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**Threshold of the MOSFET
**

At different length’s

M.Sharan Kumar Goud K.Naveen Kumar Chandan Tej Reddy

11

3 Operation modes of the MOSFET 3.1 understanding the script 3. Abstract 2.2 How to generate the IV . BIN. Introduction to MINIMOS 3.Contents 1.OUT files 4.2 Threshold voltage 2.1 Fundamentals of MOSFET 2. Introduction to MOSFET 2. Conclusion 7. References 2 2 3 4 4 7 7 9 10 12 15 15 1|P ag e . Results 6. Analysis from the generated results 5.

L= 1.Draw the Ids .2micron .vds after getting the threshold values determine Rd at different L and plot Rds function of L and discuss about the results 2|P ag e . W= 1 micron .1. Abstract The purpose of this document is to find out the parameters and study how its effects the MOSFET threshold voltage.transconductance using MINIMOS numerical simulation software tool .calculate the threshold voltage for a given MOSFET with the following device parameter Tox =200 A.

source. The gate electrode is usually made of metal or heavily doped polysilicon and is separated from the Si substrate by a thin insulating film. but FET technology was invented in 1930. As a consequence. the surface region of the Si substrate under the gate becomes inverted to n-type and hence called as n-channel. the gate oxide. Fig –N-channel MOSFET 3|P ag e . Today. millions of MOSFET transistors are integrated in modern electronic components. a current conducting path is formed through the n-channel between the two n+ source and drain regions. The gate oxide.type doped.2. some 20 years before the bipolar transistor. i. source and drain regions are all doped with opposite types as compared to the n-channel MOSFET in Figure below. When there is no voltage applied on the gate electrode. A basic MOSFET structure is shown in Figure 2.e. no channel is formed and the MOSFET acts like two back-to-back p-n junction diodes with only low-level leakage currents present. The focus of this topic is the gate drive requirements of the power MOSFET in various switch mode power conversion applications. from microprocessors. is usually formed by thermal oxidation of the Si substrate and acts as an energy barrier between the gate electrode and p-type Si substrate in order to confine charge carriers in the surface region of the Si substrate. The Si substrate is p-type doped. and substrate or body. typically SiO2. high efficiency switching applications across the electronics industry. A MOSFET therefore operates like a switch ideally suited for the drain. SiO2. and source and drain regions are heavily n. through “discrete” power transistors.1 with an n-chnnel MOSFET (nMOSFET) for description. When a sufficiently large positive voltage is applied on the gate terminal. It might be surprising. The first signal level FET transistors were built in the late 1950‟s while power MOSFETs have been available from the mid 70‟s. Introduction to MOSFET MOSFET – is an acronym for Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and it is the key component in high frequency. 2. drain. It is a four-terminal device with the terminals designated as gate. A p-channel MOSFET (pMOSFET) behaves similarly to an n-channel MOSFET but with an opposite polarity since the substrate.1 Fundamentals of MOSFET A MOSFET can be simply viewed as an electronic switch where the ON and OFF states are controlled by an electric field at the gate terminal.

2 . The threshold voltage (VT) of the n-channel MOSFET is defined as the gate voltage at which the surface potential (ψS) or band bending reaches 2ψB and can be expressed as (for a uniformly doped substrate) ……. In the following discussion.2 2.1 where φms is the „work function‟ potential difference between the gate and Si substrate. Cutoff. Triode mode or linear region (also known as the ohmic mode) When VGS > Vth and VDS < ( VGS – Vth ) 4|P ag e . NA. the energy band in the surface region of the substrate bends downwards as shown in Figure 2. and ψB is the potential difference between the intrinsic Fermi level. or weak-inversion mode When VGS < Vth: 2. Threshold voltage When a positive potential is applied to the gate. subthreshold. given by.3 . ψB is a function of substrate doping concentration. Operation modes of the MOSFET The operation of a MOSFET can be separated into three different modes. EFi.2. depending on the voltages at the terminals. 1.2. Modern MOSFET characteristics require computer models that have rather more complex behavior. Q is the equivalent fixed oxide charge per unit area at the oxide-silicon interface. and the Fermi level in the substrate. ……. a simplified algebraic model is used that is accurate only for old technology. EF.

Vth (which Sedra neglects) accounts for a small discontinuity in ID which would otherwise appear at the transition between the triode and saturation regions. a key design parameter.4 where the combination Vov = VGS – Vth is called the overdrive voltage. the MOSFET transconductance is: . two. 5|P ag e .3. VDS is the expression in saturation region. particularly in analog circuits. and where VDSsat = VGS . carrier transport in the active mode may become limited by velocity saturation. and a channel has been created. drain-to-source voltage for several values of VGS − Vth. As the channel length becomes very short.5 . and modeled approximately as: …. Another key design parameter is the MOSFET output resistance rout given by: …. the output current is affected by drain-induced barrier lowering of the threshold voltage. the channel-length modulation parameter. or channel length modulation. the electrons spread out. which allows current to flow between the drain and source. The drain current is now weakly dependent upon drain voltage and controlled primarily by the gate–source voltage. the saturation drain current is more nearly linear than quadratic in VGS. In addition. At even shorter lengths. According to this equation..or three-dimensional current distribution extending away from the interface and deeper in the substrate. Saturation or active mode When VGS > Vth and VDS > ( VGS – Vth ) The switch is turned on. If λ is taken as zero. For example. ….. When velocity saturation dominates. and conduction is not through a narrow channel but through a broader. known as quasi-ballistic transport. models current dependence on drain voltage due to the Early effect. carriers transport with near zero scattering. rout is the inverse of gDS where ….3 The additional factor involving λ. these equations become quite inaccurate. The onset of this region is also known as pinchoff to indicate the lack of channel region near the drain. The following graph shows how the MOSFET drain current vs. New physical effects arise. the boundary between linear (Ohmic) and saturation (active) modes is indicated by the upward curving parabola. an infinite output resistance of the device results that leads to unrealistic circuit predictions. Since the drain voltage is higher than the gate voltage.

Fig-Id Vs Vds curves at different Vgs values 6|P ag e .

which are called as KEYS. The BIAS. Introduction to MINIMOS MINIMOS is a software tool for the numerical simulation of field-effect transistors such as silicon bulk and SOI MOSFETs. the Bold-faced words are called as DIRECTIVES.2E16 ELEM=AS DOSE=2. UG=1.85E-4 UD=4. TIME=2700 ELEM=B DOSE=1. CHANNEL GATE - Channel type of the device Work function difference for the gate w.E-8 W=1. Explanation TEMP=1050. The directives may appear in any order in the input file.E-8 AKEV=160.E-4 L=0. Under each directive. the intrinsic level in the substrate for MOSFET - Tox W L - Thickness of the gate insulator Channel width Gate length 7|P ag e . 3.3. DEVICE and PROFILE directive with appropriate keys are required in any MINIMOS input file.t. Comment starts with a ë*í (Asterisk) and that entire line will be treated as comment.E12 AKEV=12 TEMP=940 TIME=1000 MODEL=2-D ALL=YES PIF=YES bin=yes DEVICE: This directive is used specify the physical device parameters.r.5 NB=5.E15 TOX=500. . there are different parameters. which hat to be last statement in the input file. + IMPLANT OPTION OUTPUT END In the above file.1 Understanding the script DEVICE BIAS PROFILE CHANNEL=N GATE=NPOLY TOX=150. except the END directive.

Implantation energy .BIAS: Specifies the simulation operating point UD UG Applied drain voltage .Diffusion (Annealing) temperature .Calculation mode OUTPUT: Specifies the physical quantities to be printed after the simulation.Diffusion time TOX .Implantation dose .Implantation isolation oxide thickness OPTION: Specifies general purpose keys to control the execution of MINIMOS.of drain voltage steps PROFILE: Specifies the source-drain doping profiles.Drain voltage increment . NB . 8|P ag e .No. MODEL .Implantation element DOSE AKEV TEMP TIME .Prints all available quantities END: Signals the end of the input file.Bulk doping ELEM .Gate voltage increment . bulk doping and bulk trap distribution.Applied gate voltage STEP: Specifies the step sequence of any applied terminal volatge DD DG ND . ALL .

IV files Screen shots as follows Fig – screen shot of minimos Then the values from the IV file are imported to Excel sheet and required graphs are were plotted 9|P ag e .BIN. BIN.INP Then see the particular directory for the OUT .2 How to generate the IV .3.OUT files Open the CMD prompt of your system and change the directory to c:\simulators\minimos\bin And after that type the command c:\simulators\minimos\bin\minimos filename.

Rd – Drain resistance of MOSFET at vg = 1. the inverted bell shape like curve will be observed 10 | P a g e .8 I-V character sticks linearly increases and after some extend at 0.1v and after that it is unstable at vg= 4.6v increases exponentially at vd=0.6v the curve increases linearly and be constant at vg = 1.10v increase linearly at vd=0.transconductance By varying the Vds at constant Vgs . Rd – Drain resistance of MOSFET at vg = 0.8v the curve is constant slightly. On comparing all three graphs we we can conclude that threshold voltage is 0.4.10 v the curve decreases to negative side Gm.3 At L=2 I-V character sticks linearly increases and after some extend at 0.2 At L=1.6v with ripples on the exponential graph Gm. the inverted bell shape like curve will be observed Vth – Threshold voltage .6 volts 4. On comparing all three graphs we we can conclude that threshold voltage is 0.5-0.6v at vd=0. Rd – Drain resistance of MOSFET at vg = 1.1v at vd=0.10v increases at vd=0. by adding the step sizes DG and DD we plot the graph varying the Vgs keeping Vds constant.9v the curve is constant slightly.9v-1v the curve is constant slightly.transconductance By varying the Vds at constant Vgs .6v at vd=0. by adding the step sizes DG and DD we plot the graph varying the Vgs keeping Vds constant.10v the curve is constant at zero and at 4.6v the curve increases linearly and be constant at 0v at vg = 2.6 volts 4.6v Gm. the inverted bell shape like curve will be observed Vth – Threshold voltage .1 At L=0.6v increases exponentially at vd=0.6v at vg = 7.2 I-V character sticks linearly increases and after some extend at 0.transconductance By varying the Vds at constant Vgs . Analysis from the generated results 4.1v the curve increases linearly and be constant at vg = 1.

3 volts On comparing the graphs by varying the lengths of the gate . threshold voltages are observed 11 | P a g e .Vth – Threshold voltage . by adding the step sizes DG and DD we plot the graph varying the Vgs keeping Vds constant. On comparing all three graphs we we can conclude that threshold voltage is 0.

00E-05 0.00E-05 3.00E-04 VD at 2.10 VD at 6.00E-04 6.00E+00 0.00E+00 Graph for Gm 4.0u Graph for V-I VI 7.00E-05 0.00E+00 4.5.00E-05 12 | P a g e .00E+00 0.0 Graph for Vth THRES 4.50E-05 4.00E-06 0.00E-05 2.50E-05 1.00E+00 -1.00E+00 1.00E-05 2.00E+01 Gm at 0.00E+00 2.00E+00 6.00E-05 3.00E-04 4. Results At L=2.60 VD at 3.00E+00 1.00E-05 4.00E-05 THRES 1.00E+004.00E+003.00E-04 5.00E+002.50E-05 2.00E-05 -1.00E-04 2.00E-04 0.60 VD at 8.00E-05 5.0 GM at 8.1 GM at 4 GM at 6.00E-05 1.00E-05 3.60 1.00E+006.00E+005.00E+001.50E-05 3.0 VD at 7.00E-04 3.00E+00 8.00E-05 2.

00E+00 1.60 Graph for Gm 4.00E+00 6.00E+00 1.00E+00 0.00E-05 1.6 VI at vg 1.00E+00 3.2 8.00E+01 1.00E+00 8.10 VI at 1.00E+00 4.00E+01 Gm at vd1 Gm at vd2 GM at vd3 GM at vd4 Graph for Vth thres at L=1.50E-04 1.00E-05 0.00E-05 2.00E+00 8.00E-06 0.00E+00 1.00E-05 7.00E+00 2.At L=1.50E-05 2.00E+00 4.2u Graph for v-i 2.10 VI at vg 2.00E-05 0.00E+00 2.00E-04 1.00E-05 3.00E+00 -1.60 VI at 2.50E-05 3.50E-05 4.00E+00 0.00E+00 VI at vg.00E+00 6.00E+00 4.00E-05 3.00E-05 4.00E-05 5.00E+00 2.00E+00 5.00E-04 5.50E-05 1.2 13 | P a g e .00E-05 0.00E+00 6.00E-05 2.00E-05 6.00E-05 1.20E+01 thres at L=1.00E-05 5.

00E+00 3.00E+00 1.00E+00 4.00E-05 0.1 GM at 4 GM at 7 Graph for Vth 1.00E-04 0.00E-03 8.20E+01 GM at 0.00E+00 6.00E+00 1.00E-05 2.20E-03 1.00E-04 4.00E-04 2.00E+00 6.00E-04 9.00E+00 8.10 VD at 8.00E-05 8.00E-05 4.00E-04 8.00E+00 4.00E-05 2.00E+00 2.00E-04 6.00E+00 2.At L=0.00E+00 8.00E+00 0.00E-05 0.60 VD at 6.00E+00 5.20E-04 1.00E+00 2.00E+00 4.00E-05 6.00E+00 VD at 3.00E-05 4.20E+01 14 | P a g e .00E-05 3.00E-05 5.10 V at 5.00E+00 6.00E+00 THRES THRES 0.00E+01 1.6 VD at 2.00E-05 7.00E+00 0.8u Graph for v-i 1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.00E-05 1.10 Graph for Gm 1.00E-05 6.

Minimos tutorial 3. There is a slight difference in the Vth 7. Conclusion The mathematical calculations are done using minimos simulator and graphs are plotted at different values of the length of the gate .6. References 1. Google sources 15 | P a g e .imtek. http://www. We observe how the threshold of the MOSFET device effected by the device parameters .de/mikroelektronik/content/staff/device_sim.pdf 2.

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