented: the figure. 114) has many pattern lines as D. no figure. 12 with both Figs. you will notice the six numbers are in three of the groupings with two groupings having two numbers on a diagonal slant. 9. Another grouping (with Surahs 38. ( Compare Fig. The top number also must be divisible into whole numbers free of factions. The number 19 has a unique property: If you repeatedly multiply 19's. The third grouping ( with Surahs 19.

24 . Shown next to green dots. 12.Fig. Counting multiples of the number 19.

There are associations of Surahs with the Cos Pattern. 39. (See Fig. Although there are some disagreements as to the chronological order of the finally set into the Quran as Surahs. The current numbering beginning on Surah 42 is best. Notice the Cos Pattern having numbers placed on within the 1st GoRound (See Fig. But putting the two letters ha miim here is awful as it violates a number of principles and counts. Secondly another later 28 Madinah Surahs makes a total of 114 Surahs. and Third Meccan periods. contains 12 groupings at each of the 12 locations of the pattern. It is in the center of the center top half location (or counting six groupings from the first-. 7) Variants Of An Early Version Of Quran Explained The three variants of an early version of the Quran in Surahs 26. A better choice is to have the ha miim start on Surah 40 but never on Surah 39. I will discuss these associations. the order discussed here is the traditional one. The Meccan Surahs are mostly higher numbered. 25 . The Madinah Surahs are the last of the . Just as the number 28 is the last number before jumping to the first (top) grouping. just as the number 86 is a high number. 63 can all be explained. This variant on Surah 42 is poor as it affects the counting of lines. On Surah 39 the leaf line is not changed but lengthened. Chronological Order Of Quranic Surahs Show Evidence Of Using Cos Pattern The Surahs have a traditional order of Meccan Surahs revealed at Mecca being older then the Medinah Surahs revealed later at Medinah. then Surah 68 would not exist. Also the number 28 is the last letter of the Arabic Alphabet Yaa ( w ) before jumping up to the 29th hamza ( — ) a special letter over alif ( U ). 42. 14) Firstly. On Surah 26 adding spaces does nothing to the line pattern. the 86 Meccan Surahs can be subdivided into First (or early).start-. If you were to count two GoRounds. Second.Importance of the number 7 on the Cos Pattern The number 7 is in a very important location of the Cos Pattern.

13. The Cos Pattern and its twelve groupings 26 .Fig.

in dotted black square. Below in the same vertical row is the number 30 within the second GoRound. Third. and Medinah Surahs. Second. Beginning with Surah 77 and ending at Surah 114 a large number (10 or more adjacent) First Meccan Surahs were laid out in the 27 . is in the same vertical row. 14. Beginning with Surah 57 and ending at Surah 66. in red square. within the fifth GoRound . below the number 114. a large number (10) of adjacent Medinah Surahs were laid out in the Quran.the final Surah.Fig. at the start of the pattern in the lower left hand corner– the start of the first GoRound. The First Grouping On The Cos Pattern The first grouping (labeled ‘1') has the number ‘1' in a yellow square. The lower numbered Surahs are a hodge podge of a few (2 or 3 adjacent) interspersed First. This is of the 29-30 lunar day relationship discussed previously. in another dotted black square. The number 86 within the fourth GoRound .

I believe these were deliberately chosen to place these ten Medinah Surahs on the Cos Pattern here.Quran. 15. Appendix 28 . Also note that the locations of the starting and finishing numbers (57 and 66) occupy the same locations in the two groupings of numbers– both are directly above the other in the left hand columns. The ten adjacent Medinah Surahs counting Medinah Surahs shown red dots with horizontal black line 4 Tne Holy Quran. Fig. (These First period Surahs are characteristically short in length. Notice we go from 57 to 66 through five groupings. sadi printing. 15.) The Ten Medinah Surahs on the Cos Pattern 4 The Ten Medinah Surahs are shown below in Fig. These Surahs of the First Meccan period have two Surahs interspersed with two Medinah Surahs. The number five is significant as it is the number of times one is to pray daily.

with two exceptions. Also. 16.bombaxo. 16. then the number 29 begins the second GoRound.html 29 . or a red dot and a yellow dot which truly would appear to be a random arrangement. Remember that in the Arabic alphabet. 17 and Table 3 below for this discussion. being from the First or Early Meccan Period. the two Medinah Surahs forms a true The first number 98 is the center most number (at a count of 14 numbers) as given in the Chronological order of the Surahs from Medinah.Nisa 7 99 al. Look at Fig. note the pattern of two single red dots and not single red dot and three red dots.Zilzal 8 57 al-Hadid 9 47 Muhammad 5 www. Table 3 Chronological Order of Medinah Surahs5 Chronological Order Surah number Name of Surah 1 2 al-Baqarah 2 8 al. Note they also are at the top rows of the groupings.Antfal 3 3 al-Imran 4 33 al-Ahzab 5 60 Mumtahanah 6 4 al. we note they are at identical right most positions within an inner three numbered row and an outer three numbered row. Looking at where these two Surahs fall. The second number 110 is the outer most number (at a count of another 14 numbers) for a total of 28 numbers from the first number. These two numbers are not randomly chosen but present in the Cos Pattern. The number 110 is in the same grouping as the final letter 28 ending the first GoRound as seen in Figs.The Long adjacent numbering of first Mecca Surahs on the Cos Pattern (See Figs. 17.) Beginning with Surah 77 we have all Surahs. the final 28th letter is the last letter of the first GoRound. In the Cos Pattern number 98 is in the center most three numbers per row grouping. 16. The two exceptions are at numbers 98 and 110 which are from the Medinah Period.

Directly opposite in the left hand top row of the fourth GoRound is the number 112– The last Surah of text not being the closing sequence of 113 and 114. I find it curious and possibly significant that there are a total of 28 Medinah Surahs.10 13 ar-Ra`d 11 55 ar.Dahr 13 65 at-Talaq 14 98 al-bayyinah (15) 1 59 al. The number 98 is the right hand top position of the fourth GoRound. 14. 13. exactly the 30 . Note that the placement of the final Medenah revelation is placed by the Cos Pattern at a significant location of the Quran. in the middle grouping (six groupings from the first which is the left top group of numbers having 1.Rahman 12 76 ad. The last Revelation was Surah 110– that means although Surah 110 was not the last Surah in the Quran.Hashr (16) 2 24 an-Nur (17) 3 22 al-Hajj (18) 4 63 al-Munafiqun (19) 5 58 al-Mujadilah (20) 6 49 al-Hujurat (21) 7 66 at-Tahrim (22) 8 64 at-Taghabun (23) 9 61 as-Saff (24) 10 62 al-Jumu`ah (25) 11 48 al-Fath (26) 12 5 al-Ma`idah (27) 13 9 at-Taubah (28) 14 110 an-Nasr Now we come to a very important discussion concerning these two Surahs. This Surah is in the last of the twelve groupings of the Cos Pattern in the right hand top row of the fourth GoRound. in the first GoRound (bottom row). it was the last one revealed which can be called Medinah_(28) (there were 28 in total as you can see in the above table).

Surah 96 is from the first Meccan period.1) Fig. ( Numbers refer to Surahs.same number making up a GoRound.(See Fig. Thus. The Continuous numbers of the First Meccan Period with two Medinah Period numbers. 16. First Meccan Period Surahs are shown as black dots.) 31 . Medinah Period Surahs are shown as red dots with horizontal black line.

shown within a black square. Here we also see the twelfth grouping. 17). The opposite left hand corner has the number 112 in the third GoRound. This is also the second oldest revelation. Also note there are associations of these numbers with the order of the Arabic alphabet. This number is the end of the core of the book. From the above figure. this number is the last letter of the Arabic Alphabet before the 29th special letter hamza above in group 1 (see Fig. shown with a red square. in the sixth groupings. Note the analogous number 110 at the top right hand coorner of the third GoRound. 32 . is the Medinah Surah number 98 at the top right hand corner of the third GoRound. shown within a red square. shown within a dotted black square. Below it in the vertical row of the third GoRound. This is the location of the first revelation called the Clot.Fig. The sixth and twelfth groupings on the Cos Pattern. which is the final Surah of the Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at having the single letter nuun ( s ). Note the symmetry of the red and black squares. Below this number in the second GoRound is the number 40. 17. and the final revelation in the last twelfth grouping of the Cos Pattern. In the same vertical row in the first GoRound is the number 28 drawn within a black dotted square. Note that there is an association with the placing of the first two in the middle sixth groupings. also within a dotted black square is the number 40 where the sequence of the Ha miim ( r ` ) letters begins. is the number 68. The opposite left hand corner has the number 96 shown within a black square.

Then if we count the number of filled rows. 114 and in terms of the Quran.Number Of Days In Month And Chronological Order Both Hidden In Cos Pattern If we label the Chronological order of Surahs filling horizontal rows of two and three number groupings. 85. 18 below. These numbers 29 and 30 are the number of days within one month or the number of days it takes for the moon to go from new moon to new moon etc. this row may be counted. we may not count this as a row. then this top row only have the numbers 113. 114. But if we consider that no Surah 115 exists in the Quran. 87 or the row having the numbers 94. The number 115 is not a Surah number since the highest or final Surah number is 114. we find a total of 29 filled rows. since this row is not filled as is the row having the numbers 85. and 115. Now the total number of filled rows is 30. the results would be Fig. 95. Since the row has three numbers 113. 33 . The top most row is ambiguous as it may or may not be counted.

Filled Horizontal Rows On The Cos Pattern First (or early )Meccan Period--. 18.Black dots Second Meccan Period ---------.) 34 .White dots with vertical black line Medinah Period -------------------Red dots with horizontal black line (Numbers refer to Surahs.Fig.Yellow dots Third Meccan Period ----------.

The Abbreviated Letters occur with one current exception on 39. One Surah less is Surah 38 discussed in the previous paragraph. In ten locations are Surahs of similar age. Thus the higher numbered Surahs have the most first (early) Meccan Period Surahs. 66 respectively placed in Surahs 39. with one having eight Surahs adjacently placed. 19 is the chronological pattern of all Surahs laid out on the Cos Pattern shown as code patterns but the actual numbers refer to Surah numbers. 46 respectively. The 29 Abbreviated Letter Surahs are drawn inside squares. 13 is a red dot with a horizontal line. and 110 are the very last Surahs revealed. and 19 are symmetrically drawn. 64. The sum of 5 and 9 is 14. 11. have great importance with Noah. _46). 25 and 19 are all odd numbers. Note that with the exceptions of Surahs 4 and 47. They are Meccan 59. 40. (Refer to this figure for all of the following. but if you read my book Sacred Stones Sacred Stories. 2. does indeed. The first grouping is unique in that here we have three different ages laid out in a horizontal row: 1 is a black dot. 35 . 14. 42. 43. Notice 5. Examining the percentage of colored dots (which represents the various time periods the Surahs were produced) per GoRound. the number of black dots increase and the number of yellow dots decrease. adjacently placed. the following observations can be made: In the first GoRound. 25.) At the beginning of the pattern we get the pattern of a red dot with a horizontal line to the left of a white dot with a vertical line in four groupings. Other relationships occurs in Surahs numbered 5 and 9. all red dots to the left of a black dot have Abbreviated Letters (13.Facts On The Full Drawn Out Pattern Fig. If you note the number of colored dots going from first GoRound to fifth GoRound (but only two numbers exist in the fifth GoRound). 9. These are the ha miim Surahs (40 through 46) and the older Surah 39 which no longer have any letters. placed in Surahs numbered 39 through 46 and all are in the second GoRound. 63. 12. Surahs 5 and 9 were placed next to each other on the Cos Pattern and they were revealed next to each other in time. 41. Surah 38 has the 38th revelation from Mecca in the traditional numbering system. 3. 60. Surah 19 is very special as it has five letters. 9. _10. and 14 is a white dot with a vertical line. The only Abbreviated Letter Surah found in this grouping is Surah 38 which holds the single letter Saad. Surahs 5. you will note 5. The Quran seems to favor using odd numbers. This is the only location having three different dots instead of one or two different dots. They are either two or three Surahs each. These Meccan Surahs all are in third GoRound. Surah 38 is composed of the full (no additions) 38th revelation from Mecca. Surah 71 is composed fully of the 71st revelation from Mecca. the only black dot (first Meccan Period) is Surah 1. and the lowest numbered Surahs have the most third Meccan Period Surahs. Noah. 45. where 14 is an important number in the Abbreviated Letters (there are 14 letters represented. 61. etc). 44. Surah 9 does not have the introductory phrase found in the other Surahs. 16. 62. 65. you will know the name of the Surah. This Surah does not have Abbreviated Letters. Likewise. in Surahs 38 through 46. Looking at Fig. 9.

42. 13. as shown in Fig. 14. Also note that the pattern is divided into 12 groupings.A Very Important Observation There are five groupings of consecutive surahs (see Table 1 and Fig. 29. 44. 68) each has one of the three single letters of the Muqatta’at which also constitutes a pattern. If we were to add zero (0) to the number 38. If we were to add 12 numbers to the number 38. the three highest numbered non consecutive surahs (38. See my article. 50 5. We see this number has significance in the above mentioned article. 11. 26. This appears to be an association of the text with this observation concerning the pattern of placements of Muqatta’at in the Quran– another important observation. we would stay on the number 38– having the Muqatta’at single letter Saad ( h ) . 3 2. Furthermore. we would reach the number 50– which has the Muquatta’at single letter Kaaf ( o ). 15 3. 36 3. 38 4. They are: 1. 32 5. 40. 38. 13. 20 4. 27. but also in the Quran. we would reach the number 68 which has the single Muquatta’at letter nuun ( s ). First notice that in Fig. 7). They are: 1. If we were to add 40 numbers to the number 28. (Two of these numbers also have significance in my second article on the Muqatta’at. 46 There are five non consecutive surahs. 10. Remember. 41. 12. 30. Each of the three single letters within the Muquatta’at are in this arrangement which seems to be deliberately chosen. If we were to add the number 12 to the number 56. 36 . and 56. 28. we would reach number 40– the start of the Muqatta’at haa miim ( r ` ) letters. 19. What Editing of Quran and the Muqqatta’at (Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at) Have In Common ) The sum of five plus five is ten.7 each of these numbers all line up on the left hand side of the pattern. we would reach the number 68 having the letter nuun ( s ) with all of its features such as being the only location of this single letter at the last surah having letters. There is another very important relationship occurring with the numbers 28. 2. 31. 7 2. where there is a counting of ten surahs mentioned in [AL-Quran] which is Surah 11:13. 43. there are only these three single letters and no other letters in the Muqatta’at. 45. 68 The number of consecutive surahs is the same number as the non consecutive surahs which constitutes a major pattern. If we were to add the number 12 to the number 28. 50.

Fig. 19. the full chronological pattern on the Cos Pattern
First (or early )Meccan Period--- Black dots
Second Meccan Period ---------- Yellow dots
Third Meccan Period ----------- White dots with vertical black line
Medinah Period ------------------- Red dots with horizontal black line
Abbreviated Letter Surahs ----inside squares
(Numbers refer to Surahs and not to the chronological order.)


The Abbreviated Letters Draws part of Sajda
There are fourteen or (fifteen) places within the Quran where the worshiper bows down. A mark
appears in the Quran where this act of worship occurs and is called Sajda in Arabic. Below you will
see the Surahs having a Sajda and Abbreviated Letters.
7, 13, 19, 27, 32, 38, 41.
If there are fourteen Surahs having Sajda, then half this number have Abbreviated Letters and the
other half have none. Thus we have seven Surahs with abbreviated Letters and seven without.
The seven Surahs having a Sajda without Abbreviated Letters are:
16, 17, 22, 25, 53, 84, 96.
The first GoRound has four Surahs having Abbreviated Letters (red dots) and another equal number
of four Surahs which do not have Abbreviated Letters (greenish black dots). The second GoRound
have three Surahs which have Abbreviated Letters (red dots) and one Surah which does not have any
Abbreviated Letters (greenish black dot). The third and fourth GoRound each have one Surah without
any Abbreviated Letters (greenish black dots). Then there are 4 in the first GoRound plus 3 in the
second GoRound Surahs (7 total) having Sajda with Abbreviated Letters, and also there are 4 in the
first GoRound plus 1 in the second GoRound, plus 1 in the third GoRound, plus 1 in the fourth
GoRound Surahs (7 total) having Sajda with no Abbreviated Letters. Half the total have Abbreviated
Letters and half do not.
Additional patterns can be seen. Two pairs of dots are lined up vertically and two pairs are
horizontally adjacent. Number 27 is in common with a vertical number and a horizontal number. One
pair consist of two red dots and the other three has one red and one black. The number of Surahs (as
numbers in fig. 20a) paired is 7. Unpaired single dots are another 7 which is half of the 14 total
number of dots.
This demonstrates what appears to be a random placement of Surahs having a Sajda is not randon at
all, but deliberate designs when placed on the Cos Pattern.


Fig. 20a Surahs having Sajda.
Abbreviated Letter Surahs have a red dot. Non Abbreviated Letter Surahs have a greenish
black dot. Note by GoRound rows.

We now draw as we drew previously in Fig. 6, the Abbreviated Letters from each of these seven
Sajda Surahs. To do this we, look up all the letters for each of these Surahs in table 1. Take for
example Surah 27 has the letters taa siin ( f j ). The resulting design makes the black lines and ink
spot seen in Fig. 20.
We can also use Ayat numbers. There is a non- Abbreviated Letter Surah having the important Ayat
number 50 which does have Abbreviated Letters. If we look up in table 1 the number 50, in the Surah
column we find the single ink spot letter Kaaf ( o ). We draw this in Fig. 20b as a red ink spot where
the letter exists in the Cos Pattern. (See Figs. 1 and 6) Thus Sajda draws the Descending Dove, the
Leaf Line, part of the addlines, and two ink spots.
If we compare the full Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at in Fig. 6 with the portion of the Muqatta’at
Sajda draws seen in Fig. 20b, you will note only three lines and an ink spot are missing. The missing
parts would be made up with Surahs 28, 42, 68.


notice that the location of this letter is in the same grouping as the number 32 (there are other similar examples such as the opening word Besmilla is in the pattern as detailed in my book.Fig. Red Spot is drawn with an Ayat number. Sajda on the Abbreviated Letter Pattern Black lines are drawn with Surah numbers. Two facts concerning Sajda can be seen: 1.30. Surah 41 is the only Abbreviated Letter Surah having a Sajda (on Ayat 38). 20b. Notice that both missing lines in Fig.) This location is at the lower right hand corner of the Cos Pattern. Surah 32 is called Sajda. 1. This is the only Surah called just Sajda. (Surahs 19. 29. 20 are on this corner position. The twelfth letter of the Arabic Alphabet is the letter siin ( f ) which is the first letter of the word ---Sajda. One name for this Surah is haa miim Sajda. Looking at Fig. The majority of Surahs (24 out of 29) having Abbreviated Letters have either the words “Book” or refers to a book by using the words pen or writing. Majority of Surahs with Abbreviated Letters have the words “Book” or refers to “revelations”. I cannot explain why Abbreviated Letter surahs have these 40 .42 do not have these words. or else uses the word “revelation” or “reveal” in the first sentence.) There are a few exceptions where these words do occur in surahs not having letters. and this extremely important fact is this: 2. It draws out the Leaf Line haa miim (r ` ). The number 32 is within the grouping of numbers having the number 12.

b. and cris. the figure would hold a remarkable resemblance to the classic ten sephirot (tree of life.c on the left hand side. may be the precursor of the sephirot design. is Fig. 23b. 23b. 23a. 23b is that the former puts all three columns beginning and ending on the same outer ink spots. while the latter put each of the three rows on a different column. 23b. it has remarkable similarities such as circles at corners. another difference is that Fig. If the image were rotated as shown. 41 .23c and Fig. Both the Quranic mystery of the Abbreviated Letters and the mystery study of the sefirot are of an occult nature and deemed sacred. Similarity to Jewish occult sephirot made by image of Quranic mystery on left below6 Fig. and lower dot on the right hand figure in Fig. Note the ink spots are numbered 1-2-3-4 in the center and A-B. If Fig.words and why there are exceptions. Figs. Also the unconnected dots are similar to the missing dot on the left hand figure in Fig. which can be found in the appendix. the resulting figure would be Fig. Although this image is not a perfect representation of the ten sephirot.crossing lines from dots. and 23c. two variations are shown left and right) in Jewish Cabalistic writing seen in Fig. 6 the complete Abbreviated Letter design was duplicated in a flipped mirror image. The classic Sephirot on right above 6 see Fig. 23c in app endix for a redraw of Fig. 23a and 23c. 23a to make this figure more understandable. 23a. Design of the Sephirot in Kabbalah can be seen in the Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at. 23b is a simpler design then Fig. The main difference of Figs. Fig. 23b. 23a.C on the right hand side and a. 23a redrawn for clarity. 23a. The latter is hidden in the former.

you see this is the same number 25 in the full counting from 1 to 150 of the Cos Pattern. 13. this 25th letter nuun ( s ) makes the Ink Spot to the right of the lined figure. 6. the 25th letter of the Arabic alphabet is the letter nuun ( s ) which occupies the same position as the head of the fish in the figure below. The germinal idea of the tree of life sephirot is the same: ten ink spots with connecting lines. This fish is the sacred Vesicus Piscis– sign of the fish. 23b with Figs.The design of Figs. This is in the 9th grouping seen in Fig. Also the sephirot pattern of Fig. In Fig. See how in Fig. Another similarity of the sephirot in Fig. and in Fig. 24) The letter nuun. 23b is comprised of 22 connecting lines. which can mean ‘fish’ and also ‘pen’. 23a. 7. 42 . 1. The Sign of the Fish is in the Abbreviated Letters of Arabic Alphabet placed on the Cos Pattern An ancient pagan mark and also a sacred Christian sign for Christ was that of a fish. does makes the head of a fish. This fish was also the geometric design called the Vesica Piscis. A Vesica Piscis can be drawn on the three by four location grid upon which the Cos Pattern can be laid out. Thus the Abbreviated Letter Muqatta’at in the Quran ends on the letter making the sign of a fish drawn by a pen. and the redrawn 23c version are composed of lines with four superimposed ink spots which looks like a number of connecting lines with some ink spots. 23a and the redrawn 23c version are composed of 18 lines plus 4 ambiguous ink spots making a total of 22 parts– the same number of letters as in the Hebrew alphabet. 23a and 23c is that the design of Figs. (see Fig.

Thus the first instance of the letter raa occurs in Surah 10 which is named “Jonah”. (They are 2. Two Surahs are very significant: 20 and 28. In fact surah 20 has the abbreviated letters named ta Ha. and both have the letter ta ( j ) as one of the letters. 7. and both Surahs draw staff/snake addlines. 10. 26. Dove lettering ending in the letter raa ( d ) (see Table 1) . 17. 79. Surah 10 is very special as it is the only one which mentions Noah. 43. 7 having the number 10. Both mention snakes. 6. 43 . Surahs without abbreviated letters are 5. and Moses’ staff– all hidden in the completed Muqatta’at of Fig. The letter raa ( d ) in the upper right hand corner of Fig. Jonah. 24. 6. the letter ta ( j ) means snake and creates staff/snake addlines. This Surah is the first of the D. occupies the same location as the grouping in the upper right hand corner of Fig. 17. The sign of a fish or Vesica Piscis in the Cos Pattern The staff/ snake of Moses and the Abbreviated Letters As stated previously.) Many of these letters are staff/snake addlines.Fig. 20. 40. Seventy five percent of all Surahs mentioning the staff of Moses turning into a snake have abbreviated letters. 28.

This location (location 7 see Fig. 72.How Four Important Surahs May Have Been assigned positions in the Quran from the Cos Pattern We have seen previously the numbers and hence the Surahs with these numbers (40. 41. In figure 25 these numbers are shown with black dotted lines Note they make the ‘V’ shaped portion of the Cos Pattern. 13). 45. 45. ‘The Fish or Pen’ having the single letter nuun ( s ). 44. Adding 7 to 51 gives us 58. The first and final numbers 68 and 74 respectively. Mecca 60 in Surah 40. All the haa miim Surahs from 40 through 46. Thus in chronological order we have Mecca 59 in Surah 39. you will notice the haa miim Surahs have 7 numbers. Mecca 61 in Surah 41. 44. Surah 68 is the final Abbreviated Letter Surah. Thus Surah 46 is 46+ 12+7+1= 66 or Mecca 66. If we add 12 to 39 we get 51. We have seen the addition of the number 12 used before as when we add 12 to 38 to get 50 or when we add 12 to 56 to get 68. 71. 1. This consecutive arrangement is unique to these Surahs only. At the bottom of the ‘V’ shape. This is the location of the dove’s feet. and Mecca 66 in Surah 46. 46. (The full Cos Pattern is seen in Fig. 41. 46) draw the leaf line on the letters haa miim ( r ` ) in groupings 6 across to 8. 43. Surah 74 called ‘The Cloaked One’ contains the second revelation Mohammad received. drawn as solid red lines for reference. 74. This again. and 96 in the 114 total number of Surahs. The above discussion is very significant since it may show how these important Surahs were assigned there placements as 40. Mecca 64 in Surah 44. 44 . 42. is another connection of a dove with the story of Noah. 13 and table 1). This Surah also has the 38th chronological order of Mecca 38 in the traditional number reckoning. Here the equivalent seven numbers (68. 71. Immediately above the number 68 in the fourth GoRound is the number 96 which is where the Surah having the first revelation called ‘The Clot’ shown with a red triangle is located.) These seven numbers are in the second GoRound. Do these two connected numbers have any significance in the laying out of Surahs in the Quran? In fact they do. (These Surahs are after Surah 38 which has one of the single Abbreviated Letters (Saad). If we look at Table 1 the left hand row. Mecca 62 in Surah 42. 7. In chronological order Mecca 39 becomes Surah 59. 42. the first number between 68 and 74 in the red dotted lines is the number 71. 69. Mecca 63 in Surah 43.) There is a pattern which can account for the Surah numbering. work the same way. Now adding a 1 for the space in the left hand row of Surah 39 gives us 59. Surah 71 is the Surah named for Noah. 43. Immediately above the second GoRound is the third. When we compare Surah numbers with the traditional chronological order.7. and one proceeding Surah 39 do we have consecutive numbering. 68. shown having large red dots are equivalent to the Leaf Line drawing lower numbers 40 and 46 respectively. Fig 1 is also the Cos Pattern but one line is not drawn for reasons only detailed in my book. 74). are shown with red dotted lines. 73. Mecca 65 in Surah 45. 6. 70. (See Figs. we find only in the haa miim Surahs ( r ` ) 40 through 46.

and one GoRound of Surahs given at Medena for a grand total of 112. there are 28 numbers in each GoRound. The total number of Surahs was 114. The 2 Surahs make the 113 and 114 Surah which constitutes the fifth GoRound. Remember. 2).Fig. and another. and the total number of Surahs 114 are here in the compiling of the Surahs. 84. This means there were 28+28+28+2 Surahs given at Mecca (28. 56. Importance of Surahs 68. The reason this is important is that important Cos Pattern numbers 28– constituting each GoRound. and another given at Mecca for a total of 84. 74. 25. and 96 in the Cos Pattern Very Important Observation Concerning These Patterns The traditional order of Surahs has 28 Surahs given at Medinah and 86 Surahs given at Mecca. 71. 45 . or one GoRound.

A special letter usually not counted called hamza makes 29 letters. but it is impossible to draw curved lines in a pattern consisting of only twelve points. Thus the entire design of Fig. 6 as it is obvious Fig. (This motif drawn in mosques around the world. 6 can relate geometric elements with a vine design. which also is the number of days in a month varying between 29 and 30. The form of art called ‘Arabesque’ may have gained its importance in Islamic Art because the parts of Arabesque may be hidden in the Muqatta’at design. Again I draw out the Cos Pattern but with only these 29 numbered surahs shown in which consecutive numbers are drawn as connected solid lines and non consecutive numbers are drawn as non connected 7 see appendix 46 . 13 and Table 1 for the following. and various angles which are staples of geometry.Evidence The designs of the abbreviated Letters were present in ancient Islamic Art There is evidence the design was hidden in a branch of Islamic Art from the very earliest of times. the number of surahs having letters is the same number of letters when counting the hamza. 7. but is open at one end just like a leaf is attached at one end and open at the other end. Likewise. These lines are not curving. This master plan works for all twenty nine surahs having Muqatta’at letters. 7. or stars in Arabesque designs. Dove lines and addlines are similar to the interconnected and closed vine leafs. 6 have analogous elements in Arabesque designs.connecting circles. ovals. I locate from Table 1 each of the 29 surahs having Muqatta’at letters. There are 14 letters in 29 surahs. just as the Islamic Geometric designs can be related to Arabesque designs. 6 may be considered a twisting vine with non-connected to the vine a number of circles. are more realistically drawn than Fig. so also Fig.connecting Unambiguous Ink Spot is analogous to the non. Arabesque design consists of twisting interconnecting vines. 7 which is exactly how the hamza can be written. The change of this being do to coincidence is astronomical. is a leaf. In fact. ovals or stars The interconnected infinitely closed D. The two Ambiguous Ink Spots also can be the germinal ideas representing leaves attached to vines. the Leaf Line representing an olive leaf. A Master Plan For Determining Which Surah Would Have Muqatta’at Letters We have learned about the letters in Table 1 and we have seen which letter goes with what surah. ) and nonconnecting circles. 13. The actual design may not be seen in early art work. This is half the number of letters in the Arabic Alphabet of 28 letters. with attached leaves. The master plan I have discovered is as follows: 1. Dove and addlines. (Refer to Figs. 6 and notice all the elements of the Arabesque design are also here. 6 is drawn.) Thus. Now look at the full design of Fig. (the hamza is over the alif in Fig. I have discovered a master plan for determining which surah would have letters and which letters go where. including a vine and leaf like design in a gate around the Prophet Mohammad’s tomb at Medina. Thus all elements seen in Fig. The non. 6 consists of triangles. ovals.) Looking at the Cos Pattern7 in Figs. Islamic Geometric designs also can be hidden in the design of Fig. or stars interspersed among the vines. The Leaf Line attaches to the interconnected infinitely closed D. but the germinal idea is present in every Arabesque ever created from the time of Mohammed until today.

Note this is a pattern of (7+7)+ 6+5+ (2+2) or 7. 3. or from a number in one of these two columns which we add or subtract the number 12. 7.dashed lines. and also 5 non consecutive numbers. 7. The number of lines are all in groups of threes– (1) three thin lines drawn – (2) twice three or six medium lines– and (3) three thick lines. The number 12 is very important in the Cos Pattern as the pattern is comprised of 12 groupings as you can see in Fig. The 29 numbers were to be divided into two groups of consecutive numbers each having 7 numbers each making a total of 14 numbers.consecutive number 38 can be found on the left most column in Fig. 47 . This number 14 is the same number of letters in the pattern. 7. (See Fig. Another example illustrating consecutive numbers would be the seven numbers beginning with the number 40. An example: we can say we add or subtract zero from this number (38 add or subtract 0 = 38). 31 below) Fig. (see first two columns of Table 5) 4. The non. Next the surahs which would create this pattern could be determined as they all utilize this fact: Either we start or we finish with a number determined from either the left most or the right most column of the Cos Pattern in Fig. 31 ALL CHAPTERS NUMBERS IN QUR’AN HAVING SEGMENT LETTERS PLACED ON Cos PATTERN all numbers taken from Table 1 and Fig. ( 28+12= 40) See Table 1 listing all the surahs having letters. If we add 12 we get 40. Then we have two groupings of two numbers each making a total of 4 numbers. We have another grouping of 6 numbers. The number 28 is on the left most column in Fig. a 6 a 5 and a 4. 7 2. 13.

3 (1973). The next column labeled ‘letter description’ shows the type of line these letters create. a number in the right hand column of Fig.Table 4 shows consecutive “surah numbers” in the left hand column. This is the only row not having the number 12 added or subtracted from a left or right hand number. 7. I also have two groupings to two numbers highlighted in checkerboard in this column. Count Groups of Surahs by whether they are or are not consecutive Surah number Count/consecutive add or subtract twelve or zero from letter description letters are 26 1 1 C 38-12= 26 left Snake/Addline f j 27 2 2 C Snake/Addline f j 8 The Mysterious Letters Of The Koran: Old Abbreviations Of The Basmalah. For ease of counting. The next column. They are numbered surahs 19.46 makes a total of 14 numbers which is the number of letters making the Muqatta’at. 271 48 . to give the number 26. If we subtract number 10. while the number 68 is a single number grouping. or even nothing added to the number. but in reverse– the number subtracted from 12. The base left hand or right hand numbers are highlighted in bold type as well as the number 12 which is also a right hand number. the seven (C)onsecutive numbers 26 through 32.20 and 2-3. 7. Note that each group of numbers (highlighted in gray or white) has either 12 added or subtracted from the left or right hand column of numbers. The next column counts these consecutive numbers. A very special number is surah 2 which is the first surah having Muqatta’at letters. shows the 7 consecutive surah numbers 26 . These bold numbers are at either the first or the last row of the grouping. The next column shows whether the number in the first column is (C)onsecutive or (N)ot consecutive. I alternate grays rows with white rows. Table 4.we get 2 – the first surah having letters. The last column draws the letters in this surah. p. For example. James A. in this grouping of two consecutive numbers (2 -3) one number from either the beginning or the end of the grouping has numbers in grayed or white “add or subtract 12" column in Table 5. Jouraal of the American Oriental Society 93. has in its first row the number 12 can be subtracted from 38. while all other Muqatta’at surahs were not8. The next column labeled ‘show‘ shows in bold whether the number is from the left or the right hand side of the Fig.32 and another 7 consecutive surah numbers 40. Also note that nothing may be added or subtracted in the middle of groupings. Bellomy. Note that this number is next to the number (12 ) we have been adding or subtracting from. My point is that the atypical surahs (2 and 3) forms a grouping in this table.3). highlighted by diagonal lines. Again. In Table 4 the range of surah numbers having letters runs between 2 thorough 68. The fifth column is very significant as it shows all numbers created by the previous paragraph numbered 4. Surah 26 is the start of the 7 consecutive numbers. which is a right hand number in Fig. The number 2 is in a two number grouping (2 . 7. from number 12 . These three surahs were atypical very early or very late revelations.

Dove rqU 32 7 7 C D. Dove dqU 13 4 C D. Dove dqU 10 +0= 10 right 49 . Dove rqU 30 5 5 C D. Dove dqU 11 2 C D. Dove dqU 15 6 C D. Dove rqU 31 6 6 C D. Dove d rq U 14 5 C D. Dove dqU 12 3 C D.28 3 3 C 28 + 0 = 28 left Snake/Addline r f j 29 4 4 C 29 + 0 = 29 left D. Dove rqU 40 1 8 C Leaf Line r ` 41 2 9 C Leaf Line r ` 42 3 10 C Leaf Line r ` 28+12= 40 left of l 43 4 11 C Leaf Line r ` 44 5 12 C Leaf Line r ` 45 6 13 C Leaf Line r ` 46 7 14 C Leaf Line r ` 10 1 C D.

19. The similar groupings of letters alif. 38.12= 36 right Snake/Addline fw 38 1 N 38+ 0 = 38 left Ambiguous ink spot h 50 1 N 38+12= 50 left Ambiguous ink spot o 68 1 N 56+ 12= 68 left Ink Spot s 19 1 C 19+0 = 19 right Snake/Addline hlw o p 20 2 C Snake/Addline o j 2 1 C D.27. They are 26. raa ( d q U ) also have six surah numbers shown in Table 6. and seven single numbers 28. This number has three bottom row letters not found in the normal sequence. Also Surah 20 is the only exception in Table 6 but in table 5 there are no exceptions. Surah 42 which has two letters on the top row and three letters on the bottom row can be considered one of the seven leaf line haa miim ( r ` ) letters since these two letters constitute the top row only. 50 . miim ( r q U ) . We have one group of two consecutive numbers highlighted in checkerboard. Surah 13 is ambiguous since we have alif. Either end have number in the “add or subtract 12" column. 3. 31. This table has three ambiguous problems of classification. As with Table 5 for ease of counting. 50 and 68.46. For example.7 1 N 19-12= 7 right D. Again. We have seven consecutive numbers 40 . The next column shows what type of a line these letters draw (see paper on Abbreviated Letters in the Quran-. 30. laam. Dove rqU 12. I alternate grays rows with white rows. Dove hrqU 36 1 N 48. laam. so number is problematic. we have two groups of seven numbers highlighted by diagonal lines in the “Count/ consecutive” column. from Table 6 we can see there are six surah numbers all having the letters alif. laam. The remaining rows are similar to Table 5.10 = 2 right Table 5 is similar to Table 4 but the emphasis is on identical consecutive letters numbers in the right hand column. Dove rqU 3 2 C D. 20. with both a miim and a raa. These surah numbers are 29.a Solution) in consecutive order numbers. 36. 2.

10 = 3 right D. Dove rqU 32 4 C D.Table 5. Dove hrqU 10 1 C 10 +0= 10 right D. Dove dqU 29 + 0 = 29 left 51 . Dove rqU 3 6 C 12 . Dove rqU 31 3 C D. Dove rqU 2 5 C D. Dove rqU 30 2 C D. Count of Surahs having similar letters whether they are or are not consecutive Surah number Count/consecutive 40 1 1 C 41 2 2 C 42 3 3 C add or subtract twelve or zero from letter description letters are 28+12= 40 left Leaf Line r ` Leaf Line r ` Leaf Line r ` Consecutive on top line only of l 43 4 4 C Leaf Line r ` 44 5 5 C Leaf Line r ` 45 6 6 C Leaf Line r ` 46 7 7 C Leaf Line r ` 29 1 C D. Dove rqU 7 1 N 19-12= 7 right D. Dove dqU 11 2 C D.

Dove dqU D. and 96 which also are located one above the other in this vertical column.D. The number 40 is the first of the seven haa miim ( r ` ) surahs shown in Table 6. 52 . Here you will find three numbers in the right most hand column: 28. first locate grouping {12}. Dove d rq U C D. Dove dqU 6 C D. 68. These three numbers are 40. The number 68 is the only surah having the unique single letter nuun ( s ) in the final surah having Muqatta’at letters. Dove dqU 26 1 C Snake/Addline f j 27 2 C Snake/Addline f j 28 1 1 C 28 + 0 = 28 Snake/Addline r f j 20 1 2 N works only in Table 5 Snake/Addline o j 19 1 3 N 19+0 = 19 right Snake/Addline hlw o p 36 1 4 N 48.12= 36 right Snake/Addline fw 38 1 5 N 38+ 0 = 38 left Ambiguous ink spot h 50 1 6 N 38+12= 50 left Ambiguous ink spot o 68 1 7 N 56+ 12= 68 left Ink Spot s 12 3 C 13 4 C 14 5 15 ambiguoussince having same letters 38-12= 26 left left Table 6 shows very important facts. In Fig. If the number 12 is added to each of these numbers you would reach three numbers in grouping {6} of Fig. 13. 56 and 84 which are located one above the other in the vertical column. 13.

and a single Muqatta’at letter Kaaf ( o ) in Surah 42 as the last of the three bottom row letters Kaaf ( o f l ). It is remarkable that the first and second revelations can be found one over the other in this pattern of Fig.46 68 yes 56+ 12= 68 right Ink Spot s second -------- 96 no 84+ 12 = 96 right ------ ------- first --------- Two additional surahs are of this same pattern but not formed from group {12} and seen in group {6} but instead was formed in group {5} and seen in group {10} (See Fig. Note that when 12 is added to the base number 38. The very first revelation (the oldest revelation) unquestionably can be found in Surah 96. 13). the unique single unambiguous ink spot letter nuun ( s ) is at Surah 68. The only appearance i. the resulting number is 50. 7 and that even Surah 40 which holds the beginning of a very special grouping of seven surahs is part of this pattern. Both numbers would create the ambiguous ink spots in seen in Fig. Surah 68 holds the second revelation (the second oldest revelation).The number 96 does not have any letters because it is greater then the number 68 but it holds a very special surah. Both numbers (surahs 38) have a single Muqatta’at letter Saad ( h ) which also appears in Surah 7 as the last letter in ( h r q U ) .) These two numbers are shown in Table 7. then half this number is in the {6} grouping as seen in Fig. (also see Table 1) 53 . They all can be counted by adding 12 and they all can be added from the right hand side of the same grouping which is half the number of groupings away from each other (If there are a total of {12 } groupings. 6. Table 6 Three Surah Numbers Form a Very Important Pattern Surah number Muqatta’at letters add or subtract twelve from letter description letters are time of revelation grouping of letters from 40 yes 28+12= 40 right Leaf Line r ` -------- 40. The important conclusion we can assume from this is that unless this is all do to coincidence whoever arranged the current order of surahs with details such as where to locate the first and second revelations also where to locate the haa miim letters and the Muqatta’at letter surahs. 7. 13 to see groupings.e. were using the number pattern similar to Fig.

A fact can be deduced from these variants: only the official version is perfect as each variant has some detectable error. 31 would have the wrong number of consecutive and non consecutive lines. The next column shows the letter combinations. this table 7 is more evidence that the number pattern of Fig. laam. The right hand column is new– each set of letters is represented by a color coding. 7 and the design of Fig. The letter combinations change. 6 were known by the editors and arrangers of the surahs and influenced the placement of surahs having letters. The left column lists surah numbers having Abbreviated Letters. Variant versions had to be destroyed with only one official version allowed but known copies of some variants called codexes have survived. The next column lists the parts of the pattern drawn out by various letters and has the same color coding seen in Table 1. If this letter were missing as it is in a variant. Surahs 40 through 46 must be a grouping with no surah missing. easily visualized by where do the colors change. 9 ibid p. Thus the letters alif. miim ( r q U ) are colored coded in Yellow. There are a number of Pre. The chance of this being do to coincide is astronomical. There are no errors detectable in this table. Surah 68 must have the single letter nuun and not have any letters.Uthmanic Variants9 with missing letters from the official Quran version. Two Surah Numbers also part of a Very Important Pattern Surah number Muqatta’at letters add or subtract twelve from letter description single letter is 38 yes 38+0 = 38 left Ambiguous ink spot h 50 yes 38+ 12= 50 left Ambiguous ink spot o Again. 6 would be missing. Surah 38 must not be consecutive with numbers 37 or 39 or Fig. the ink spot in the image seen in Fig. 32 confirms my hypothesis of why some surahs have what combinations of letters. 267 54 . and also the spelling of these letters were deliberate and not random coincidences based on mistakes in reading or spelling words. ANOTHER MAJOR PIECE OF EVIDENCE THIS IS THE BASIS OF LETTER PLACEMENT Examining Table 7 and Fig. The number of surahs must be exactly 114 with 113 and 114 constituting a group.Table 7. First let us examine Table 7. There are sixteen points of change in this table with all sixteen being explainable. The most important concept of this table is the word “change”.

Dove dqU 19 Snake/Addline hlw o p 20 Snake/Addline o j 26 Snake/Addline rf j 27 Snake/Addline f j 28 Snake/Addline r f j 29 D. Dove hrqU 10 D. Dove rqU 31 D. Dove dqU 13 D.Table 8. Dove rqU 3 D. Dove dqU 15 D. Dove dqU 12 D. Dove rqU 55 color coded . Dove d rq U 14 D. Dove dqU 11 D. Dove rqU 7 D. Dove rqU 30 D. Color Coding of Changing Letters Surah number type of line (color coded) Surah letters 2 D.

32 D. in mouth. Three letters finish connecting design on feet of dove 43 Leaf Line r ` 44 Leaf Line r ` 45 Leaf Line r ` 46 Leaf Line r ` 50 Ambiguous ink spot on line pattern o 68 Unambiguous The Ink Spot s 56 .two letters on top. Dove rqU 36 Snake/Addline fw 38 Ambiguous ink spot on line pattern h 40 Leaf Line r ` 41 Leaf Line r ` 42 Leaf Line-. r ` of l addline. on head of dove.

31. This set of three surahs in (blue) all have the same first two letters ( f j ) but the center surah 27 lacks the letter ( r ) hence. Surah 19 connects to Surah 20 by the beginning of the horizontal thick line sequence.12.Fig. 29. 7. 32.30.connected lines. Surah 13 is the number on the right hand side of the grouping making a small change to (light red) with the letters ( d r q U ) by adding both ( r ) and ( d ). There is another change to (blue) with a different set of letters.31.13.11. the pattern can be divided into 3 thick with both having different sequences of letters (h l w o p ) and ( o j ). This sequence begins the six medium lines. Note the symmetry of these three adjacent numbers. 3+3 medium lines. Note number 7 does not connect to any other letter and hence. Fig. The next number is 7 between the numbers 6.15 (red) were a second grouping of D.32 is derived from both Figs 7. ) Here the letter ( r ) is changed to the letter ( d ) making the sequence ( d q U ). is shown in (light blue). Refer to Fig 7. Table 8. 8 (light Yellow) all three surahs having the same first three letters with an additional forth letter (h r q U ) . Here is another major change back to the (yellow) 57 . The number 29 begins the top of the pattern with three numbers in this first grouping. Next begins a change in a number of surahs 10. (remember. 32 for the following: A line runs from 2 to 3 (yellow) having letters ( r q U ). Both numbers are shown (green) and (light. from Fig.Dove to Snake/Addline since there is a jump to Surah 19. Now a major change occurs from D. here is a change in the letter sequence.14. Color Coding of changing Letters placed on Cos Pattern Fig. and 3 thin non. and Fig. The number 28 is at the bottom of the pattern. 32.Dove lines can be found.

14 (red) having the letters ( d q U ) --both sets of letters constituting D. Note how this number sequence is prefixed by the letter ( h ). This section expands on these specific letters. The sequence ( r ` ) ends with then number 64. Qaaf ( p ). this would be the letter 58 .Dove raa’ ( d ). The number 50 detailed elsewhere in this paper is the second of the three non adjacent surahs numbers.42.the letters are ( r q U ). Now another change occurs in the number 36 (purple) with Snake/Addline letters (.Dove. Saad ( h ) in one grouping and Laam ( q ).f w ). 31 (yellow) having the letters ( r q U ) are over the numbers 13. part of a Snake/Addline.Dove letters ( r q U ).D. The right hand letters were the letters in a grouping chosen to be the letters which drew the ambiguous ink spots. 6 for the following) As detailed previously there are three single letters each of which would with parchment (paper) pen and ink draw an ink spot.44.Dove.41. Let us say that only letters which can be ambiguous with two parts. a letter which draws part of the leaf line haa ( ` ) .Dove or the snake/Addline portion of the total pattern. and five letters which could draw out Ambiguous ink spots. There is the letter miim ( r ) which is ambiguous as being either a D. could be the reason for an ink spot. and not part of the leaf line can be represented by ink spots.43. Here the number 32 is over the number 2 where both numbers are (yellow)-. Any one of these letters. After skipping one number [37] we reach another change occurring at the number 38. The next number is 32. The important surah 42 which has the letter sequence ( r ` o f l ) (light turquoise) discussed in detail elsewhere in this paper occupies the innermost number on the inner most pair of numbers. After skipping one number [39] we reach the sequence ( r ` ) color coded (turquoise ) with surah numbers 40. Each of the single letter surahs do not have adjacent numbers. which could draw out either a part of the D.45. These letters are alif ( U ). or part of a leaf line. Number 38 is shown in (lavender) with the ambiguous letter ( h ). This number must be included to complete the medium lines of the pattern. This would eliminate the letter miim ( r ) having an ink spot and hence cannot be one of the single letters. IMPORTANCE OF THE THREE SINGLE LETTERS (See Fig. kaaf ( o ) and in a second grouping. If we look at the two letters in the first grouping. This number is necessary to complete the thick line portion of the design. The sequence of turquoise numbers are suffixed by this letter.46. The final number 68 detailed elsewhere closes the whole design. Number 50 detailed elsewhere is shown in (brown) with the ambiguous letter ( o ). Note that the numbers 30. The pattern has a letter which draws part of the D.

” The design consists of the only two possible design elements: round ink spots.5 lines or ink spot. The abbreviated letters in the Quran is the most elaborate example of the technique in existence. The Importance of The ‘abjadi Order the hija’i Order Now I shall discuss the importance of the ‘aabjadi Order and the hija’i Order. But everything in these papers require the later order to work. At the time the Muqatta’at was written in the Quran. This concept of hidden and non hidden levels of understanding seem to be present in the Quran. 134 59 . Originally there was the ‘abjadi Order.10” Surah 3:7 “He it is who has sent down to thee the Book in it are verses basic or fundamental clear (in meaning). you must read my book Sacred Stones Sacred Stories. You can have single ink spots. King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex. but also of 1. but how few can fully understand it? Every one can get out of the Qur-an plain guidance for his life according to his capacity for spiritual understanding. 31. Note that on either side of the leaf line surahs. We have locations of no lines or ink spots. is a key which allows hidden variations to become visible. with lines and ink spots. Look at Table 8. We have locations with no lines or ink spots. 31 is full of variations also. Thus. Fig. and lengths of lines. We have lines in mirrored image and no mirrored image. Another very important idea. It can be understood as a simple plain book. the letter saad ( h ) is introduced before the letter kaaf ( p ). but it can exist in hidden deeper levels of understanding. an alphabetic order different from the present hija’i Order. The right hand letter of the second grouping chosen would be the letter kaaf ( p ). and a single location with an ink spot– all possible hidden variations.saad ( h ).’ The book of nature is also a plain book. they are the foundation of the Book: others are not entirely clear. In Fig. immediately followed by the final special non ambiguous ink spot letter nuun ( s ) . This concept seems to be expressed in the appendix concerning these letters in the Saudi Arabian printing of the Qur-an when we read: ”Their presence is not inconsistent with the character of the Quran as a ‘plain book. is that the Quran is a legitimate holy book because . THE MAIN REASONS FOR THE ABBREVIATED LETTERS IN THE QURAN This next section gives my best guess why the letters are in the book. Note the rule stated previously that letters were chosen in order of introduction still hold true. The devise demonstrates the principle of having all types of both hidden and not hidden variations. are the two single ink spot letters in order of saad ( h ) before the leaf line and kaaf ( p ) after. we have the same numbers but of surahs instead of lines or of ink spots. the former order was in vogue. 2. We have variations of letters in different surahs which is not hidden but visible to all who look at the book. vol has the stamp of legitimacy. single lines or groupings of lines with or without inks spots at the same locations just as the Quran is made up of many overlapping and connecting ideas.4. But in figure 6. 3. To understand this. 10 The Holy Qur-an. We have locations with lines. This section will discuss the older order and how it relates to the Muqatta’at and also how the two orders can be reconciled with each other.

The bottom row numbers the groupings of Muqatta’at and non . This pattern has a very important fact: the center letter as seen in the middle row at number 14 is the letter nuun ( s ) with its special properties of being the only unique and single letter marking the final surah having letters. but this an older version works best. The next row shows the counting of letters. All similar shaped letters then were grouped together into the haja’i Order. From what I have shown in all my papers is that this ‘aabjadi Order is not the alphabetic order which works. (reading right to left. a key is to rearrange the ‘aabjadi Order. Note all of the (Y) letters are within the 22 letter sequence.) The next row shows rather that above drawn letter is a Muqatta’at letter (Y) or is not a Muqatta’at letter (n). The first 22 letters are the ancient Hebrew/ Phoenician letters. Table 9. Then a double grouping of threes (Y)es with two (n)os on either side. The ‘aabjadi Order g m k c a Y X f d o C n l hs r q p w j ` e u o b Z V U 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 n n n n n n n Y Y Y n n Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y n n Y n n n Y left over 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 1 Examining the third row. There are more common variations of this alphabetic order. Here in the hija’i Order. the 14th letter is the letter Saad ( h ) another one of the three single letters of the Muqatta’at11. 1 and in Table 9 which does. and 14 non -Muqatta’at letters (n) shown clear.) 11 The first letter alif in the Muqatta’at is the first letters in both the ‘aabjadi Order and in the hija’i Ord er.Muqatta’at letters are shown clear. For the Muqatta’at to work. 1. the 14 Muqatta’at letters are shown in gray. Then another grouping of three (Y)es. and the 14 non . 12 .Muqatta’at letters. 16 in bo th of these orders. so that the 14th letter nuun ( s ) is placed on the 25th location as seen if Fig. Different M uqatta’at letters occup y the consecutive even numbers 1 0. 14. There are shown in the bottom three rows 14 Muqatta’at letters (Y) shown in gray. but it is the later hija’i Order (dating from within a century of Muhammad’s time or his successor Uthman ) seen in Fig. with the remaining letters being all (n)o. with the last 6 letters being unique letters of the Arabic Alphabet. you will notice the pattern of threes: a grouping of three (n)o flanked by two (Y) es on either side. 60 .The top row of Table 9 shows the ‘aabjadi Order (Magreb variation). (Again in the middle and bottom rows.

Two simple examples can show this. and 1 letters (all shown in clear). 3. This fact of spelling out the name of the letters from the very beginning may be the key to understanding the origins of this Muqatta’at. The Muqatta’at was designed to be spoken and written as a Muqatta’at. The hija’i Order w u o s r q p o n m l k j C hg f e d c b a ` Z Y X V U 2 2 2 2 8 7 6 5 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Y n Y Y Y Y Y Y n n Y n Y n Y n Y n Y n n n Y n n n n Y 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 1 4 1 1. Must be literate in Arabic Alphabet to create and solve this Muqatta’at. 4. After reading my other papers. but the Muqatta’at has facts which are unique in the Quran: the number of letters and the number of Surahs including their locations in the book have perfect and definite mathematical relationships with each other. 2. UK.W iley. W est Sussex. and Y-n-Y between the 2nd and 3rd non . p.Muqatta’at groupings.Muqatta’at letters (reading from right to left) are in groups of 4. table and graph shows this. There are three groupings of Y-n-Y. The non . Ingrid M attson. Its H istory and P lace in Mu slim Life. Table 10. 3. You do not say ‘aaaa-llll--mmmm’ but you do say’ aaallliiifff-lllaaamm-mmmiiimmm’ etc. Then each letter of the Muqatta’at has to be alphabetically named very slowly letter by letter out loud.Muqatta’at groupings.Blackwell. These papers show page after page of evidence proving this. There are Muqatta’at letters (in gray) on the first and last letters and between the 4th and 3rd non . 206 61 . Then we can show how all the 12 The Story of the Q ur’an. Here is a very important fact: the whole Quran including the Muqatta’at is to be chanted out loud– the act of reading is an aid but hearing the recitation of the words is the only correct and original way the Quran was transmitted ( the word ‘Quran’ means a recitation and not to read silently. Notice letters of similar shape are grouped together but a pattern still emerges. 2. Pre Islamic Poetry may have letters spoken as named letters12. This table is set up in similar fashion as Table 3. Each figure.Table 10 shows the later hija’i Order which is the key to the Muqatta’at letter Muqatta’at. n-Y-n. The letters being spoken by name goes back to the earliest of times. you will come to the conclusion the designer must have been aware of a numbered surah order. such as the number of the letters used is half the number of letters in the alphabet (14 letters is half of 28) and the number of surahs is the full number of letters in the alphabet (29 surahs where the number of letters in the alphabet is 28 plus the special letter hamza make 29).

jstor. 1. 1 for the following) remains the same as in the older order. but not fully implemented until this later century date (or even several centauries later. There were 19 letters needed to be moved. 3. 22. (http://www. The first two letters. The haja’i Order dates from around one hundred years after the Quran was put into its orthodox arrangement by the Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. Hebraica. The University of Chicago Press. vol. Arnold. 6. We can justify the haja’i Order being central to the understanding the Muqatta’at if we assume this order was known early on. and other details not found in these free downloadable texts. since the word nuun actually means ‘pen’ and ‘fish’. ‘alif ( U ) and baa’ ( V ) which make the first line of Cos Pattern (See Fig.nuun ( s ). 1. 1. 1 was known and the lines were actually drawn out on paper to create . If my theory concerning the Muqatta’at are all do to coincidences. Understand that all the papers presented here with all the accompanying arguments discussed merely show only the ‘tip of the iceberg’ in what I have discovered as my book.-Jul.). 4. No other theory can explain why these letters were chosen or why there are 29 surahs having letter and not 54 or 8 or 5. Keep four letters intact since they have no diacritic forms. then if this were a lottery. no 3/4 (Apr. figures. Must move the letter nuun ( s ) from the 14th letter place to the 25th letter place. 1 gives more arguments. It is as if when all the letters are named in the correct order that the design of Fig. 11. (or around two hundred years according to the disconnected letterswordpress. APPENDIX– The Cos Pattern is detailed in my book Sacred Stones Sacred Stories vol. 1895). 2. discussions. These were grouped by twos and threes to the lower end by diacritic marks. and partly do to the reasons given in the paper (“The Present Order of the Alphabet in Arabic. 24.( p ). Here three vowels may be placed.) Why was the haja’i Order created? I believe the answer was partly due to the desire to have the letter nuun ( s ) making the pen’s ink spot at the head of the fish moved to location 25. 6.kaf. Sacred Stones Sacred Stories vol.. 23. There were three locations 28-27-26 unfilled to the end. even dating from the time of Muhammad. 1 are the letters correct letters to draw lines to make the pattern the completed pattern of Fig.(2+4+3) = 19] The number 19 appears to have much significance and is detailed in my book Sacred Stones Sacred Stories vol. But here is the most important point of all: The only way my theory can work is by speaking out loud the alphabetic names of the letters. A general explanation of how I determined this pattern is that I took the most accurate description1 of the 62 .” Joseph K. These letters are at locations 25. 6. ) This may be summarized as follows: 1. I would be winning the jackput.laam ( q ). 6 would be supernaturally created (and realistically created if Fig.letters can draw the figure which matches texts in the corresponding surahs as seen in Fig.miim( r ) . mathematically: [28. The speaking out loud with emphasis the alphabetic names of the letters is telling where on the design of Fig. Note that the number [25} is next to the number {19} in fig. tables.

63 . Fig. and we had five color stones red-blue1-green. Fortunately I found clues as to a single correct variation which are detailed in my book. Perkins. 6 redrawn to show two lines at the top and bottom are mirror images. Waycross. Percy H. 6 redrawn to better show the mirror image of the two horizontal lines. Fig. 6 is drawn correctly but the mirror image is not as noticeable as drawn below.the first letters of the names of the twelve sons of Ishmael2-could be linked in the same order as the colored stones.colors of the three by four rows of twelve stones in the High Priest’s Breastplate and discovered that another listing of twelve names-.25:13 Below is Fig. 1. But a number of variations are possible like green to blue1 to blue2 to blue3 to red. (second edition. then we could draw lines linking the colors red to blue1 to blue2 to blue3 to green. ISBN 960-3090-2-0 Brantley Printing Co. Georgia 31501) 2. For example: if we had five names beginning with the letters B-M-M-M-F. © 1977. see Gen. or green to blue2 to blue1 to blue3. Gemstones of the Bible.blue2– blue3.

This is Fig. and two locations have 3 lines (odd number) radiating from them. This is useful if you are 64 . 6 instead of showing them as a single figures with five colored parts. 6a thorough 6e of the completed pattern seen in Fig. Note also that the counting (1-2-3-4 and A-B-C and a-b-c) all involve only the four Ambiguous Ink Spots (shown in Yellow). 23a redrawn for clarity.Fig. Numbers and letters are discussed in text. The number 5 constitutes half of the ten sephirot in kabbalah. note: six locations have 5 lines (odd number) radiating from them. 23c. Below are the five individual parts numbered Figs.

Dove Lines Fig.printing this paper without color. 6a D. Fig. b Addlines 65 .

Fig. d Leaf Line 66 . c Ambiguous Ink Spots Fig.

The word ‘pen’ or ‘pen holder’ is also in this grouping. Leaf Line. Surahs higher than surah 72. Jonah. The next column shows if there are any correlations between the type of line and the words in group B.’scripture’. e Ink Spot Important Evidence the Quran was edited using the Abbreviated letter Muqatta’at A well known fact concerning the Abbreviated Letters is that a number of surahs having letters having a number of words in the first two ayat (sentences). pharaoh in whose presents snakes turned into staffs and vice versa. The next column shows which of the five types of line ( D. ‘revealed’. Also words like ‘signs’ of which snakes turning into staffs was one of the signs before pharaoh. ‘quran’. The next column shows if the surah has any of these words in the first two ayat: ‘book’.Fig. The five types of lines are: 67 . I will now explore this concept and also discuss a related investigation of words in surahs which match parts of the completed design of Fig. but it only appears once as a single letter in the last surah having letters. 6 This latter investigation is very important because it is a major proof that this design was used in the order of editing the surahs of the Quran by following this design. First. Ink Spot) is present in this surah. let us examine the table below which has all the relevant facts. Dove. Snake/ Addline. All these words are in this column labeled Group A. ‘revelation’. Ambiguous. All these words or names are in this column labeled Group B. The next column shows if within the surah are stories which mention either Noah. do not have any words in question so are not listed in the table. Jonah and a big fish. The left column lists the interval of surah numbers from 2 to 72. Gray boxes designates surahs with Abbreviated Letters.

NOAH D. Any story of Noah and the dove would be expected in the Abbreviated Letter surahs having the Leaf Line. Any story in these surahs can be any of the stories shown in this column. Snake/addline = Added lines which refers to the story of Moses turning his staff into a snake and vice versa. 24. Dove NOAH-SNAKE/STAFF 68 yes on Noah only . Words implying this detail can also be the mention of magicians in Pharaoh’s court or of Pharaoh ignoring miracle signs. Dove pattern of lines or the Snake/Addline pattern of lines. Dove no 3 YES D. Table 10 SURAH GROUP A TYPES OF LINE GROUP B CORRELATIONS 2 YES D. Leaf Line = The Leaf Line is the line representing the olive leaf in the beak of the descending dove onto the hand of Noah on the Ark. The story of Jonah and the big fish would be expected in the Abbreviated Letter surah having the Ink Spot. NOAH JONAH. INK SPOT = The Ink Spot relates to a fish as discussed and shown in Fig. Ambiguous Ink Spot = Two ink spots whose location are ambiguous as being either part of the D. Dove no 4 NO 5 NO 6 NO 7 YES 8 NO 9 NO JONAH. Dove (descending dove) = The story of Jonah or fish (where the name means dove in Arabic and Hebrew Fish refers to the story of Jonah and the big fish The story of Noah refers to Noah and the descending dove onto the hand of Noah on the Ark.D.

Dove no 32 YES D. Dove NOAH. Dove NOAH yes 30 NO D. Dove no 16 NO 17 YES 18 YES 19 NO Snake/Addline 20 YES Snake/Addline 21 NO 22 NO 23 NO 24 YES 25 NO 26 YES Snake/Addline NOAH-PHARAOH/ MAGICIANS yes on pharaoh. Dove no 14 YES D. Dove no 15 YES D.10 YES D. Dove no 31 YES D.Noah only 11 YES D. PHARAOH yes on Noah only 12 YES D. magicians only 27 YES Snake/Addline PHARAOH yes 28 YES Snake/Addline PHARAOH yes 29 NO D. Dove no 13 YES D. Dove no 33 YES 34 NO PHARAOH no PHARAOH/ MAGICIANS yes JONAH-NOAH JONAH-NOAH NOAH 69 . Dove JONAH-NOAHSNAKE/STAFF yes on Jonah.

35 NO 36 YES 37 NO 38 YES 39 YES 40 NO Leaf Line 41 YES Leaf Line no 42 NO Leaf Line no 43 YES Leaf Line 44 YES Leaf Line no 45 YES Leaf Line no 46 YES Leaf Line no 47 NO 48 NO 49 NO 50 YES 51 NO 52 YES 53 NO 54 NO 55 YES 56 NO 57 NO 58 NO 59 NO 60 NO Snake/Addline no JONAH-NOAHPHARAOH Ambiguous Ink Spot no PHARAOH PHARAOH Ambiguous Ink Spot NOAH NOAH NOAH 70 no no is ambiguous .

Dove story (Noah). There is a 34% number of surahs having a correlation.e. Also note that since there are a total of 114 surahs most of the Abbreviated Letter surahs are at the beginning of the Quran. Dove having the correct corresponding story ( a mention of Noah) occurring at an expected location within the Quran. while 2% of surahs over surah number 68 have words from group A. Also note many of stories match the type of line for example surah 29 – a D. 6 is like a page in a book.61 NO 62 YES 63 NO 64 NO 65 NO 66 NO 67 NO 68 PEN 69 NO 70 NO 71 NO 72 YES NOAH Ink Spot JONAH/FISH yes on fish only NOAH NOAH Most of the Abbreviated Letter surahs can be found mostly in the interval 2 through 46 (only surahs 50 and 68 are outside this compact interval. 6 likewise is hidden until it is made known i. Here Jonah and the fish are both mentioned in the text. Why these words? Do all books and the completed pattern of Fig. Surah 68 is a very strong case for this table to be more then coincidence since here the fifth element-. A revelation or something reveled is something hidden but now made known. The correlation of types of lines and textual agreements in the two columns on the right. Thus most of the surahs having these words are in surahs having Abbreviated Letters. 89% of surahs having Abbreviated Letters have words from group A. An example is surah 28– a snake/Addline having a correct corresponding story (a mention of pharaoh) and the next surah 29– a D. Dove and Pharaoh story is a Snake/Addline story which is in the definition of the type of line called ambiguous Ink Spot).an ink spot occurs where the words ‘pen’ and write occur in the first ayat (sentence). Note surah 42. it is a revelation. A very significant point is that transitions from one type of line to another has equivalent transitions in their respective stories. 6 have anything in common? They both are written on a surface using pens. is the only surah having two letters above three letters is the only surah in the interval between 40 through 46 which does not mention ‘book’ or ‘revelation’ or ‘reveled’. and the letter 71 . is not as conclusive but appears to be more then just random. The ink spot is written with a pen. Fig.Dove line has a D. Note the vague references to both the Noah story and the pharaoh story in surah 50 which had the ambiguous ink spots (Noah story is D. Fig.

A closer look at the Sefirot Tree of Life and the Quranic Mystery Below is the Tree of Life Sifirot design in color.Also note how Jonah/fish in surah 68 is the only Jonah story surrounded by Noah stories. is an Arabic word for ‘fish’.represented the letter nuun. 23d on the left there are three circles with two blue interconnecting lines. Fig. On the right there are 72 . 23d In Fig.

3*. 23d above. B. 4 yellow circles labeled (1) . 2*. C connected by 2 red lines labeled [1]. 2+2+3+4+11 = 22 lines Note: Fig. 3 . (3) . (3) . We have: 3 circles labeled A. 23c the number 11 is still present as the 11 black lines. 2+2+3+4+11 = 22 lines In Fig. There are four yellow lines as shown. B. (4) 11 black lines 3+ 3+4 = 10 circles. 2 . 4 connected by 3 green lines labeled 1*.three circles with two red interconnecting lines. {2} 4 circles labeled 1 . a single non connected black circle makes 11 circles. 73 . b c connected by 2 violet lines labeled {1}. {2} 4 circles labeled 1 . 3 . the 10 circles with a missing 11th non connected circle and a counting of 22 lines are well known attributes of this design called the Tree of Life. because the figure has 8 places where lines converge and if we add the two black circles we get the number 10. 4 connected by 3 green lines labeled 1*. (4) 11 black lines 3+ 3+4 = 10 circles. 23c. Also the number 10 is present as well. 23c is mimicked in the single disconnected circle seen in Fig. We also have a single dotted circle on the green line not connected to any line. (2) . 4 yellow lines labeled (1) . Now compare Fig. 23d. 2 . In the center there are four circles with three green lines. the 22 lines matches the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. 23c seen previously and note that they are line by line similar. C connected by 2 red lines labeled [1]. 23d has 4 yellow lines instead of 4 yellow circles as in Fig. (2) . Also. the remaining lines are black. 2*.23d with Fig. [2] 3 circles labeled a. the dotted non connected circle makes 11 circles. In Fig. b c connected by 2 violet lines labeled {1}. We have: 3 circles labeled A. The word ‘sefirot’ means to count the 10 positions indicated by the 10 circles. The two disconnected circles in Fig. [2] 3 circles labeled a. 3*.

74 . Here number of lines are shown at each location.A Demonstration of the Tree of Life and the Abbreviated Letters Below is the Tree of Life with 10 locations and a hidden 11th as in Figs. 23b. 23d.

Below is the Abbreviated letter pattern similar to Fig. Notice this figure and the previous figure can have the same names on the same 10 locations. 6 corresponds to the sapir stone and the tribe of Judah but I do not know of any significance to this observation. which is the basis of this pattern and of the 12 tribes associated with these stones and this pattern. My point is that the Traditional Tree of Life in Kabbalah is very similar to the double pattern created by the Abbreviated Letters of the Quran. vol. There are a number of similarities and differences in these two figures.1) I go into great detail about these 12 stones. The name has the same root as the word for the stone called sapir (sapphire) which was on of the stones in the breastplate of the High Priest. Again the number of lines are shown. This tree of life design (Heb.23c but rotated counterclockwise 90°. 75 . the Cos Pattern. The empty space above the descending dove in location {3} which have the numbers {3] [11] in Fig. aetz Chiym) is also called the safirot. 23a and Fig. In my book (see Sacred Stones Sacred Stories.

net last modified 7/31/2015 76 . 2 ( or my website: sacredstonessacredstories. 1 has much more on the abbreviated letters.wordpress. 1 and vol.My books are: Sacred Stones Sacred Stories vol.) I may be contacted on my or my video clips: search on the name < Robert Kerson > my email: rkerson@snet.