This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1 Introductory observations:
Human Population growth is the change in human population over time. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. It is known that population growth and economic development are effecting the environment. The interplay between population growth, resource
depletion/environmental damage has been debated much. There are those who think that high population growth causes stress on environment, and there are those who put less blame on population and more blame on economic development, industrial and agricultural practices that result in environmental damage. The fact is that both population growth and unsustainable economic development are cause for concern especially in developing countries. There is relationship between population growth and environmental damage. We may recall famous Erlich Equation: I=P*A*T I= Impact on environment P=Population A=Affluence (consumption) T=Technology coefficient Steve Jones, head of the biology department at University College London, has said, "Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be, according to the rules of the animal kingdom, and we have agriculture to thank for that. Without farming, the world population would probably have reached half a million by now." The world‘s population has significantly increased in the last 50 years, mainly due to medical advancements and substantial increases in agricultural productivity.
The recent rapid increase in human population over the past two centuries has raised concerns that humans are beginning to overpopulate the Earth, and that the planet may not be able to sustain present or larger numbers of inhabitants. The population has been growing continuously since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1400; at the beginning of the 19th century, it had reached roughly 1,000,000,000 (1 billion). Increases in medical technology have led to rapid population growth on a worldwide level. Current projections show a steady decline in the population growth rate, with the population expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion between the year 2040 and 2050. In May 2011, The United Nations increased the medium variant projections to 9.3 billion for 2050 and 10.1 billion for 2100.
The scientific consensus is that the current population expansion and accompanying increase in usage of resources is linked to threats to the ecosystem The Inter Academy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member national academies in 1994, called the growth in human numbers "unprecedented", and stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon
dioxide, global warming, and pollution, were aggravated by the population expansion. At the time, the world population stood at 5.5 billion, and low-bound scenarios predicted a peak of 7.8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates show will be reached around 2022. India‘s population has crossed one billion mark. We are adding one more Australia in terms of POPULATION World reached: One billion in 1804 Two billion in 1927 Three billion in 1960 Four billion in1974 Five billion in 1987 Six billion in 2000 population It is expected to reach Seven billion in 2013 Eight billion in 2028 Nine billion in 2054
population each year. Have we devised programmers developmental that are
commensurate with this increase? If not, population factor alone would have significant contribution toward degradation of environment and
resource depletion. More people mean more pressure on resources, more consumption of energy, more production of wastes, including greenhouse gases-all having adverse effects
on environment. Though population growth has slowed down, it has to be stabilized at still lower level.
1.2 Meaning of human population:
The human population refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, a country, a continent or the world, at a given time. In simple words, Total number of people living in a area at a given time is called its population.
1.3 Meaning of human population growth:
(Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE–2000 CE.)
Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography. In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific
term population growth rate and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world.
1.4 Determinants of Population growth:
Population growth is determined by four factors, births (B), deaths (D), immigrants (I), and emigrants (E). Using a formula expressed as: ∆P≡B-D+I-E In other words, the population growth of a period can be calculated in two parts, natural growth of population (B-D) mechanical growth of population (I-E)
Mechanical growth of population is mainly affected by social factors, e.g. the advanced economies are growing faster while the backward economies are growing slowly even with negative growth. Exponential population growth-dN/dT=rN Logistic population -d
1.5 concept of Population growth rate:
In demographics and ecology, population growth rate (PGR) is the fractional rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. Specifically, PGR ordinarily refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula:
(In the limit of a sufficiently small time period.) The above formula can be expanded to: Growth rate = crude birth rate — crude death rate + net immigration rate, or, ∆P/P = (B/P) - (D/P) + (I/P) - (E/P),
(where P is the total population, B is the number of births, D is the number of deaths, I is the number of immigrants, and E is the number of emigrants). This formula allows for the identification of the source of population growth, whether due to natural increase or an increase in the net immigration rate. Natural increase is an increase in the native-born population, stemming from a higher birth rate, a lower death rate, or a combination of the two. Net immigration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. The most common way to express population growth is as a ratio, not as a rate. The change in population over a unit time period is expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period. That is:
A positive growth ratio (or rate) indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth ratio indicates the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero
indicates that there were the same numbers of people at the two times -- net difference between births, deaths and migration is zero. However, a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. Equivalently, percent death rate = the average number of deaths in a year for every 100 people in the total population. A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than one indicates that the population of women is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of women is decreasing.
1.6 Excessive growth and decline:
Population exceeding the carrying capacity of an area or environment is
called overpopulation. It may be caused by growth in population or by reduction in capacity. Spikes in human population can cause problems such as pollution and traffic congestion, these might be resolved or worsened by technological and economic changes.
such areas may be considered "under populated" if the population is not large enough to maintain an economic system.8 Demographic transition The theory of demographic transition held that. and the decreased need of children in industrialized settings. after the standard of living and life expectancy increase. 1. as new data has become available. The latter factor stems from the fact that children perform a great deal of work in small-scale agricultural societies.Conversely. the world's population hardly increased. and works less in industrial ones. since a finite amount of land was incapable of supporting an endlessly increasing population. Mercantilists argued that a large population was a form of wealth. the world population had grown to a billion individuals. remaining under 250 million. due to the populationreducing effects of war. 1. 6 . By the beginning of the 19th century. the growing desire of many women in such settings to seek careers outside rearing and domestic work. it has been cited to explain the decline in birth rates in industrializing regions. Throughout history. populations have grown slowly despite high birth rates. However. which made it possible to create bigger markets and armies. Factors cited in the old theory included such social factors as later ages of marriage. plagues and high infant mortality. it has been observed that after a certain level of development the fertility increases again. family sizes and birth rates decline. Between these two extremes sits the notion of the optimum population. This means that both the worry the theory generated about aging populations and the complacency it bred regarding the future environmental impact of population growth are misguided. During the 750 years before the Industrial Revolution.7 History of concern: Concern about human population growth is relatively recent in origin. and intellectuals such as Thomas Malthus and physiocratic economists predicted that mankind would outgrow its available resources.
"Demographic entrapment" is a concept developed by Maurice King.02 to 2. For the world as a whole.3.6. and exports too little to be able to import food.49 o Asia (excluding Middle East) .6.38 to 2. no possibility of migration. 7 .66 o South America . A breakdown by region is as follows: o Europe .43 o Middle East & North Africa .85 to 2.47 to 1.05. Only the Middle East & North Africa (2. instead of having a demographic transition. so the population still rises as the more numerous younger generation approaches maturity. In strongly patriarchal nations.99 o Oceania .Another version of demographic transition is proposed by anthropologist Virginia Abernethy in her book Population Politics. This will cause starvation.6.3.5. a high standard of living tends to result in population Many countries have high population growth rates but lower total fertility rates because high population growth in the past skewed the age demographic toward a young age. who posits that this phenomenon occurs when a country has a population larger than its carrying capacity.65 between 1950 and 2005.30 o Central America .75 to 2.7 to 5.61) would then have numbers greater than 2.66 to 1.2. He claims that for example many sub-Saharan nations are or will become stuck in demographic entrapment.99 to 3. where she claims women enjoy few special rights. the number of children born per woman decreased from 5.37 o Sub-Saharan Africa .87 to 2.41 o North America . the projected world number of children born per woman for 2050 would be around 2.05.09) and Sub-Saharan Africa (2.53 Excluding the observed reversal in fertility decrease for high development.5. Honorary Research Fellow at the University. where she claims that the demographic transition occurs primarily in nations where women enjoy a special status.
Population is stable but higher than in stage one. STAGE Typically seen in less developed countries where birth rates are 1: high but a large number of people die of preventable causes leading to a stable population. India is currently at the third stage. This transition from a stable population with high mortality and high fertility to a stable population with low mortality and low fertility is called demographic transition. STAGE Countries achieve a stable population once again with low birth 4: and low death rates but at a higher level of social and economic development. 8 . It defines four clear stages of population growth that nations often traverse in tandem with their socio-economic development. but birth rates remain high due to high fertility. STAGE Death rates fall steeply as deaths from preventable causes are 2: reduced by better food supply and improved public health. This often leads to a spurt in population. STAGE Birth rates fall but population continues to grow because there are 3: a large number of people in the reproductive age group due to the high fertility of the previous generations. "Demographic transition" is a model that describes population change over time. poor social development and limited access to health and contraceptive services.
the developing world will have 88% of the world's population.1 World Population: Some Facts The world population was 6.823. are estimated to be growing at the rate of 1.5% per year. up from the present 81%. the 8 billion mark in 2028.30 billion in 2003. World Population Growth.5 billion 2009 6.7 billion 1975 4 billion 1980 4.5 billion 1985 4.8 billion 2011 7 billion 2025 8 billion 2043 9 billion 2083 10 billion estimate.2% and a stable population in terms of numbers.8 billion 1960 3 billion 1965 3. By 2050. In 1999. Four out of every five people in the world live in the developing world.91 billion by 2050. The developed world has reached a stage where the number of births equal to the number of deaths.85 billion 1990 5. This gives a negligible population growth rate of 0.3 billion 1995 5.2 billion 1900 1. on the other hand.472.55 billion 1955 2. the world population passed the six billion mark. The chart below shows past world population data back to the Year one and future world population projections through the year 2050. Latest official current world population WORLD POPULATION GROWTH Year Population 1 200 million 1000 275 million 1500 450 million 1650 500 million 1750 700 million 1804 1 billion 1850 1. the 9 billion mark in 2054. 9 . is estimated at 6.3 billion 1970 3. The developing countries.6 billion 1927 2 billion 1950 2. It is projected to grow to 8.Chapter-2 GLOBAL POPULATION SCENARIO The world population has grown tremendously over the past two thousand years.7 billion 1999 6 billion 2006 6. 2. in Billion o World population is projected to cross the 7 billion mark in 2013. for mid-year 2010. according to the United Nations Population Fund.852.
Nigeria. India alone accounts for about a fifth of the world‘s total population growth. African and Latin American countries and most of this growth is taking place in the urban areas of these countries. This is the shortest period of time in world history for a billion people to be added. o World population did not reach one billion until 1804. It took 123 years to reach 2 o billion in 1927. 10 .o It has taken just 12 years for the world to add this most recent billion people (6 billion). Population Growth in More and Less Developed Countries The increase in world population growth is mainly contributed by less developed regions which include majority of Asian. 33 years to reach 3 billion in 1960. By 2050. o World population nearly stabilizes at just above 10 billion after 2200. Bangladesh and Indonesia. six countries account for half of the world‘s annual growth of 77 million: India. nearly 90 percent of the world‘s population will be living in less developed nations Today. 14 years to reach 4 billion in 1974 and 13 years to reach 5 billion in 1987. China. Pakistan.
Women of Childbearing Age (15-49). according to the UN. Their numbers are expected to reach over 2 billion by the middle of this century. The growing population of women in their childbearing years and their male partners will contribute to the future world population growth. even if levels of childbearing continue to decline. 12 . World Scenario The number of women of childbearing age more than doubled between 1950 and 1990: from 620 million to over 1.3 billion.
about half the level in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman). which is expected to increase 44% from 305 million in 2008 to 439 million in 2050. global fertility is projected to decline further to 2. at 1. 13 .5 down to 2.3 billion population of underdeveloped countries is expected to increase to 7.0. o In 2000-2005. By contrast. assuming a decrease in average fertility rate from 2.2 Projections of world population growth o According to projections. An exception is the United States population. the average world fertility was 2.8 billion in 2050.65 children per woman. the world population will continue to grow until at least 2050.2.05 children per woman. and some predictions putting the population in 2050 as high as 11 billion. where today's 5. In the medium variant. Current United Nations predictions estimate that the world population will reach 9. o According to the United Nations' World Population Prospects report: o The world population is currently growing by approximately 74 million people per year. with the population reaching 9 billion in 2040.0 billion around 2050. o Almost all growth will take place in the less developed regions. the population of the more developed regions will remain mostly unchanged.2 billion.
4 billion. Japan and most of the successor States of the former Soviet Union. Ethiopia185 million. Croatia. o Global life expectancy at birth. Pakistan.6 billion people. Mexico 132 million. Bangladesh. o In 2000-2005. India will have 1. Japan 14 . Nigeria 259 million. which is estimated to have risen from 46 years in 1950-1955 to 65 years in 2000-2005. Italy. is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005. million. the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 98 million. Sweden. Ethiopia. o By 2050 (Medium variant). listed according to the size of their contribution to population growth. These countries include Austria. Philippines 141 million. Spain. In the more developed regions. and China. Denmark. nine countries are expected to account for half of the world's projected population increase: India. Singapore. United States 439 million. Italy. Democratic Republic of the Congo. United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom. United States. Among the least developed countries. including Germany. Nigeria. Portugal. Because deaths are projected to exceed births in the more developed regions by 73 million during 2005-2050. Canada. Bangladesh 258 million. Uganda. Russia 109 million. o During 2005-2050. while the actual populations in many developed countries would fall without immigration. o The population of 51 countries or areas. Qatar. Pakistan 309 million. the projected increase is from 75 years today to 82 years by mid-century. China would be higher still in this list were it not for its One Child Policy. o Birth rates are now falling in a small percentage of developing countries. where life expectancy today is just under 50 years. China 1. Brazil 245 Democratic 189 million. is expected to keep rising to reach 75 years in 2045-2050.o During 2005-2050. Vietnam 120 million. Indonesia 280 million. it is expected to be 66 years in 2045-2050. Egypt 125 million. population growth in those regions will largely be due to international migration. Germany. net migration in 28 countries either prevented population decline or doubled at least the contribution of natural increase (births minus deaths) to population growth.
3 846. 2.3 Demographics of India: Census Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Population (in millions) 361.3(%) 21.8 (%) 21. o Walter Greiling projected in the Latin America & 765 million Caribbean North America 448 million 1950s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion. population will reach Africa 1.6(%) 15 . and then stop to grow.6 (%) 23. Tanzania 85 million.8 (%) 24. Iran 100 million. In 2050.4 1028. in the 21st century. Recent extrapolations from available figures for population growth show that the population of Earth will stop increasing around 2070.6(%) 24.3 (%) 17. Kenya 85 million and Asia Europe United Kingdom 80 million.6 1210.1 Decadal growth (%) 13.2 683.1 439.2 billion 674 million Turkey 99 million.2 548.103 million. Uganda 93 million.9 billion 5. after a readjustment of the Third World and sanitation of the tropics.
605 (1.21 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world.53 billion people by the end of 2030.21 billion) 623. o The figures show that India represents almost 17. o In just 10 years India has added 181 million which is total population of Brazil.000 (586. India‘s population growth rate has declined to 17.5 million) 940 females per 1.4% of the world.044.350.58%. the crown of the world's most 16 .35 billion) people. o India‘s population is almost equal to the combined population of US.500. which means one out of six people on this planet live in India while china is home for 19. Although. Bangladesh. while China is on the top with over 1.5% of the world's population. India is predicted to have more than 1.000 (623.64% as compared to the previous which was 21.193. o With the population growth rate at 1.422 (1. o For the first time after 1921. Indonesia. Pakistan and Japan (1-214 billion).210. there are about 51 births in India in a minute.7 million) 586.000 males 50% of India's current population Currently.193.700.210.12% in 2001. with 1.02 billion 350 million o India.422 (1. India's Population in 2001 Population of India in 1947 1. Brazil.Current Population of India in 2011 Total Male Population in India Total Female Population in India Sex Ratio Age structure 0 to 25 years 1.
o sex ratio improved from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011. has brought tremendous results for the latter.6 million populations which is 16% of India‘s population. India is all set to surpass china‗s position by 2030.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6.000 people per year) is 22.8% in about 5. rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal.000 live births (2009 estimated). o Least populated state. China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3. high fertility rate. The policy claims to 17 .000 population (2009 est. Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty.480 towns and urban agglomerations.2% of the population lives in some 638. failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate.4 million which is 9% if India‘s population Punjab. o Fertility rate is 2.4 deaths/1.22 births/1. however. 235. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning program in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy. illiteracy. o Most populated among union territories is Delhi with 1.populous country is on China's head for decades.000 population. The efforts did produce positive results.Sikkim with 607688 population. 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30. o Most populated states Uttar Pradesh with 199. The family planning program yielded some noticeable results.000 villages and the rest 27. Maharashtra with 112. 67.15 deaths/1. Haryana and Chhattisgarh together make up 2% of total Indian population. India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early. 53. In 19652009. o The birth rate (child births per 1. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control. Alarmed by its swelling population. o About 72. More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved.
18 .have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010.
Natural components like land. energy-or even man himself-are considered as resources as well as resource creating factors. Many countries lack adequate supplies of basic materials needed to support their current population. Large percentages of earth‘s surface is covered by water. 1)Availability of land: land is the most vital resource as it will be used for crops and other biological materials needed for food. 3. While humans ourselves occupy only 0.1 More pressure on available resources: All means of satisfying human needs. medicine. any real advances in well-being and the quality of life are negated by further population growth.Chapter-3 Implications of human population growth More people mean more pressure on resources. Recent technological innovations helped a lot in solving the problems of resource depletion at a faster rate. under conversion. including green house gases-all having adverse effects on environment.5% 0f the earth‘s land area. so our effects are felt on one quarter of the land. 19 . Thus ‗resources‘ are means for attaining individual and social welfare. intact. dedicated to agriculture. water. minerals. Rapid population growth can affect both the overall quality of life and the degree of human suffering on Earth. and used for human habitation. fiber and associated materials. technology and education. massive efforts are needed to keep social and economic conditions from deteriorating further. In the poorest countries. water. at a given time and place are ‗resources‘. wildlife. The world's current and projected population growth calls for an increase in efforts to meet the needs for food. more consumption of energy. A global concern has been whether the present rate of global population growth will be sufficient to meet up the resource needs for mankind‘s survival and comfort? Thus there lies the quest for sustainable use of resources to meet up the ever increasing needs of human populations. forests. more production of wastes. fodder. health care.
agriculture and industry. Usable land may become less useful through salinization. Available fresh water resources are very limited. The development of energy sources may also require large areas.41% hectares in the USA. or have created large dam and dike systems. at least half of cultivable land is already being farmed.4%of the world total. primarily in the Arctic and the deserts. The demand for fresh water has increased day by day and will increase with the rapid growth of population.98 hectares in china.15% in frozen ice form and the remaining 0. available useful land may become a limiting factor. desertification.65% remains as fresh water either on surface or as ground water. The World Resources Institute states that "Agricultural conversion to croplands and managed pastures has affected some 3. However. As a result the fresh water reserve depletes day by day too.8 billion people could comfortably inhabit an area comparable in size to the state of Texas. The notion that space is limited has been decried by skeptics. By most estimates. like the Netherlands. Furthermore. and urban sprawl. Some scientists have said that in the future." Forty percent of the land area is under conversion and fragmented. but supports a population of 17. remains intact. All totaled.2% water lies in oceans as salt water. and there are concerns that the remaining reserves are greatly overestimated. less than one quarter.000 square miles or 696. 8.5 % of the world. densely populated cities will use vertical farming to grow food inside skyscrapers. agriculture has displaced one-third of temperate and tropical forests and one-quarter of natural grasslands. creating further problems. Thus.3 billion [hectares] — roughly 26 percent of the land area. the population of India is concentrated in well watered plains. while 2.43 hectare in USSR and 0.India has a total land area of 2.707 square kilometers). As such. erosion. which reclaim land from the sea to increase their total land area. deforestation. who point out that the Earth's population of roughly 6.48 hectare as against 4.7 20 . in the United States (about 269. The requirement of clean water is about 2. the building of hydroelectric dams. Some countries. such as the United Arab Emirates and particularly the Emirate of Dubai have constructed large artificial islands. 2)Inadequate fresh water: water is the most vital resource for life approximately 97. the impact of humanity extends over a far greater area than that required simply for habitation. per capita availability of land in the country is 0. for example.
If the current rate of exploitation continues and if there is no further new exploration of deposit then our mining activity might be completed by 2020.. viz. Optimists counter that fossil fuels will be sufficient until the development and implementation of suitable replacement technologies—such as hydrogen or other sources of renewable energy—occurs. they are already mined out partially.. For instance in urban area transport. it ought to be possible to establish a coordinated global program to accomplish the strategic goal of completely eliminating the internal combustion engine over. In his 1992 book Earth in the Balance. as well as other fossil fuels. use energyexpensive desalination to solve the problem of water shortages.. sewage. The relative energy requirement in urban and rural areas from various sources varies distinctly. estimated annual energy availability lies somewhat between 2. 3)More consumption of energy resources: more people mean more consumption of energy resources like fossil fuels.. Population optimists have been criticized for failing to take into account the depletion of the petroleum required for the production of fertilizers and fuel for transportation. industry and household requirements are considerably to be more prominent than rural areas. ". In India. 6 billion cu. and agricultural waste by using thermal depolymerization have been discovered. Al Gore wrote. a twenty-five-year period. thus the global requirement is about purpose.. India has more than 22 types of minerals in considerably high quantity. like Saudi Arabia.liter per day. In addition energy consumption pattern also changes with time. M. say. natural gas or nuclear materials. coal. 4) Depletion of mineral resources: a variety of both metals and non metals were exploited by the mankind over centuries.000 MW. In most cases. of which over 90% obtained from conventional sources. As per estimates made by Geological Survey of India. Methods of manufacturing fertilizers from garbage. only for drinking use as well as sewage Inadequate fresh water for drinking water treatment and effluent discharge.50. oil. 21 ." Approximately half of the oil produced in the United States is refined into gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. Some countries.
The poorest people in developing countries do not get adequate calories to develop their health properly. from 5 to 20 million people die of starvation across the world.2 Social implications of human population growth: 1)Food Scarcity: The population growth leading to population explosion causes severe economic disparities and gives birth to . price rise. assuming declining population growth rates. Malnutrition is one of the most common effects of these problems. almost half of all children under age of 5 suffer from malnutrition. France. A 2001 United Nations report says population growth is "the main force driving increases in agricultural demand" but "most recent expert assessments are cautiously optimistic about the ability of global food production to keep up with demand for the foreseeable future (that is to say. There are millions of starving people throughout the world. These deficiencies cause failure of senses.. In recent decades the US alone supplied almost half of world grain exports. hunger.competition for resources. Yemen and Israel import more than 90%. the 22 . mental disorders and damage to vital organs. In Ethiopia. And just 6 countries Argentina. The rich people are exploiting more resources than poor people. 923 million in 2007 versus 832 million in 1995. As per estimates. and mass starvation. until approximately 2030 or 2050)". every year. but critics dispute this. Many countries rely heavily on imports however. the observed figures for 2007 show an actual increase in absolute numbers of undernourished people in the world. particularly if sustainability is taken into account. Egypt and Iran rely on imports for 40% of their grain supply. malnutrition. Some scientists argue that there is enough food to support the world population.supply 90% of grain exports. Australia. Most poor children and adults suffer from severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Thailand and the USA . Canada.3. However. The gap between the rich and the poor has increased due to population growth.
others question these statistics. daily Calorie consumption in poor countries increased from 1. not overpopulation.02 billion in 2009. as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world. In a 2006 news story. From 1950 to 1984. The amounts of natural resources in this context are not necessarily fixed.S.The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and most believe that. Food per person increased during the 1961-2005 period. and their distribution is not necessarily a zero-sum game. that while the number of undernourished people in the developing countries has declined by about three million. FAO's projections suggest that the proportion of hungry people in developing countries could be halved from 1990-92 levels to 10% by 23 . As world population doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion. However. The number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished. without the Revolution. the worldwide production of food had steadily increased up until 1995. there would be greater famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents. For example. World food production per person was considerably higher in 2005 than 1961. Furthermore.650. This suggests that Third World poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment. and the percentage of people in those countries who were malnourished fell from 45% to 18%. "There are an estimated 800 million undernourished people and more than a billion considered overweight worldwide. MSNBC reported. due to the Revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states in its report The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006. has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world. to 1. Global perspective about growing need for food Growth in food production has been greater than population growth.932 to 2. a smaller proportion of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today than in 1990–92: 17% against 20%.more recent FAO estimates point out to an even more dramatic increase. grain production increased by over 250%." The U.
Africa In Africa. according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. The knowledge and resources to reduce hunger are there. according to a report released by the Food and Agriculture Organization. loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development. peak water. He said food reserves are at a 50-year low but the world requires 50% more energy.5 million people in 2000-02 from 170. world price sat over $100 a barrel." As of 2008. according to the UK government chief scientist. Hunger and malnutrition kill nearly 6 million children a year. There is more food available and still more could be produced without excessive upward pressure on prices. if current trends of soil degradation and population growth continue the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025. In sub-Saharan Africa. An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern. and more people are malnourished in sub-Saharan Africa this decade than in the 1990s. the price of grain has increased due to more farming used in bio fuels. falling energy sources and food shortages will create the "perfect storm" by 2030. leaving millions to starve. The FAO also states "We have emphasized first and foremost that reducing hunger is no longer a question of means in the hands of the global community. The world is richer today than it was ten years ago. peak phosphorus. climate change. the number of malnourished people grew to 203. and growing consumer demand in China and India Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world. What is lacking is sufficient political will to mobilize those resources to the benefit of the hungry. and may already be in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Growing populations. namely peak oil. It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain food security in a world beset by a confluence of "peak" phenomena. A virulent wheat disease could destroy most of the world's main wheat crops.2015. peak grain and peak fish.3 billion people. the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) warned.4 million 10 24 . The fungus has spread from Africa to Iran. food and water by 2030. global population growth. The world will have to produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed a projected extra 2.
Some human populations throughout history support this theory. Japan may face a food crisis that could reduce daily diets to the austere meals of the 1950s. According to a 2004 article from the BBC. 46. according to recent government data.4% of people in sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme poverty. and shrink in times of scarcity. Virginia Abernethy. More recent data indicate China's grain production peaked in the mid 1990s. believes a senior government adviser. some developed countries have both a diminishing population and an abundant food supply. due to over extraction of groundwater in the North China plain. Russell Hoffenberg and author Daniel Quinn propose that like all other animals. the population grows. Japan and most of the states of the former Soviet Union. China. Populations of hunter-gatherers fluctuate in accordance with the amount of available food. Asia One survey says that nearly half of India's children are malnourished. In fact. Population increased after the Neolithic Revolution and an increased food supply. Alan Thorn hill.years earlier says The State of Food Insecurity in the World report. the world's most populous country. This shows that when one limits their scope to the population living within a given political 25 . Italy. Proponents of this theory argue that every time food production is increased. The United Nations projects that the population of 51 countries or areas. Other Countries Nearly half of India's children are malnourished. including Germany. is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005. In 2001. Population as a function of food availability Thinkers such as David Pimentel. which also have the highest access to food. human populations predictably grow and shrink according to their available food supply – populations grow in an abundance of food. This was followed by subsequent population growth after subsequent agricultural revolutions. Critics of this idea point out those birth rates are lowest in the developed nations. a professor from Cornell University. suffers from an obesity epidemic.
human populations do not always grow to match the available food supply. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year. this hypothesis is not so simplistic as to be rejected by a single case study. Egypt. Food moves across borders from areas of abundance to areas of scarcity.boundary. cultural norms and most importantly economic realities differ from nation to nation. and Pakistan. since the human development of agriculture. Nevertheless. That some countries demonstrate negative population growth fails to discredit the theory. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. Desalination is also considered a viable and effective solution to the problem of water shortages.clearly other factors are at work: contraceptive access. The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including Northern China. 26 . as in Germany's recent population trends . the US.a pattern that has been true for roughly 10. such as China or India. Food scarcity As a result of water deficits Water deficits. which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries. Mexico. and India) owing to widespread over drafting beyond sustainable yields. if technology is not used. This over drafting is already leading to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Algeria. may soon do the same in larger countries. Iran. One suggested solution is for population growth to be slowed quickly by investing heavily in female literacy and planning services. as is the net quantity of human food produced . After China and India. Additionally. it will also soon turn to the world market for grain. Additionally. and Mexico. China has developed a grain deficit. many of these countries are major exporters of food.000 years. Iran. on the global scale the world population is increasing. Even with the over pumping of its aquifers. Other countries affected include Pakistan. This effect has contributed in driving grain prices upward.
drink more water. Asia. Lives in developing countries represent a picture of misery. clothing. Green lands in urban areas and even sea beeches have been reclaimed for housing and industrial purposes. People are migrating towards cities in search of jobs and cities are becoming overcrowded. drinking water. Some countries of the world have nearly stabilized their population but their life style has become consumption based. inadequate education and employment. and Eastern Europe. 3) Poverty: Conditions of having insufficient resources or income are called as poverty.2) Overcrowding: There is limited habitable place on the earth. wear more clothes. 4) Increasing Consumption: It is a simple truth that more people consume more food. In developed countries. degradation of environment. crime. generate more waste etc. We may take the example of United States of America. Semi-urban lands and cultivable lands near cities have already gone under construction of houses. They always struggle for shelter and clothing. need more medicines for cure. Even government lands like railway platforms. unequal distribution of resources. disease outbreaks. Many of these countries have entered the second stage of Demographic Transition in which a high birth and reduced death rates along with a rising life expectancy accelerates the population growth. famine. create more pollution. and parks etc. demographic trends and welfare incentives are primary causes of poverty. The world‘s poorest people are found in Africa. housing. They often suffer from malnutrition. make more noise. poverty is the lack of the basic human needs like food. hunger and poverty. it is not overpopulated. Overpopulation. areas around monuments. Increasing crowd in cities is aggravating the problem of pollution and insanitation leading to the spread of epidemics. and health services. Latin America. epidemics and war. inability to meet the cost of living. and mental illness. The overpopulation has caused severe stress on land which has further stressed forests and agricultural areas. Though. are being seriously encroached. need more houses to live. It has been observed by ecologists the world over that powerful people and 27 . In its extreme form. poverty has caused drug dependence. it consumes about 40% of resources of the world alone and produces not less than 21 % of the world‘s carbon dioxide which is a green-house gas.
One can see long lines of people standing for hours for their works. Thus. Community Halls. 6) Stress on Common Social Facilities: We need facilities and facilities both on home front and on social front. 28 . 5) Encroachment on Monuments : A monument is a building. This is illegal and criminal attitude. there may be a great rush and competition for availing facilities causing severe stresses on those facilities.developed nations consume more resources than weak and poor people and developing or under developing countries. Gradually. Play Grounds. However. Most of our monuments and old government buildings are being badly encroached by people who after sometime try to become owners of those areas. People who migrate from rural areas and work in cities often face difficulties and most of them spend their nights as homeless. Thus. Bus Stops. column or statue of historical importance built-in the past to remind future generations about a famous person or event. They take shelter on pavements. According to United Nations the world‘s richest 20% of population consumes about 86% of resources of the world. the population growth and the changing pattern of consumption are responsible for the severe stress on environment. they build temporary houses on those places and start keeping their families there. this condition is the by-product of the explosion of population. abandoned railway buildings and on spaces left around historical monuments. So. All these social facilities are often heavily polluted due to careless practices of human beings. But facilities may be limited. There is heavy traffic on roads round the clock. So is happening with most of our uncared monuments today. Railway Junctions. More people require more use of available facilities. 20% of the world‘s population lives in developed and richest countries. Merely. Parks. increase in the rate of consumption at one end is causing an increase in hunger and crime at the other end. Some of them start business works on those places and gradually a colony of such persons is established. Hospitals and even roads are some common social facilities that are facing heavy stresses due to population explosion.
Over population has caused severe stress on civic services. However. care of animals (dogs and cattle) on roads. those services have become unable to perform properly. or non-existent health care. As a result. rich countries with high population densities do not have famine. maintenance of drainage systems. this problem can be 29 . and new viruses that infect humans. High rates of infant mortality are caused by poverty. Increased chance of the emergence of new epidemics and pandemics For many environmental and social reasons. 3. Some persons draw most of the supply water through electric pumps and all the other inhabitants of the area go without water. community health care. many people in our societies have lost civic sense. rickets). Starvation. On the other hand. Some of them drop their domestic wastes (including plastics) into drains or throw away garbage on roads. High infant and child mortality.g. It has excessive load of work on bodies providing civic services. water supply. inaccessible. However. Rich countries with high population densities have low rates of infant mortality. Low life expectancy in countries with fastest growing populations Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion. malnutrition and inadequate. It results in human threats including the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria diseases. starvation and diseases. excessive air and water pollution.3 Health implications of human population growth Population growth leads to malnourishment. Intensive factory farming to support large populations. discharge of raw sewage and solid waste disposal. malnutrition or poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e. Those services include cleanliness. waste disposal. including overcrowded living conditions.7) Stress on Common Civic Services: Services provided by municipalities or municipal corporations to civilians are called as civic services. basic education etc. the poor are more likely to be exposed to infectious.
after Karachi. water. and Advanced agriculture. 3. As it has been told earlier. its infant mortality rate fell substantially. Pakistan installed sewers. land and water.impacts of population growth on Physical and Biological components of the natural environment. o Impacts of Population Growth on the Physical Environment Physical environment means – non living environment or the land. More population means more space to construct houses and availability of more consumer goods. air. Application of fertilizers and pesticides makes the soil infertile. more fertilizers and more pesticides. Thus growth of population leads to pollution of air. ponds and green belts.4 Environment and ecological implications of human population growth The scientific study of inter-relationships among organisms and between organisms. soil and minerals. Thus ecology relates to environment and ecological impacts of population means impacts of population on environment and its various components. Different types of pollutions are causing a number of problems in the physical environment that are further affecting the biological 30 . more consumption of fossil fuels and more pollution of air. Advanced agriculture requires utilization of more water. overuse and misuse of physical resources increased manifold due to the growth of human population. land and water. The utilization. and all aspects. More cultivable land has been made available by clearing forests and by reclaiming wet lands. more population means more mouths to eat food which requires more agricultural production. Clearing of forests has its own serious impacts and the environment on the whole gets imbalanced. For example. The Ecological Impacts of population growth includes .living and non-living. More agricultural production demands two things – (i) (ii) more cultivable land.reduced with the adoption of sewers. It also requires more means of transport. of their environment is called as Ecology.
Frequent water crises often lead to migration of people and animals to other places thus causing overload on the resources of those areas. It is also called as slash and burn cultivation. Vast varieties of plants and animals have been killed due to water crises. comprising flora and fauna as well as biological diversity. hence most of the natural processes have been altered seriously that have caused serious imbalances in ecosystems. Since most of the components of the physical components are under serious threat due to population explosion. Therefore from above discussion it is clear that population growth leads to deforestation. Human Population has stressed most of the biological systems. depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution. Illegal timber trade by timber mafias and local pressure for fire wood have further depleted our forest resources. and other animals have been destroyed through human activities. o Frequent water crises in many parts of the world caused failure of agriculture leading to hunger and starvation. As for biological environment. Let us have some glimpses of these imbalanceso For expanding cultivable land. Intensive agriculture and mining have also caused large scale destruction of habitats. has already caused and still it is causing serious impacts on the global environment. There are other reasons of forest destruction also. Jhooming is the practice of growing crops after clearing forest land by burning the vegetation. Some of those reasons are forest fires and Jhooming.environment seriously. Forests have also been cleared for setting up of industries and for urbanisation. all the biological components are bound to suffer the consequences. These destructive activities of human being have driven away many species of wild animals and have caused extinction up to considerable level. 31 . o Impacts of population growth on biological environment The population explosion of earlier days and of present day also. Thus habitats of varieties of birds. And. forests have been cleared on large scales. Ecosystem is the smallest unit of the biosphere.
their food production and essential water supplies. fragmentation of land holding. coastal erosion. The ecological impact of rising oceans would include increased flooding. The review on "Promotion of sustainable development: challenges for environmental policies" in the Economic Survey 1998-99 had covered in detail the major environmental problems. if current greenhouse gas emission trends continue.o Poaching and killing of wild animals and illegal trade in their body parts have already caused extinction of several species of animals. collapsing fisheries. o Generation of waste due to increasing consumer culture and population explosion is causing spread of serious epidemics and deaths of people in many parts of the world. the present review will only briefly touch upon some of the important ecological consequences of demographic transition. and salivation of aquifers and coastal crop land and displacement of millions of people living near the coast. Patterns of precipitation 32 . In many developing countries continued population growth has resulted in pressure on land. loss of plant and animal species.5 degrees Celsius in the next century. and policy options for improvement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has projected that. shrinking forests. o Habitat destruction and overexploitation of resources etc. they cause massive ecological damage by the wasteful. induced by population growth has caused serious depletion of biodiversity in many parts of the world. Bio. the mean global surface temperature will rise from 1 to 3. Developed countries are less densely populated and contribute very little to population growth. Global warming due to increasing use of fossil fuels (mainly by the developed countries) could have serious effects on the populous coastal regions in developing countries. The already densely populated developing countries contribute to over 95% of the population growth and rapid population growth could lead to environmental deterioration. rising temperatures. however.diversity is the species richness in a particular area and its depletion causes serious losses of a number of factors that are vital for running up of ecosystems. The panel's best estimate scenario projects a sea-level rise of 15 to 95 centimeters by 2100. unnecessary and unbalanced consumption the consequences of which could adversely affect both the developed and the developing countries.
which combined with increased average temperatures. High level of biomass burning causing large-scale indoor pollution. fertilizers and industrial effluents. Rapid population growth. could substantially alter the relative agricultural productivity of different regions. forestry operation. The per capita forest biomass in the country is only about 6 tons as against the global average of 82 tons. water stagnation. Encroachment on habitat for rail and road construction thereby fragmenting the habitat. high use of chemical fertilizers pesticides and weedicides. developmental activities either to meet the growing population or the growing needs of the population as well as changing lifestyles and consumption patterns pose major challenge to preservation and promotion of ecological balance in India. Tropical deforestation and destruction of mangroves for commercial needs and fuel wood. soil erosion. urban development. Intense grazing by domestic livestock Poaching and illegal harvesting of wildlife. Slower population growth in developing countries and ecologically sustainable lifestyles in developed countries would make reduction in green house gas emission easier to achieve and provide more time and options for adaptation to climate change. Increase in commercial activities such as mining and unsustainable resource extraction. Increase in agricultural area. adverse effect on species diversity: Conversion of habitat to some other land use such as agriculture.000 ha in the last 50 years. 33 .000 ha to 453. Degradation of coastal and other aquatic ecosystems from domestic sewage.are also likely to change. pesticides. Some 70-80 % of fresh water marshes and lakes in the Gangetic flood plains have been lost in the last 50 years. The country‘s mangrove areas have reduced from 700. soil salinity and low productivity. Some of the major ecological adverse effects reported in India include: Severe pressure on the forests due to both the rate of resource use and the nature of use. Greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked to both population growth and development.
improved employment 34 . industrial and agricultural uses leading to increased river pollution and decrease in self-cleaning properties of rivers. it might be possible to initiate steps to see that the natural carrying capacity of the environment is not damaged beyond recovery and ecological balance is to a large extent maintained. monitoring and evaluation stages. this. Because of these. several of the East Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. Increasing water requirement leading to tapping deeper aquifers which have high content of arsenic or fluoride resulting health problems. will result in deterioration in quality of life. environmental protection and equity. The early Malthusian view was that population growth is likely to impede economic growth because it will put pressure on the available resources.Over fishing in water bodies and introduction of weeds and exotic species. Contrary to the Malthusian predictions. life styles. Availability of appropriate technology and commitment towards ensuring sustainable development is increasing throughout the world. It is imperative that the environmental sustainability of all developmental projects is taken care of by appropriate inputs at the planning. Ensuring that there is no further deterioration depends on choices made by the population about family size. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) acknowledged population growth. in turn. rising income levels. Diversion of water for domestic.5 Economic implications of human population growth Population growth and its relation to economic growth has been a matter of debate for over a century. result in reduction in per capita income and resources. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilization of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population. increasing consumption pattern will all have adverse impact on environment. 3. changing technologies. These countries have been able to exploit the dynamics of demographic transition to achieve economic growth by using the human resources as the engine driving the economic development. implementation. Disturbance from increased recreational activity and tourism causing pollution of natural ecosystems with wastes left behind by people.
35 .1 billion people will live in cities. there will be low savings. 3.6Urbanization The proportion of people in developing countries who live in cities has almost doubled since 1960 (from less than 22 per cent to more than 40 per cent). Many countries with high population densities have eliminated absolute poverty and keep their inflation rates very low. underutilization of labor : as there is large number of population. it is not possible to make optimal utilization of human resource Unemployment: with the increase in population there is more pressure on employment services and it is not possible to give employment to large number of humans. as with the same income sources one has to spent more as number of people increases in family unproductive investment Slow growth of Per Capita Income: per capita income will be less if there is population growth. it is expected that nearly 5 billion (61 per cent) of the world's 8. Poverty and inflation are aggravated by bad government and bad economic policies.with adequate emoluments has promoted saving and investment which in turn stimulated economic growth. Poverty coupled with inflation in some regions and a resulting low level of capital formation. then this leads to adopt poor means of life. Following are the adverse effects of population growth on the Indian Economy: Adverse effects on savings: with population growth. adverse effect on quality of life: population growth leads to lower standard of living as more income is needed to fulfill the demands or daily needs of more members in the family but if there is less income and family is large in size. Urbanization is projected to continue well into the next century. By 2030. while in more developed regions the urban share has grown from 61 per cent to 76 per cent. India shares this global trend toward urbanization (Figure 8).
In 1960. reduction in family size and improvement in health indices. As people have moved towards and into cities.Globally. (18 in Asia. As a consequence cities are facing the problem of expanding urban slums. Better communication and transportation now link urban and rural areas both economically and socially creating an urban-rural continuum of communities with improvement in some aspects of lifestyle of both. information has flowed outward. the number of mega cities had grown to 17(13 in developing countries). urbanization has both positive and negative effects. Cities and towns have become the engines of social change and rapid economic development. The ever 36 . the number of cities with 10 million or more inhabitants is increasing rapidly. health care. It is projected that there will be 26 mega cities by 2015. only New York and Tokyo had more than 10 million people. By 1999. of these five in India). Urbanization is associated with improved access to education. and most of these new "mega cities" are in developing regions. employment.7% in 1950). more than 10 per cent of the world's population will live in these cities (1. Like many other demographic changes. India‘s urban population has doubled from 109 million to 218 million during the last two decades and is estimated to reach 300 million by 2000 AD. these result in increase in age at marriage.
including reproductive health. and available options are becoming more widely recognized. This phenomenon has affected health care. These in turn result in poverty. All these have adverse effect on ecology and health. it is estimated that 320 million people are still living below the poverty line in rural India. and fewer unwanted pregnancies. There are substantial differences between the states in the proportion of rural and urban population (varying from almost 90 per cent in Assam and Bihar to 61 per cent in Maharashtra). Urban population growth has outpaced the development of basic minimum services. Its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product has declined over the last five decades but agriculture still remains the source of livelihood for over 70 per cent of the country‘s population. A large proportion of the rural work force is small and consists of marginal farmers and landless agricultural laborers. higher contraceptive use. the number of rural poor has in fact increased due to the population growth. both wages and productivity are low. radio and television programmers that discuss gender equity. in many ways. Increasing automobiles add to air pollution. increasing waste generation at home. points of reference.increasing reach of mass media communicates new ideas. water supply. sewerage and solid waste disposal are far from adequate. and prevent them from breaking out of the shackles of poverty. Though poverty has declined over the last three decades. housing. awareness about the glaring inequities in close urban setting may lead to social unrest. appreciated and sought. In States like 37 . For instance. This can create demand for services for mothers and children. family size preference and family planning options are now reaching formerly isolated rural populations. 3. There is substantial under employment among these people. offices and industries. smaller healthier families and lead to more rapid population stabilization. Agriculture is the largest and one of the most important sectors of the rural economy and contributes both to economic growth and employment. Poverty persists in urban and per-urban areas. But the rapid growth of urban population also poses some serious challenges.7 Rural population and their development Over seventy per cent of India‘s population still lives in rural areas. Poor tend to have larger families which puts enormous burden on their meager resources. coupled with poor waste disposal facilities result in rapid environmental deterioration.
but with the growing aspirations of the younger. Low productivity of small land holders leads to poverty. It is estimated that currently 430 million (8% of the global population) are living in countries affected by water stress. but the population density is high and so there is a pressure on land. water demand substantially exceeds sustainable water supply. In States like Rajasthan. They would like better opportunities and more remunerative employment. inadequate and poorly functional infrastructure. population growth rates are much lower than in many other States. prevents the development thus creating a vicious circle. and this. Rural poor have inadequate access to basic minimum services. by 2020 about one fourth of the global population may be facing chronic and recurring shortage of fresh water. Greater education. low energy intake and under nutrition. achieve substantial decline in the family size and improve quality of life. if all the felt needs for health and family welfare services are fully met. may not wish to do manual agricultural work. The entire gamut of existing poverty alleviation and employment generation programs may have to be restructured to meet the newly emerging types of demand for employment. water withdrawal is estimated to be twice the rate of aquifer recharge. it is imperative that programmers for skill development. in turn. it will be possible to enable them to attain their reproductive goals. In this context. lack of awareness. educated population these efforts may prove to be inadequate to meet the increasing needs both in terms of type and quality of services. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh population is growing rapidly. as a result 38 . Uttar Pradesh. In most of the states non-farm employment in rural areas has not grown very much and cannot absorb the growing labor force. 3. because of poor connectivity.Tamil Nadu where replacement level of fertility has been attained.8Water supply : In many parts of developed and developing world. There are ongoing efforts to improve these. awareness and better standard of living among the growing younger age group population would create the required consciousness among them that smaller families are desirable. Those who are getting educated specially beyond the primary level. In India. resulting in increasing pressure on land and resulting land fragmentation. vocational training and technical education are taken up on a large scale in order to generate productive employment in rural areas.
There is very little arable agricultural land which remains unexploited and in many areas. the food and nutrition security could become critical in many parts of the world especially in the developing countries and pockets of poverty in the developed countries.82 in 1950-51 to 200. At the other end of the spectrum. It is. excessive use of water has led to water logging and increasing salinity in some parts of the country. imperative that research in biotechnology for improving development of food grains strains that would tolerate salinity and those which would require less water gets high priority.7 grams in 1951 to 34 grams per day in 1996) and coarse grains.water tables are falling by one to three meters every year. 39 . tapping deeper aquifers have resulted in larger population groups being exposed to newer health hazards such as high fluoride or arsenic content in drinking water. improvement in purchasing power and changing dietary habits (shift to animal products) may further add to the requirement of food grains. therefore. Eventually. both lack of water and water logging could have adverse impact on India's food production. food production has kept pace with the population growth. Simultaneously. In India one of the major achievements in the last fifty years has been the green revolution and self-sufficiency in food production. It is a matter of concern that while the cereal production has been growing steadily at a rate higher than the population growth rates.88 million tons in 1998-99 (Prov. It is estimated that the global population will grow to 9 billion by 2050 and the food production will double. the coarse grain and pulse production has not shown a similar increase. a movement towards making water harvesting. 3. Food grain production has increased from 50. storage and its need based use part of every citizens life should be taken up. agricultural technology improvement may not be able to ensure further increase in yield per hectare.9Food security Technological innovations in agriculture and increase in area under cultivation have ensured that so far.). Thus. Evolution of global and national food security systems has improved access to food. Consequently there has been a reduction in the per capita availability of pulses (from 60. in the next five decades.
The pulse component of the ―Pulses and Oil Seeds Mission‖ needs to receive a major thrust in terms of R&D and other inputs. there has been a shift away from coarse grains to rice and wheat consumption even among poorer segment of population. Consumption of staple diet of Kesari Dal led to crippling disease of neuro lathyrism.Over the last five decades there has been a decline in the per capita availability of pulses. There has been a sharp and sustained increase in cost of pulses. During the last few years the country has imported pulses to meet the requirement. Over the last three decades the rising cost of pulses has made Kesari Dal more expensive than wheat or rice and hence it is no longer given to labourers as wages for work done. so there is substantial decline in per capita pulses consumption among poorer segment of population. Till eighties in central India wages of landless laborerswere given in the form Kesari Dal which was cheaper than cereals or coarse grains. as a result the disease has virtually disappeared from Central India. Coarse 40 . This in turn could have an adverse impact on their protein intake. so that essential pulse requirement of growing population is fully met. Over years the coarse grain production has remained stagnant and per capita availability of coarse grain has under gone substantial reduction. Rising cost of pulses had a beneficial effect also. One of the benefits of this change is virtual elimination of pellagra which was widely prevalent among low income group population in Deccan Plateau whose staple food was sorghum.
because of this. pellagra. States like Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh have initiated some efforts in this direction. 3. goitre. marasmus. availability of vegetables especially green leafy vegetables and yellow/red vegetables throughout the year at affordable cost both in urban and rural areas has remained an unfulfilled dream. 41 . beri beri and blindness due to severe Vitamin-A deficiency have become rare. low-literacy. During the last 50 years considerable progress has been achieved. There has been substantial reduction in moderate and severe under nutrition in children and some improvement in nutritional status of all segments of population. Coarse grains which are locally produced and procured if made available through TPDS at subsidized rate. Famines no longer stalk the country. Another area of concern is the lack of sufficient focus and thrust in horticulture. sanitation and health care. Kwashiorkor. The country adopted multi-sect oral. similar efforts need be taken up in other states also. marasmus. may not only substantially bring down the subsidy cost without any reduction in calories provided but also improve "targeting" . they can thus provide higher calories for the same cost as compared to rice and wheat.as only the most needy are likely to access these coarse grains. Kwashiorkor. one was the threat of famine and acute starvation due to low agricultural production and lack of appropriate food distribution system.10 Nutrition: At the time of independence the country faced two major nutritional problems. lathyrism. these factors led to wide spread prevalence of infections and ill health in children and adults. multipronged strategy to combat the major nutritional problems and to improve nutritional status of the population. beri beri. The other was chronic energy deficiency due to poverty. blindness due to Vitamin-A deficiency and anaemia were major public health problems.grains are less expensive than rice and wheat. poor access to safe-drinking water. Health and nutrition education emphasizing the importance of consuming these inexpensive rich sources of micronutrients will not result in any change in food habits unless there is harnessing and effective management of horticultural resources in the country to meet the growing needs of the people at affordable cost.
3. it is a matter of concern that milder forms of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and micronutrient deficiencies continue to be widely prevalent in adults and children. 2. identify individuals/families with severe forms of CED and provide them assistance to overcome these problem.However. Operational strategy to improve the dietary intake of the family and improve nutritional status of the rapidly growing adult population would include: 1. vegetables and other foodstuffs needed to fully meet the requirement of growing population. pulses. In view of the fact that population growth in India will continue for the next few decades. 4. Improving in purchasing power through employment generation and employment assurance schemes. Providing subsidized food grains through TPDS to the families below poverty line. Ensuring adequate agricultural production of cereals. it is essential that appropriate strategies are devised to improve food and nutrition security of families. Exploring feasibility of providing subsidized coarse grains to families Below Poverty Line (BPL) Operational strategies to improve health and nutritional status of the growing numbers of women and children include: 42 .
c) immunization and health care. unless there is specific reason supplementation should not be introduced before 6 months (d) immunization.vegetable based supplement fed to them at least 3 . Intensive health education for improving the life style of the population coupled with active screening and management of the health problems associated with obesity. a) screen by weighment to identify children with moderate and severe under nutrition b) provide double quantity supplements through ICDS.4 times a day – appropriate help in ensuring this through family/community/work place support. if no improvement after 2 months refer to physician for identification and treatment of factors that might be responsible for lack of improvement. 6) Monitor for improvement in the identified undernourished infants. 2) 0-6 months infants .5 age group.screening to identify women with weight below 40 Kgs and ensuring that they/ their preschool children receive food supplements through Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS). 43 . 4) Children in the 0 . children and mothers. b) get appropriate cereal pulse . adequate antenatal intrapartum and neonatal care.1) Pregnant and lactating women . 3) Well planned nutrition education to ensure that the infants and children do a) continue to get breasted. b) improve dietary intake to these children through the mid-day meal. growth monitoring and health care. 5) Primary school children: a) weigh and identify those with moderate and severe chronic energy deficiency. 7) Nutrition education on varying dietary needs of different members of the family and how they can be met by minor modifications from the family meals. c) screening for nutrition and health problems and appropriate intervention.Nutrition education for (a) early initiation of lactation (b) protection and promotion of universal breast feeding (c) exclusive breast feeding for the first six months.
An example of a country whose laws and norms are hindering the global effort to slow population growth is Afghanistan. In societies like China.Chapter-4 Mitigation measures While the current world trends are not indicative of any realistic solution to human population growth during the 21st century. fact sheets. ―The approval by Afghan President Hamid Karzai of the Shia Personal Status Law in March 2009 effectively destroyed Shia women‘s rights and freedoms in Afghanistan. Under this law. local food markets. like the People's Republic of China. "The intervention can be widespread and done at a low cost. stickers) needs to be produced and distributed throughout the communities such as at local places of worships. brochures.‖ All of these examples use principles of social psychology to show how a strong correlation to the damage to the planet caused by the rapid population growth. use strict measures to reduce birth rates. Other societies have already begun to implement social marketing strategies in order to educate the public on overpopulation effects. some nations. schools and at car parks (taxis / bus stands)." Such prompts work to introduce the problem so that social norms are easier to implement. there are several mitigation measures that have or can be applied to reduce the adverse impacts of population growth. women have no right to deny their husbands sex unless they are ill. 4. Population growth is an issue that threatens the state of the environment in the mentioned ways in previous chapter and therefore societies must make a change in order to reverse some of the environmental effects brought on by current social norms. A variety of print materials (flyers. Some leaders and environmentalists (such as Ted Turner) have suggested that there is an urgent need to strictly implement a China44 .1 Birth regulations Population growth is related to the issue of birth control. the government has put policies in place that regulate the number of children allowed to a couple. and can be denied food if they do. Certain government policies are making it easier and more socially acceptable to use contraception and abortion methods. sporting events. Religious and ideological opposition to birth control has been cited as a factor contributing to overpopulation and poverty. All of these mitigations are ways to implement social norms.
Indira Gandhi.000 women die annually of complications from pregnancy and abortion." Birth credits would allow any woman to have as many children as she wants. but many unmarried young men. as long as she buys a license for any children beyond an average allotment that would result in zero population growth (ZPG). affordable means and services to determine the size and spacing of their families. This program is still remembered and criticized in India. implemented a forced sterilization program in the 1970s. and the market would determine what the license fee for each additional child would cost. Extra credits would expire after a certain time. pills and intrauterine devices easily available. Urban designer Michael E. In the developing world. An estimated 350 million women in the poorest countries of the world either did not want their last child. nearly 40% of pregnancies are unintended (some 80 million unintended pregnancies each year). and birth control methods. late Prime Minister of India. Officially. so these credits could not be hoarded by speculators.2 Education and empowerment One option is to focus on education about overpopulation. political opponents and ignorant men were also believed to have been sterilized. some 514. so the credits would serve more as a wake-up call to women who might otherwise produce children without seriously considering the long term consequences to themselves or society. which hampered Government program for decades. do not want another child or want to space their pregnancies. men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization. but they lack access to information.like one-child policy globally by the United Nations. 4. Arth has proposed a "choice-based. The actual cost of the credits would only be a fraction of the actual cost of having and raising a child. for example. Worldwide. and is blamed for creating a public aversion to family planning. marketable birth license plan" he calls "birth credits. then the first child would be free. with 86% of these deaths occurring in the sub-Saharan Africa region and 45 . and to make birth-control devices like male/female condoms. because this would help control and reduce population gradually. family planning. If that allotment was determined to be one child.
as one could construct aerostat habitats and floating cities there easily.3 Extraterrestrial settlement In the 1970s. Uranus. John S. in the upper layers of their atmospheres. including Carl Sagan. dollars) for the program. Venus is the paradise planet". almost half of pregnancies were unintended. 8 million infants die. 4. and Isaac Asimov. has suggested in Engines of Creation that colonizing space will mean breaking the Malthusian limits to growth for the human species. Freeman Dyson (1999) favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity. even afford a gravitation almost exactly as strong as that on Earth (see colonization of Venus). Egypt announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women. Geoffrey Landis of NASA's Glenn Research Center in particular has pointed out that "[at] cloud-top level. with the majority in the asteroid belt.000 times the carrying capacity of Earth using just the asteroid belt and that the Solar System as a whole could sustain current population growth rates for a thousand years. especially from lack of access to clean drinking water. In the United States. Eric Drexler. According to Clarke. famous inventor of the futuristic concept of molecular nanotechnology. like also Saturn. have argued that shipping the excess population into space is not a viable solution to human overpopulation. Gerard O'Neill suggested building space habitats that could support 30. In Mining the Sky.S. suggesting this could happen within a few centuries. Many authors. based on the concept that breathable air is a lifting gas in the dense Venusians atmosphere. It was announced in June 2008 by the Minister of Health and Population Hatem el-Gabali. Marshall Savage (1992. many because of malnutrition or preventable diseases. Additionally. Arthur C. Lewis suggests that the resources of the solar system could support 10 quadrillion (1016) people. It may be possible for other parts of the Solar System to be inhabited by humanity at some point in the future. in 2001. The government has set aside 480 million Egyptian pounds (about 90 million U. Venus would. Clarke. and Neptune.South. "the 46 . K. 1994) has projected a human population of five quintillion throughout the Solar System by 3000.
Gerard O'Neill's calculations show that Earth could offload all new population growth with a launch services industry about the same size as the current airline industry. but the physical impracticality of shipping vast numbers of people into space to "solve" overpopulation on Earth. A hypothetical extraterrestrial colony could potentially grow organically. with most of the inhabitants being the direct descendants of the original colonists 47 . However.population battle must be fought or won here on Earth‖. The problem for these authors is not the lack of resources in space (as shown in books such as Mining the Sky.
program implementers and the people during the next two decades will have to be in achieving the synergy so that India can achieve rapid population stabilization. In the next two decades the population growth will be mainly among the young adults who will be more literate. Over the last five decades the country has built up a massive healthcare infrastructure for delivery of FW services to the population in the Government. The opportunity is to utilize available human resources to achieve rapid economic development and improvement in quality of life. achieve the desired family size and enable the country to achieve population stabilization rapidly. population growth is inevitable in the initial phases of the transition. . Demographic transition does not occur in isolation. aware and likely to make optimal use of available facilities. The challenge is to ensure human development and optimum utilization of human resources. For India the current phase of the demographic transition is both a challenge and an opportunity.Chapter-5 Conclusion Demographic transition is a global phenomenon. The RCH program envisages wider range of services and improvement in quality of services provided. education transition. health transition and reproductive health transition. Simultaneously. There is universal awareness about the need for these services. it will be possible for them to meet all their needs. there will be substantial improvement in human development and economic development. the transitions can be completed rapidly. India is currently in the phase of demographic transition during which where it will be possible for the country to accelerate the pace of decline in fertility. there are ongoing economic transition. The focus of planners. If there is synergy between these transitions. All these affect human development. private and voluntary sectors. If the population now has ready access to good quality services at affordable cost. 48 . improvement in economic social and human development.
2.org/wiki/Environmental_issues 4. Santra S. http://en.org/page111. Environmental Science.C.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/Population_Statistics.about.htm 49 . Rethinking the Environmental Impacts of Population.1984. M.htm. Publication.htm 2.D. 2004..about. P-250.C. McGraw Hill. New Delhi. http://geography. Affluence and Technology  3.com/od/populationgeography/a/populationgrow.wikipedia.).wikipedia. Ecology: Basic & Applied. Energy &the Environment. Santra S.com/lr/demographics/15359/1 6.. http://en. http://geography. 3. 1994.John M. New York.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_India 5. http://dieoff.about. Websites: 1. Environmental Science: General Perspectives.Bibliography Book: 1. http://geography. (2nd ed. Flowler.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.