Human Population Growth Report | World Population | Water Resources

CHAPTER 1: POPULATION GROWTH 1.

1 Introductory observations:
Human Population growth is the change in human population over time. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. It is known that population growth and economic development are effecting the environment. The interplay between population growth, resource

depletion/environmental damage has been debated much. There are those who think that high population growth causes stress on environment, and there are those who put less blame on population and more blame on economic development, industrial and agricultural practices that result in environmental damage. The fact is that both population growth and unsustainable economic development are cause for concern especially in developing countries. There is relationship between population growth and environmental damage. We may recall famous Erlich Equation: I=P*A*T I= Impact on environment P=Population A=Affluence (consumption) T=Technology coefficient Steve Jones, head of the biology department at University College London, has said, "Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be, according to the rules of the animal kingdom, and we have agriculture to thank for that. Without farming, the world population would probably have reached half a million by now." The world‘s population has significantly increased in the last 50 years, mainly due to medical advancements and substantial increases in agricultural productivity.

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The recent rapid increase in human population over the past two centuries has raised concerns that humans are beginning to overpopulate the Earth, and that the planet may not be able to sustain present or larger numbers of inhabitants. The population has been growing continuously since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1400; at the beginning of the 19th century, it had reached roughly 1,000,000,000 (1 billion). Increases in medical technology have led to rapid population growth on a worldwide level. Current projections show a steady decline in the population growth rate, with the population expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion between the year 2040 and 2050. In May 2011, The United Nations increased the medium variant projections to 9.3 billion for 2050 and 10.1 billion for 2100.

The scientific consensus is that the current population expansion and accompanying increase in usage of resources is linked to threats to the ecosystem The Inter Academy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member national academies in 1994, called the growth in human numbers "unprecedented", and stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon

dioxide, global warming, and pollution, were aggravated by the population expansion. At the time, the world population stood at 5.5 billion, and low-bound scenarios predicted a peak of 7.8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates show will be reached around 2022. India‘s population has crossed one billion mark. We are adding one more Australia in terms of POPULATION World reached: One billion in 1804 Two billion in 1927 Three billion in 1960 Four billion in1974 Five billion in 1987 Six billion in 2000 population It is expected to reach Seven billion in 2013 Eight billion in 2028 Nine billion in 2054

population each year. Have we devised programmers developmental that are

commensurate with this increase? If not, population factor alone would have significant contribution toward degradation of environment and

resource depletion. More people mean more pressure on resources, more consumption of energy, more production of wastes, including greenhouse gases-all having adverse effects
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on environment. Though population growth has slowed down, it has to be stabilized at still lower level.

1.2 Meaning of human population:
The human population refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, a country, a continent or the world, at a given time. In simple words, Total number of people living in a area at a given time is called its population.

1.3 Meaning of human population growth:

(Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE–2000 CE.)

Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography. In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific

term population growth rate and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world.

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1.4 Determinants of Population growth:
Population growth is determined by four factors, births (B), deaths (D), immigrants (I), and emigrants (E). Using a formula expressed as: ∆P≡B-D+I-E In other words, the population growth of a period can be calculated in two parts,   natural growth of population (B-D) mechanical growth of population (I-E)

Mechanical growth of population is mainly affected by social factors, e.g. the advanced economies are growing faster while the backward economies are growing slowly even with negative growth.   Exponential population growth-dN/dT=rN Logistic population -d

1.5 concept of Population growth rate:
In demographics and ecology, population growth rate (PGR) is the fractional rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. Specifically, PGR ordinarily refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula:

(In the limit of a sufficiently small time period.) The above formula can be expanded to:   Growth rate = crude birth rate — crude death rate + net immigration rate, or, ∆P/P = (B/P) - (D/P) + (I/P) - (E/P),

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(where P is the total population, B is the number of births, D is the number of deaths, I is the number of immigrants, and E is the number of emigrants). This formula allows for the identification of the source of population growth, whether due to natural increase or an increase in the net immigration rate. Natural increase is an increase in the native-born population, stemming from a higher birth rate, a lower death rate, or a combination of the two. Net immigration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. The most common way to express population growth is as a ratio, not as a rate. The change in population over a unit time period is expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period. That is:

A positive growth ratio (or rate) indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth ratio indicates the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero

indicates that there were the same numbers of people at the two times -- net difference between births, deaths and migration is zero. However, a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. Equivalently, percent death rate = the average number of deaths in a year for every 100 people in the total population. A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than one indicates that the population of women is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of women is decreasing.

1.6 Excessive growth and decline:
Population exceeding the carrying capacity of an area or environment is

called overpopulation. It may be caused by growth in population or by reduction in capacity. Spikes in human population can cause problems such as pollution and traffic congestion, these might be resolved or worsened by technological and economic changes.
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remaining under 250 million. and the decreased need of children in industrialized settings. and intellectuals such as Thomas Malthus and physiocratic economists predicted that mankind would outgrow its available resources. By the beginning of the 19th century. since a finite amount of land was incapable of supporting an endlessly increasing population. Between these two extremes sits the notion of the optimum population.8 Demographic transition The theory of demographic transition held that. However. it has been cited to explain the decline in birth rates in industrializing regions. which made it possible to create bigger markets and armies. Mercantilists argued that a large population was a form of wealth.Conversely. the world population had grown to a billion individuals. plagues and high infant mortality. due to the populationreducing effects of war. During the 750 years before the Industrial Revolution. and works less in industrial ones. Throughout history. such areas may be considered "under populated" if the population is not large enough to maintain an economic system. after the standard of living and life expectancy increase. 1. family sizes and birth rates decline. The latter factor stems from the fact that children perform a great deal of work in small-scale agricultural societies. Factors cited in the old theory included such social factors as later ages of marriage.7 History of concern: Concern about human population growth is relatively recent in origin. it has been observed that after a certain level of development the fertility increases again. This means that both the worry the theory generated about aging populations and the complacency it bred regarding the future environmental impact of population growth are misguided. populations have grown slowly despite high birth rates. 6 . the growing desire of many women in such settings to seek careers outside rearing and domestic work. 1. as new data has become available. the world's population hardly increased.

7 to 5.05. no possibility of migration.47 to 1.85 to 2.66 o South America .3. the projected world number of children born per woman for 2050 would be around 2.65 between 1950 and 2005.Another version of demographic transition is proposed by anthropologist Virginia Abernethy in her book Population Politics. a high standard of living tends to result in population Many countries have high population growth rates but lower total fertility rates because high population growth in the past skewed the age demographic toward a young age.66 to 1.61) would then have numbers greater than 2.6. Only the Middle East & North Africa (2. For the world as a whole.30 o Central America . In strongly patriarchal nations. Honorary Research Fellow at the University.37 o Sub-Saharan Africa .43 o Middle East & North Africa .09) and Sub-Saharan Africa (2.99 o Oceania .41 o North America . "Demographic entrapment" is a concept developed by Maurice King.6. who posits that this phenomenon occurs when a country has a population larger than its carrying capacity.02 to 2.3.49 o Asia (excluding Middle East) . and exports too little to be able to import food.75 to 2. where she claims that the demographic transition occurs primarily in nations where women enjoy a special status.05.38 to 2.5.99 to 3. A breakdown by region is as follows: o Europe . He claims that for example many sub-Saharan nations are or will become stuck in demographic entrapment. so the population still rises as the more numerous younger generation approaches maturity. instead of having a demographic transition. the number of children born per woman decreased from 5.53 Excluding the observed reversal in fertility decrease for high development.5.87 to 2. where she claims women enjoy few special rights. 7 .6.2. This will cause starvation.

poor social development and limited access to health and contraceptive services. STAGE Typically seen in less developed countries where birth rates are 1: high but a large number of people die of preventable causes leading to a stable population. STAGE Birth rates fall but population continues to grow because there are 3: a large number of people in the reproductive age group due to the high fertility of the previous generations. STAGE Death rates fall steeply as deaths from preventable causes are 2: reduced by better food supply and improved public health. This transition from a stable population with high mortality and high fertility to a stable population with low mortality and low fertility is called demographic transition. It defines four clear stages of population growth that nations often traverse in tandem with their socio-economic development. "Demographic transition" is a model that describes population change over time. but birth rates remain high due to high fertility. Population is stable but higher than in stage one. India is currently at the third stage. This often leads to a spurt in population. 8 . STAGE Countries achieve a stable population once again with low birth 4: and low death rates but at a higher level of social and economic development.

852. the 9 billion mark in 2054. are estimated to be growing at the rate of 1.472. This gives a negligible population growth rate of 0. The developed world has reached a stage where the number of births equal to the number of deaths. World Population Growth. the 8 billion mark in 2028.823.Chapter-2 GLOBAL POPULATION SCENARIO The world population has grown tremendously over the past two thousand years.5 billion 2009 6. It is projected to grow to 8. up from the present 81%.7 billion 1999 6 billion 2006 6.91 billion by 2050. By 2050. Latest official current world population WORLD POPULATION GROWTH Year Population 1 200 million 1000 275 million 1500 450 million 1650 500 million 1750 700 million 1804 1 billion 1850 1.8 billion 2011 7 billion 2025 8 billion 2043 9 billion 2083 10 billion estimate.85 billion 1990 5.2% and a stable population in terms of numbers. The chart below shows past world population data back to the Year one and future world population projections through the year 2050.3 billion 1970 3.2 billion 1900 1.7 billion 1975 4 billion 1980 4.5% per year.30 billion in 2003. is estimated at 6. according to the United Nations Population Fund. in Billion o World population is projected to cross the 7 billion mark in 2013. on the other hand. Four out of every five people in the world live in the developing world. the developing world will have 88% of the world's population. 2.55 billion 1955 2.6 billion 1927 2 billion 1950 2.1 World Population: Some Facts The world population was 6. 9 . In 1999.5 billion 1985 4.3 billion 1995 5. The developing countries. the world population passed the six billion mark.8 billion 1960 3 billion 1965 3. for mid-year 2010.

33 years to reach 3 billion in 1960. It took 123 years to reach 2 o billion in 1927. This is the shortest period of time in world history for a billion people to be added. Pakistan. 14 years to reach 4 billion in 1974 and 13 years to reach 5 billion in 1987. Bangladesh and Indonesia. 10 . o World population did not reach one billion until 1804. nearly 90 percent of the world‘s population will be living in less developed nations Today. Nigeria. six countries account for half of the world‘s annual growth of 77 million: India. India alone accounts for about a fifth of the world‘s total population growth. o World population nearly stabilizes at just above 10 billion after 2200.o It has taken just 12 years for the world to add this most recent billion people (6 billion). By 2050. African and Latin American countries and most of this growth is taking place in the urban areas of these countries. China. Population Growth in More and Less Developed Countries The increase in world population growth is mainly contributed by less developed regions which include majority of Asian.

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3 billion. World Scenario The number of women of childbearing age more than doubled between 1950 and 1990: from 620 million to over 1. 12 . according to the UN.Women of Childbearing Age (15-49). Their numbers are expected to reach over 2 billion by the middle of this century. The growing population of women in their childbearing years and their male partners will contribute to the future world population growth. even if levels of childbearing continue to decline.

8 billion in 2050. where today's 5. o According to the United Nations' World Population Prospects report: o The world population is currently growing by approximately 74 million people per year. the world population will continue to grow until at least 2050. with the population reaching 9 billion in 2040. and some predictions putting the population in 2050 as high as 11 billion.0. By contrast. the average world fertility was 2. An exception is the United States population. Current United Nations predictions estimate that the world population will reach 9. global fertility is projected to decline further to 2. o In 2000-2005.05 children per woman. at 1. o Almost all growth will take place in the less developed regions. assuming a decrease in average fertility rate from 2. about half the level in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman).3 billion population of underdeveloped countries is expected to increase to 7.65 children per woman.0 billion around 2050. the population of the more developed regions will remain mostly unchanged.2.5 down to 2.2 Projections of world population growth o According to projections.2 billion. which is expected to increase 44% from 305 million in 2008 to 439 million in 2050. In the medium variant. 13 .

These countries include Austria. Japan and most of the successor States of the former Soviet Union. Denmark. Italy. Brazil 245 Democratic 189 million. China 1. United States 439 million. o During 2005-2050. Russia 109 million. Philippines 141 million. is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005. Because deaths are projected to exceed births in the more developed regions by 73 million during 2005-2050.6 billion people. Canada. Portugal. Uganda. net migration in 28 countries either prevented population decline or doubled at least the contribution of natural increase (births minus deaths) to population growth. the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 98 million. o Birth rates are now falling in a small percentage of developing countries. Ethiopia. o In 2000-2005. o Global life expectancy at birth. Qatar. Pakistan. o By 2050 (Medium variant). it is expected to be 66 years in 2045-2050. the projected increase is from 75 years today to 82 years by mid-century. Vietnam 120 million. United States. while the actual populations in many developed countries would fall without immigration. listed according to the size of their contribution to population growth. United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom. and China. In the more developed regions. Bangladesh 258 million. including Germany. India will have 1. Among the least developed countries. population growth in those regions will largely be due to international migration. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Egypt 125 million. where life expectancy today is just under 50 years. Singapore. nine countries are expected to account for half of the world's projected population increase: India. which is estimated to have risen from 46 years in 1950-1955 to 65 years in 2000-2005. is expected to keep rising to reach 75 years in 2045-2050. Croatia. China would be higher still in this list were it not for its One Child Policy. Japan 14 . Indonesia 280 million. Germany. o The population of 51 countries or areas.4 billion. Nigeria. Mexico 132 million. Nigeria 259 million. Pakistan 309 million. Italy. Sweden. million. Spain. Ethiopia185 million. Bangladesh.o During 2005-2050.

after a readjustment of the Third World and sanitation of the tropics.6 1210. in the 21st century.3 (%) 17.2 683. Kenya 85 million and Asia Europe United Kingdom 80 million.3 Demographics of India: Census Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Population (in millions) 361.1 Decadal growth (%) 13. In 2050.103 million. Tanzania 85 million.4 1028.2 548.1 439.2 billion 674 million Turkey 99 million.3 846.8 (%) 21. population will reach Africa 1. o Walter Greiling projected in the Latin America & 765 million Caribbean North America 448 million 1950s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion. Uganda 93 million. 2.9 billion 5.3(%) 21. Recent extrapolations from available figures for population growth show that the population of Earth will stop increasing around 2070. Iran 100 million.6(%) 15 . and then stop to grow.6 (%) 23.6(%) 24.8 (%) 24.

o With the population growth rate at 1.000 (586. o The figures show that India represents almost 17. the crown of the world's most 16 .21 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world.000 (623.700.64% as compared to the previous which was 21.500. while China is on the top with over 1.58%. with 1.422 (1.4% of the world.193.605 (1. o In just 10 years India has added 181 million which is total population of Brazil. Pakistan and Japan (1-214 billion). o For the first time after 1921. which means one out of six people on this planet live in India while china is home for 19.000 males 50% of India's current population Currently. Bangladesh.12% in 2001.7 million) 586.35 billion) people. India's Population in 2001 Population of India in 1947 1. Although.5% of the world's population.193.53 billion people by the end of 2030.5 million) 940 females per 1.422 (1.210. India‘s population growth rate has declined to 17.210. Brazil.044. o India‘s population is almost equal to the combined population of US.350. India is predicted to have more than 1. there are about 51 births in India in a minute. Indonesia.Current Population of India in 2011 Total Male Population in India Total Female Population in India Sex Ratio Age structure 0 to 25 years 1.21 billion) 623.02 billion 350 million o India.

4 deaths/1. the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved.6 million populations which is 16% of India‘s population. 67.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3. has brought tremendous results for the latter. o Least populated state. however. o Most populated states   Uttar Pradesh with 199.8% in about 5. Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty. In 19652009. 53. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control. The family planning program yielded some noticeable results. failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal. China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978.15 deaths/1. India is all set to surpass china‗s position by 2030. 235.Sikkim with 607688 population.000 population (2009 est. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning program in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy.000 people per year) is 22. India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early.480 towns and urban agglomerations.000 population. The efforts did produce positive results. Alarmed by its swelling population. high fertility rate.22 births/1. 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30. Maharashtra with 112.000 live births (2009 estimated). o sex ratio improved from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011. illiteracy.2% of the population lives in some 638.4 million which is 9% if India‘s population Punjab. o About 72. Haryana and Chhattisgarh together make up 2% of total Indian population.000 villages and the rest 27. o Fertility rate is 2.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6. bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate.populous country is on China's head for decades. More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. The policy claims to 17 . o The birth rate (child births per 1. o Most populated among union territories is Delhi with 1.

have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010. 18 .

and used for human habitation. While humans ourselves occupy only 0. under conversion. massive efforts are needed to keep social and economic conditions from deteriorating further.5% 0f the earth‘s land area. forests. at a given time and place are ‗resources‘. Thus ‗resources‘ are means for attaining individual and social welfare. any real advances in well-being and the quality of life are negated by further population growth. medicine. minerals. including green house gases-all having adverse effects on environment. Many countries lack adequate supplies of basic materials needed to support their current population. 1)Availability of land: land is the most vital resource as it will be used for crops and other biological materials needed for food. Large percentages of earth‘s surface is covered by water. fiber and associated materials. dedicated to agriculture.Chapter-3 Implications of human population growth More people mean more pressure on resources. Recent technological innovations helped a lot in solving the problems of resource depletion at a faster rate. Rapid population growth can affect both the overall quality of life and the degree of human suffering on Earth. Natural components like land. water. intact. more production of wastes. The world's current and projected population growth calls for an increase in efforts to meet the needs for food. so our effects are felt on one quarter of the land. fodder. 19 . In the poorest countries. wildlife. 3. more consumption of energy. A global concern has been whether the present rate of global population growth will be sufficient to meet up the resource needs for mankind‘s survival and comfort? Thus there lies the quest for sustainable use of resources to meet up the ever increasing needs of human populations. technology and education. water. energy-or even man himself-are considered as resources as well as resource creating factors.1 More pressure on available resources: All means of satisfying human needs. health care.

the population of India is concentrated in well watered plains.65% remains as fresh water either on surface or as ground water. while 2. agriculture has displaced one-third of temperate and tropical forests and one-quarter of natural grasslands.98 hectares in china.5 % of the world. The notion that space is limited has been decried by skeptics. As such. deforestation. for example.8 billion people could comfortably inhabit an area comparable in size to the state of Texas.15% in frozen ice form and the remaining 0. Furthermore. erosion.41% hectares in the USA. 2)Inadequate fresh water: water is the most vital resource for life approximately 97. who point out that the Earth's population of roughly 6. The World Resources Institute states that "Agricultural conversion to croplands and managed pastures has affected some 3. Some scientists have said that in the future. per capita availability of land in the country is 0. The requirement of clean water is about 2. like the Netherlands." Forty percent of the land area is under conversion and fragmented. which reclaim land from the sea to increase their total land area. remains intact.707 square kilometers). at least half of cultivable land is already being farmed. and urban sprawl. By most estimates. Thus. creating further problems. densely populated cities will use vertical farming to grow food inside skyscrapers. primarily in the Arctic and the deserts. in the United States (about 269.4%of the world total.43 hectare in USSR and 0. However. and there are concerns that the remaining reserves are greatly overestimated.India has a total land area of 2. 8.7 20 .3 billion [hectares] — roughly 26 percent of the land area. The development of energy sources may also require large areas. As a result the fresh water reserve depletes day by day too. or have created large dam and dike systems. Usable land may become less useful through salinization. the building of hydroelectric dams. the impact of humanity extends over a far greater area than that required simply for habitation. such as the United Arab Emirates and particularly the Emirate of Dubai have constructed large artificial islands. desertification. Available fresh water resources are very limited. All totaled. available useful land may become a limiting factor. The demand for fresh water has increased day by day and will increase with the rapid growth of population. Some countries. agriculture and industry. but supports a population of 17.48 hectare as against 4. less than one quarter.000 square miles or 696.2% water lies in oceans as salt water.

21 . viz. Optimists counter that fossil fuels will be sufficient until the development and implementation of suitable replacement technologies—such as hydrogen or other sources of renewable energy—occurs. 4) Depletion of mineral resources: a variety of both metals and non metals were exploited by the mankind over centuries. and agricultural waste by using thermal depolymerization have been discovered. For instance in urban area transport. it ought to be possible to establish a coordinated global program to accomplish the strategic goal of completely eliminating the internal combustion engine over. thus the global requirement is about purpose. they are already mined out partially. natural gas or nuclear materials. In addition energy consumption pattern also changes with time. coal.. estimated annual energy availability lies somewhat between 2. If the current rate of exploitation continues and if there is no further new exploration of deposit then our mining activity might be completed by 2020.. sewage. only for drinking use as well as sewage Inadequate fresh water for drinking water treatment and effluent discharge. In India. Al Gore wrote. As per estimates made by Geological Survey of India. as well as other fossil fuels.liter per day. 3)More consumption of energy resources: more people mean more consumption of energy resources like fossil fuels.50. Population optimists have been criticized for failing to take into account the depletion of the petroleum required for the production of fertilizers and fuel for transportation. In most cases. ". 6 billion cu. like Saudi Arabia. of which over 90% obtained from conventional sources. India has more than 22 types of minerals in considerably high quantity. a twenty-five-year period..000 MW. industry and household requirements are considerably to be more prominent than rural areas.. say." Approximately half of the oil produced in the United States is refined into gasoline for use in internal combustion engines.. M. In his 1992 book Earth in the Balance. oil. Some countries. use energyexpensive desalination to solve the problem of water shortages. The relative energy requirement in urban and rural areas from various sources varies distinctly. Methods of manufacturing fertilizers from garbage.

assuming declining population growth rates. Thailand and the USA . 923 million in 2007 versus 832 million in 1995. mental disorders and damage to vital organs.competition for resources. hunger. Some scientists argue that there is enough food to support the world population. In recent decades the US alone supplied almost half of world grain exports. The gap between the rich and the poor has increased due to population growth. There are millions of starving people throughout the world. Canada. In Ethiopia. particularly if sustainability is taken into account.2 Social implications of human population growth: 1)Food Scarcity: The population growth leading to population explosion causes severe economic disparities and gives birth to .. from 5 to 20 million people die of starvation across the world. France. Many countries rely heavily on imports however.supply 90% of grain exports. almost half of all children under age of 5 suffer from malnutrition. And just 6 countries Argentina. These deficiencies cause failure of senses. price rise. The poorest people in developing countries do not get adequate calories to develop their health properly. Malnutrition is one of the most common effects of these problems. The rich people are exploiting more resources than poor people. However. every year. and mass starvation. until approximately 2030 or 2050)". Egypt and Iran rely on imports for 40% of their grain supply. Most poor children and adults suffer from severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Australia. the observed figures for 2007 show an actual increase in absolute numbers of undernourished people in the world. Yemen and Israel import more than 90%. As per estimates. but critics dispute this.3. malnutrition. A 2001 United Nations report says population growth is "the main force driving increases in agricultural demand" but "most recent expert assessments are cautiously optimistic about the ability of global food production to keep up with demand for the foreseeable future (that is to say. the 22 .

Furthermore." The U. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states in its report The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006. Food per person increased during the 1961-2005 period. Global perspective about growing need for food Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. not overpopulation. as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world. World food production per person was considerably higher in 2005 than 1961.The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and most believe that.02 billion in 2009. others question these statistics. FAO's projections suggest that the proportion of hungry people in developing countries could be halved from 1990-92 levels to 10% by 23 . The amounts of natural resources in this context are not necessarily fixed. and their distribution is not necessarily a zero-sum game. "There are an estimated 800 million undernourished people and more than a billion considered overweight worldwide.932 to 2. However. there would be greater famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents. MSNBC reported.S. and the percentage of people in those countries who were malnourished fell from 45% to 18%. due to the Revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes. has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world. For example. As world population doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion.more recent FAO estimates point out to an even more dramatic increase. In a 2006 news story. the worldwide production of food had steadily increased up until 1995. that while the number of undernourished people in the developing countries has declined by about three million. This suggests that Third World poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment. grain production increased by over 250%. The number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished. daily Calorie consumption in poor countries increased from 1. a smaller proportion of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today than in 1990–92: 17% against 20%.650. without the Revolution. From 1950 to 1984. to 1.

and more people are malnourished in sub-Saharan Africa this decade than in the 1990s. namely peak oil. global population growth. food and water by 2030. There is more food available and still more could be produced without excessive upward pressure on prices. world price sat over $100 a barrel. the price of grain has increased due to more farming used in bio fuels. peak water. He said food reserves are at a 50-year low but the world requires 50% more energy. A virulent wheat disease could destroy most of the world's main wheat crops. The world is richer today than it was ten years ago. The fungus has spread from Africa to Iran. and growing consumer demand in China and India Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world. It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain food security in a world beset by a confluence of "peak" phenomena.3 billion people. if current trends of soil degradation and population growth continue the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025. Growing populations. Hunger and malnutrition kill nearly 6 million children a year. An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern.4 million 10 24 . loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development. Africa In Africa. climate change. The world will have to produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed a projected extra 2." As of 2008. falling energy sources and food shortages will create the "perfect storm" by 2030. The FAO also states "We have emphasized first and foremost that reducing hunger is no longer a question of means in the hands of the global community. leaving millions to starve. The knowledge and resources to reduce hunger are there. and may already be in Afghanistan and Pakistan. according to the UK government chief scientist. the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) warned. according to a report released by the Food and Agriculture Organization. peak grain and peak fish. peak phosphorus.5 million people in 2000-02 from 170. according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa.2015. What is lacking is sufficient political will to mobilize those resources to the benefit of the hungry. the number of malnourished people grew to 203.

believes a senior government adviser. a professor from Cornell University.years earlier says The State of Food Insecurity in the World report. suffers from an obesity epidemic. Italy. According to a 2004 article from the BBC. is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005. due to over extraction of groundwater in the North China plain. In 2001. and shrink in times of scarcity. Virginia Abernethy.4% of people in sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme poverty. Other Countries Nearly half of India's children are malnourished. Population as a function of food availability Thinkers such as David Pimentel. Asia One survey says that nearly half of India's children are malnourished. according to recent government data. Populations of hunter-gatherers fluctuate in accordance with the amount of available food. Alan Thorn hill. China. Japan may face a food crisis that could reduce daily diets to the austere meals of the 1950s. In fact. the world's most populous country. More recent data indicate China's grain production peaked in the mid 1990s. the population grows. which also have the highest access to food. Population increased after the Neolithic Revolution and an increased food supply. some developed countries have both a diminishing population and an abundant food supply. Japan and most of the states of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations projects that the population of 51 countries or areas. This shows that when one limits their scope to the population living within a given political 25 . including Germany. Critics of this idea point out those birth rates are lowest in the developed nations. Russell Hoffenberg and author Daniel Quinn propose that like all other animals. Some human populations throughout history support this theory. 46. Proponents of this theory argue that every time food production is increased. human populations predictably grow and shrink according to their available food supply – populations grow in an abundance of food. This was followed by subsequent population growth after subsequent agricultural revolutions.

and India) owing to widespread over drafting beyond sustainable yields. Food moves across borders from areas of abundance to areas of scarcity. That some countries demonstrate negative population growth fails to discredit the theory. One suggested solution is for population growth to be slowed quickly by investing heavily in female literacy and planning services. Iran. This over drafting is already leading to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. since the human development of agriculture. on the global scale the world population is increasing. Mexico. such as China or India. there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Algeria. Additionally. the US. if technology is not used. which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries. Other countries affected include Pakistan.000 years. Additionally. this hypothesis is not so simplistic as to be rejected by a single case study. Desalination is also considered a viable and effective solution to the problem of water shortages. Food scarcity As a result of water deficits Water deficits.a pattern that has been true for roughly 10. it will also soon turn to the world market for grain. and Mexico. as is the net quantity of human food produced . China has developed a grain deficit. 26 . human populations do not always grow to match the available food supply. After China and India. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year. This effect has contributed in driving grain prices upward. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. and Pakistan. The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including Northern China. Even with the over pumping of its aquifers.clearly other factors are at work: contraceptive access. as in Germany's recent population trends . Egypt. Iran. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Nevertheless. cultural norms and most importantly economic realities differ from nation to nation. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. may soon do the same in larger countries.boundary. many of these countries are major exporters of food.

need more houses to live. Some countries of the world have nearly stabilized their population but their life style has become consumption based. The world‘s poorest people are found in Africa. They often suffer from malnutrition. 3) Poverty: Conditions of having insufficient resources or income are called as poverty. wear more clothes. and Eastern Europe. it consumes about 40% of resources of the world alone and produces not less than 21 % of the world‘s carbon dioxide which is a green-house gas. make more noise. poverty is the lack of the basic human needs like food. Even government lands like railway platforms. demographic trends and welfare incentives are primary causes of poverty. Overpopulation. famine. inadequate education and employment. 4) Increasing Consumption: It is a simple truth that more people consume more food. Green lands in urban areas and even sea beeches have been reclaimed for housing and industrial purposes. People are migrating towards cities in search of jobs and cities are becoming overcrowded. Many of these countries have entered the second stage of Demographic Transition in which a high birth and reduced death rates along with a rising life expectancy accelerates the population growth. generate more waste etc. it is not overpopulated. unequal distribution of resources. The overpopulation has caused severe stress on land which has further stressed forests and agricultural areas.2) Overcrowding: There is limited habitable place on the earth. drinking water. and mental illness. Increasing crowd in cities is aggravating the problem of pollution and insanitation leading to the spread of epidemics. In developed countries. They always struggle for shelter and clothing. Semi-urban lands and cultivable lands near cities have already gone under construction of houses. Latin America. It has been observed by ecologists the world over that powerful people and 27 . degradation of environment. epidemics and war. and parks etc. are being seriously encroached. poverty has caused drug dependence. Lives in developing countries represent a picture of misery. create more pollution. In its extreme form. need more medicines for cure. areas around monuments. and health services. inability to meet the cost of living. hunger and poverty. Asia. crime. disease outbreaks. housing. Though. clothing. We may take the example of United States of America. drink more water.

There is heavy traffic on roads round the clock. They take shelter on pavements. People who migrate from rural areas and work in cities often face difficulties and most of them spend their nights as homeless. Some of them start business works on those places and gradually a colony of such persons is established. Merely. So is happening with most of our uncared monuments today. Community Halls. 5) Encroachment on Monuments : A monument is a building. Railway Junctions. the population growth and the changing pattern of consumption are responsible for the severe stress on environment. This is illegal and criminal attitude. increase in the rate of consumption at one end is causing an increase in hunger and crime at the other end. Parks. this condition is the by-product of the explosion of population. Most of our monuments and old government buildings are being badly encroached by people who after sometime try to become owners of those areas. 28 . column or statue of historical importance built-in the past to remind future generations about a famous person or event. Thus. there may be a great rush and competition for availing facilities causing severe stresses on those facilities. But facilities may be limited. Hospitals and even roads are some common social facilities that are facing heavy stresses due to population explosion. All these social facilities are often heavily polluted due to careless practices of human beings. Thus. However.developed nations consume more resources than weak and poor people and developing or under developing countries. Bus Stops. One can see long lines of people standing for hours for their works. abandoned railway buildings and on spaces left around historical monuments. they build temporary houses on those places and start keeping their families there. Gradually. According to United Nations the world‘s richest 20% of population consumes about 86% of resources of the world. So. 6) Stress on Common Social Facilities: We need facilities and facilities both on home front and on social front. More people require more use of available facilities. Play Grounds. 20% of the world‘s population lives in developed and richest countries.

3 Health implications of human population growth Population growth leads to malnourishment. including overcrowded living conditions. Over population has caused severe stress on civic services. maintenance of drainage systems. On the other hand. excessive air and water pollution. the poor are more likely to be exposed to infectious. discharge of raw sewage and solid waste disposal. It results in human threats including the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria diseases. rich countries with high population densities do not have famine. this problem can be 29 .  Intensive factory farming to support large populations. care of animals (dogs and cattle) on roads. malnutrition or poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e. waste disposal.   Low life expectancy in countries with fastest growing populations Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion. As a result. water supply. High rates of infant mortality are caused by poverty.7) Stress on Common Civic Services: Services provided by municipalities or municipal corporations to civilians are called as civic services. or non-existent health care. However. Rich countries with high population densities have low rates of infant mortality. 3. and new viruses that infect humans. those services have become unable to perform properly. rickets).g. Those services include cleanliness. community health care. malnutrition and inadequate.  High infant and child mortality. inaccessible. Some persons draw most of the supply water through electric pumps and all the other inhabitants of the area go without water. It has excessive load of work on bodies providing civic services. basic education etc. starvation and diseases.  Increased chance of the emergence of new epidemics and pandemics For many environmental and social reasons. many people in our societies have lost civic sense.  Starvation. Some of them drop their domestic wastes (including plastics) into drains or throw away garbage on roads. However.

air. Advanced agriculture requires utilization of more water. Thus growth of population leads to pollution of air. The utilization. after Karachi. land and water. more population means more mouths to eat food which requires more agricultural production. Pakistan installed sewers. overuse and misuse of physical resources increased manifold due to the growth of human population. more fertilizers and more pesticides. As it has been told earlier. For example.4 Environment and ecological implications of human population growth The scientific study of inter-relationships among organisms and between organisms. It also requires more means of transport. More population means more space to construct houses and availability of more consumer goods. Thus ecology relates to environment and ecological impacts of population means impacts of population on environment and its various components. o Impacts of Population Growth on the Physical Environment Physical environment means – non living environment or the land.impacts of population growth on Physical and Biological components of the natural environment. ponds and green belts. 3. of their environment is called as Ecology. More cultivable land has been made available by clearing forests and by reclaiming wet lands. more consumption of fossil fuels and more pollution of air. Application of fertilizers and pesticides makes the soil infertile. Clearing of forests has its own serious impacts and the environment on the whole gets imbalanced. soil and minerals. The Ecological Impacts of population growth includes . and all aspects. land and water. its infant mortality rate fell substantially.reduced with the adoption of sewers. and Advanced agriculture. Different types of pollutions are causing a number of problems in the physical environment that are further affecting the biological 30 .living and non-living. More agricultural production demands two things – (i) (ii) more cultivable land. water.

And. forests have been cleared on large scales. Jhooming is the practice of growing crops after clearing forest land by burning the vegetation. Thus habitats of varieties of birds. There are other reasons of forest destruction also. has already caused and still it is causing serious impacts on the global environment. depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution. 31 . Vast varieties of plants and animals have been killed due to water crises. Forests have also been cleared for setting up of industries and for urbanisation. Human Population has stressed most of the biological systems. It is also called as slash and burn cultivation. These destructive activities of human being have driven away many species of wild animals and have caused extinction up to considerable level. Ecosystem is the smallest unit of the biosphere. Illegal timber trade by timber mafias and local pressure for fire wood have further depleted our forest resources. o Impacts of population growth on biological environment The population explosion of earlier days and of present day also. Intensive agriculture and mining have also caused large scale destruction of habitats. o Frequent water crises in many parts of the world caused failure of agriculture leading to hunger and starvation.environment seriously. and other animals have been destroyed through human activities. Since most of the components of the physical components are under serious threat due to population explosion. Frequent water crises often lead to migration of people and animals to other places thus causing overload on the resources of those areas. Therefore from above discussion it is clear that population growth leads to deforestation. all the biological components are bound to suffer the consequences. As for biological environment. Let us have some glimpses of these imbalanceso For expanding cultivable land. comprising flora and fauna as well as biological diversity. Some of those reasons are forest fires and Jhooming. hence most of the natural processes have been altered seriously that have caused serious imbalances in ecosystems.

The ecological impact of rising oceans would include increased flooding. The already densely populated developing countries contribute to over 95% of the population growth and rapid population growth could lead to environmental deterioration.diversity is the species richness in a particular area and its depletion causes serious losses of a number of factors that are vital for running up of ecosystems. Patterns of precipitation 32 . o Generation of waste due to increasing consumer culture and population explosion is causing spread of serious epidemics and deaths of people in many parts of the world. the present review will only briefly touch upon some of the important ecological consequences of demographic transition. o Habitat destruction and overexploitation of resources etc. unnecessary and unbalanced consumption the consequences of which could adversely affect both the developed and the developing countries. however. and policy options for improvement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has projected that. Global warming due to increasing use of fossil fuels (mainly by the developed countries) could have serious effects on the populous coastal regions in developing countries. The panel's best estimate scenario projects a sea-level rise of 15 to 95 centimeters by 2100. loss of plant and animal species. fragmentation of land holding. rising temperatures. In many developing countries continued population growth has resulted in pressure on land.o Poaching and killing of wild animals and illegal trade in their body parts have already caused extinction of several species of animals. Developed countries are less densely populated and contribute very little to population growth. The review on "Promotion of sustainable development: challenges for environmental policies" in the Economic Survey 1998-99 had covered in detail the major environmental problems. they cause massive ecological damage by the wasteful. the mean global surface temperature will rise from 1 to 3. Bio.5 degrees Celsius in the next century. collapsing fisheries. and salivation of aquifers and coastal crop land and displacement of millions of people living near the coast. coastal erosion. their food production and essential water supplies. shrinking forests. if current greenhouse gas emission trends continue. induced by population growth has caused serious depletion of biodiversity in many parts of the world.

000 ha in the last 50 years. adverse effect on species diversity: Conversion of habitat to some other land use such as agriculture. Some of the major ecological adverse effects reported in India include: Severe pressure on the forests due to both the rate of resource use and the nature of use. Greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked to both population growth and development. Increase in agricultural area. fertilizers and industrial effluents. The country‘s mangrove areas have reduced from 700. Tropical deforestation and destruction of mangroves for commercial needs and fuel wood. soil salinity and low productivity. Degradation of coastal and other aquatic ecosystems from domestic sewage. high use of chemical fertilizers pesticides and weedicides. 33 .are also likely to change. soil erosion.000 ha to 453. water stagnation. Encroachment on habitat for rail and road construction thereby fragmenting the habitat. which combined with increased average temperatures. Intense grazing by domestic livestock Poaching and illegal harvesting of wildlife. Rapid population growth. Increase in commercial activities such as mining and unsustainable resource extraction. Slower population growth in developing countries and ecologically sustainable lifestyles in developed countries would make reduction in green house gas emission easier to achieve and provide more time and options for adaptation to climate change. urban development. forestry operation. pesticides. developmental activities either to meet the growing population or the growing needs of the population as well as changing lifestyles and consumption patterns pose major challenge to preservation and promotion of ecological balance in India. could substantially alter the relative agricultural productivity of different regions. High level of biomass burning causing large-scale indoor pollution. Some 70-80 % of fresh water marshes and lakes in the Gangetic flood plains have been lost in the last 50 years. The per capita forest biomass in the country is only about 6 tons as against the global average of 82 tons.

3. Diversion of water for domestic. in turn.5 Economic implications of human population growth Population growth and its relation to economic growth has been a matter of debate for over a century. environmental protection and equity. life styles. rising income levels. Increasing water requirement leading to tapping deeper aquifers which have high content of arsenic or fluoride resulting health problems. These countries have been able to exploit the dynamics of demographic transition to achieve economic growth by using the human resources as the engine driving the economic development. this. Ensuring that there is no further deterioration depends on choices made by the population about family size. Availability of appropriate technology and commitment towards ensuring sustainable development is increasing throughout the world. Because of these. Contrary to the Malthusian predictions.Over fishing in water bodies and introduction of weeds and exotic species. implementation. It is imperative that the environmental sustainability of all developmental projects is taken care of by appropriate inputs at the planning. industrial and agricultural uses leading to increased river pollution and decrease in self-cleaning properties of rivers. increasing consumption pattern will all have adverse impact on environment. improved employment 34 . will result in deterioration in quality of life. monitoring and evaluation stages. changing technologies. The early Malthusian view was that population growth is likely to impede economic growth because it will put pressure on the available resources. it might be possible to initiate steps to see that the natural carrying capacity of the environment is not damaged beyond recovery and ecological balance is to a large extent maintained. Disturbance from increased recreational activity and tourism causing pollution of natural ecosystems with wastes left behind by people. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilization of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population. several of the East Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) acknowledged population growth. result in reduction in per capita income and resources.

there will be low savings. it is expected that nearly 5 billion (61 per cent) of the world's 8. underutilization of labor : as there is large number of population. India shares this global trend toward urbanization (Figure 8). By 2030. 35 . Many countries with high population densities have eliminated absolute poverty and keep their inflation rates very low.6Urbanization The proportion of people in developing countries who live in cities has almost doubled since 1960 (from less than 22 per cent to more than 40 per cent). Following are the adverse effects of population growth on the Indian Economy:  Adverse effects on savings: with population growth.with adequate emoluments has promoted saving and investment which in turn stimulated economic growth.1 billion people will live in cities.  adverse effect on quality of life: population growth leads to lower standard of living as more income is needed to fulfill the demands or daily needs of more members in the family but if there is less income and family is large in size. while in more developed regions the urban share has grown from 61 per cent to 76 per cent. Urbanization is projected to continue well into the next century. it is not possible to make optimal utilization of human resource Unemployment: with the increase in population there is more pressure on employment services and it is not possible to give employment to large number of humans. as with the same income sources one has to spent more as number of people increases in family     unproductive investment Slow growth of Per Capita Income: per capita income will be less if there is population growth.  Poverty coupled with inflation in some regions and a resulting low level of capital formation. Poverty and inflation are aggravated by bad government and bad economic policies. 3. then this leads to adopt poor means of life.

urbanization has both positive and negative effects. information has flowed outward. more than 10 per cent of the world's population will live in these cities (1. In 1960. only New York and Tokyo had more than 10 million people. (18 in Asia. these result in increase in age at marriage. The ever 36 . By 1999. Like many other demographic changes. It is projected that there will be 26 mega cities by 2015. of these five in India). health care. Better communication and transportation now link urban and rural areas both economically and socially creating an urban-rural continuum of communities with improvement in some aspects of lifestyle of both. India‘s urban population has doubled from 109 million to 218 million during the last two decades and is estimated to reach 300 million by 2000 AD.7% in 1950). reduction in family size and improvement in health indices. and most of these new "mega cities" are in developing regions. the number of cities with 10 million or more inhabitants is increasing rapidly. As a consequence cities are facing the problem of expanding urban slums.Globally. Cities and towns have become the engines of social change and rapid economic development. the number of mega cities had grown to 17(13 in developing countries). employment. Urbanization is associated with improved access to education. As people have moved towards and into cities.

and available options are becoming more widely recognized. higher contraceptive use. 3. radio and television programmers that discuss gender equity. increasing waste generation at home. and fewer unwanted pregnancies. both wages and productivity are low. and prevent them from breaking out of the shackles of poverty. For instance. Increasing automobiles add to air pollution. housing. This can create demand for services for mothers and children. Poor tend to have larger families which puts enormous burden on their meager resources. A large proportion of the rural work force is small and consists of marginal farmers and landless agricultural laborers. appreciated and sought. Though poverty has declined over the last three decades. awareness about the glaring inequities in close urban setting may lead to social unrest. There is substantial under employment among these people. coupled with poor waste disposal facilities result in rapid environmental deterioration. including reproductive health. family size preference and family planning options are now reaching formerly isolated rural populations. These in turn result in poverty. smaller healthier families and lead to more rapid population stabilization. Agriculture is the largest and one of the most important sectors of the rural economy and contributes both to economic growth and employment.7 Rural population and their development Over seventy per cent of India‘s population still lives in rural areas. This phenomenon has affected health care. the number of rural poor has in fact increased due to the population growth. But the rapid growth of urban population also poses some serious challenges. sewerage and solid waste disposal are far from adequate. All these have adverse effect on ecology and health. it is estimated that 320 million people are still living below the poverty line in rural India. There are substantial differences between the states in the proportion of rural and urban population (varying from almost 90 per cent in Assam and Bihar to 61 per cent in Maharashtra). offices and industries. In States like 37 . Urban population growth has outpaced the development of basic minimum services.increasing reach of mass media communicates new ideas. points of reference. Its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product has declined over the last five decades but agriculture still remains the source of livelihood for over 70 per cent of the country‘s population. Poverty persists in urban and per-urban areas. in many ways. water supply.

In most of the states non-farm employment in rural areas has not grown very much and cannot absorb the growing labor force. They would like better opportunities and more remunerative employment. Uttar Pradesh. vocational training and technical education are taken up on a large scale in order to generate productive employment in rural areas. if all the felt needs for health and family welfare services are fully met. Those who are getting educated specially beyond the primary level. but with the growing aspirations of the younger. awareness and better standard of living among the growing younger age group population would create the required consciousness among them that smaller families are desirable.Tamil Nadu where replacement level of fertility has been attained. In India. Low productivity of small land holders leads to poverty. prevents the development thus creating a vicious circle. it is imperative that programmers for skill development. water demand substantially exceeds sustainable water supply. population growth rates are much lower than in many other States. by 2020 about one fourth of the global population may be facing chronic and recurring shortage of fresh water. water withdrawal is estimated to be twice the rate of aquifer recharge. In States like Rajasthan. In this context. It is estimated that currently 430 million (8% of the global population) are living in countries affected by water stress.8Water supply : In many parts of developed and developing world. may not wish to do manual agricultural work. it will be possible to enable them to attain their reproductive goals. There are ongoing efforts to improve these. resulting in increasing pressure on land and resulting land fragmentation. Rural poor have inadequate access to basic minimum services. Greater education. The entire gamut of existing poverty alleviation and employment generation programs may have to be restructured to meet the newly emerging types of demand for employment. as a result 38 . low energy intake and under nutrition. in turn. 3. inadequate and poorly functional infrastructure. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh population is growing rapidly. educated population these efforts may prove to be inadequate to meet the increasing needs both in terms of type and quality of services. lack of awareness. and this. because of poor connectivity. achieve substantial decline in the family size and improve quality of life. but the population density is high and so there is a pressure on land.

There is very little arable agricultural land which remains unexploited and in many areas.82 in 1950-51 to 200. therefore. It is a matter of concern that while the cereal production has been growing steadily at a rate higher than the population growth rates. excessive use of water has led to water logging and increasing salinity in some parts of the country. the coarse grain and pulse production has not shown a similar increase. agricultural technology improvement may not be able to ensure further increase in yield per hectare. improvement in purchasing power and changing dietary habits (shift to animal products) may further add to the requirement of food grains.88 million tons in 1998-99 (Prov. 39 . Eventually. Food grain production has increased from 50. in the next five decades.7 grams in 1951 to 34 grams per day in 1996) and coarse grains. food production has kept pace with the population growth. tapping deeper aquifers have resulted in larger population groups being exposed to newer health hazards such as high fluoride or arsenic content in drinking water. In India one of the major achievements in the last fifty years has been the green revolution and self-sufficiency in food production. Consequently there has been a reduction in the per capita availability of pulses (from 60. It is estimated that the global population will grow to 9 billion by 2050 and the food production will double. 3. It is. storage and its need based use part of every citizens life should be taken up. both lack of water and water logging could have adverse impact on India's food production. a movement towards making water harvesting. At the other end of the spectrum. the food and nutrition security could become critical in many parts of the world especially in the developing countries and pockets of poverty in the developed countries. Thus.9Food security Technological innovations in agriculture and increase in area under cultivation have ensured that so far. imperative that research in biotechnology for improving development of food grains strains that would tolerate salinity and those which would require less water gets high priority. Evolution of global and national food security systems has improved access to food.water tables are falling by one to three meters every year.). Simultaneously.

Over the last three decades the rising cost of pulses has made Kesari Dal more expensive than wheat or rice and hence it is no longer given to labourers as wages for work done. there has been a shift away from coarse grains to rice and wheat consumption even among poorer segment of population. Till eighties in central India wages of landless laborerswere given in the form Kesari Dal which was cheaper than cereals or coarse grains. The pulse component of the ―Pulses and Oil Seeds Mission‖ needs to receive a major thrust in terms of R&D and other inputs. This in turn could have an adverse impact on their protein intake. so there is substantial decline in per capita pulses consumption among poorer segment of population. Rising cost of pulses had a beneficial effect also. There has been a sharp and sustained increase in cost of pulses.Over the last five decades there has been a decline in the per capita availability of pulses. Over years the coarse grain production has remained stagnant and per capita availability of coarse grain has under gone substantial reduction. During the last few years the country has imported pulses to meet the requirement. Consumption of staple diet of Kesari Dal led to crippling disease of neuro lathyrism. One of the benefits of this change is virtual elimination of pellagra which was widely prevalent among low income group population in Deccan Plateau whose staple food was sorghum. as a result the disease has virtually disappeared from Central India. Coarse 40 . so that essential pulse requirement of growing population is fully met.

Kwashiorkor. goitre. lathyrism. they can thus provide higher calories for the same cost as compared to rice and wheat. beri beri. beri beri and blindness due to severe Vitamin-A deficiency have become rare. marasmus.grains are less expensive than rice and wheat. The country adopted multi-sect oral. these factors led to wide spread prevalence of infections and ill health in children and adults. 3. availability of vegetables especially green leafy vegetables and yellow/red vegetables throughout the year at affordable cost both in urban and rural areas has remained an unfulfilled dream. one was the threat of famine and acute starvation due to low agricultural production and lack of appropriate food distribution system. blindness due to Vitamin-A deficiency and anaemia were major public health problems. pellagra. Another area of concern is the lack of sufficient focus and thrust in horticulture. similar efforts need be taken up in other states also. poor access to safe-drinking water. During the last 50 years considerable progress has been achieved. 41 . Health and nutrition education emphasizing the importance of consuming these inexpensive rich sources of micronutrients will not result in any change in food habits unless there is harnessing and effective management of horticultural resources in the country to meet the growing needs of the people at affordable cost. marasmus. multipronged strategy to combat the major nutritional problems and to improve nutritional status of the population. sanitation and health care. low-literacy.as only the most needy are likely to access these coarse grains.10 Nutrition: At the time of independence the country faced two major nutritional problems. Coarse grains which are locally produced and procured if made available through TPDS at subsidized rate. There has been substantial reduction in moderate and severe under nutrition in children and some improvement in nutritional status of all segments of population. Kwashiorkor. Famines no longer stalk the country. because of this. The other was chronic energy deficiency due to poverty. may not only substantially bring down the subsidy cost without any reduction in calories provided but also improve "targeting" . States like Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh have initiated some efforts in this direction.

pulses. 2. In view of the fact that population growth in India will continue for the next few decades. it is a matter of concern that milder forms of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and micronutrient deficiencies continue to be widely prevalent in adults and children. Ensuring adequate agricultural production of cereals. Exploring feasibility of providing subsidized coarse grains to families Below Poverty Line (BPL) Operational strategies to improve health and nutritional status of the growing numbers of women and children include: 42 . identify individuals/families with severe forms of CED and provide them assistance to overcome these problem. Providing subsidized food grains through TPDS to the families below poverty line. 4. Operational strategy to improve the dietary intake of the family and improve nutritional status of the rapidly growing adult population would include: 1.However. Improving in purchasing power through employment generation and employment assurance schemes. vegetables and other foodstuffs needed to fully meet the requirement of growing population. 3. it is essential that appropriate strategies are devised to improve food and nutrition security of families.

5 age group.Nutrition education for (a) early initiation of lactation (b) protection and promotion of universal breast feeding (c) exclusive breast feeding for the first six months. c) screening for nutrition and health problems and appropriate intervention.vegetable based supplement fed to them at least 3 . growth monitoring and health care. if no improvement after 2 months refer to physician for identification and treatment of factors that might be responsible for lack of improvement. Intensive health education for improving the life style of the population coupled with active screening and management of the health problems associated with obesity. 2) 0-6 months infants . 3) Well planned nutrition education to ensure that the infants and children do a) continue to get breasted.4 times a day – appropriate help in ensuring this through family/community/work place support. unless there is specific reason supplementation should not be introduced before 6 months (d) immunization. 4) Children in the 0 . b) improve dietary intake to these children through the mid-day meal. adequate antenatal intrapartum and neonatal care. b) get appropriate cereal pulse . c) immunization and health care. 43 . children and mothers. a) screen by weighment to identify children with moderate and severe under nutrition b) provide double quantity supplements through ICDS. 7) Nutrition education on varying dietary needs of different members of the family and how they can be met by minor modifications from the family meals. 6) Monitor for improvement in the identified undernourished infants. 5) Primary school children: a) weigh and identify those with moderate and severe chronic energy deficiency.screening to identify women with weight below 40 Kgs and ensuring that they/ their preschool children receive food supplements through Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS).1) Pregnant and lactating women .

brochures.‖ All of these examples use principles of social psychology to show how a strong correlation to the damage to the planet caused by the rapid population growth. Under this law. "The intervention can be widespread and done at a low cost. schools and at car parks (taxis / bus stands). some nations. use strict measures to reduce birth rates. Certain government policies are making it easier and more socially acceptable to use contraception and abortion methods.Chapter-4 Mitigation measures While the current world trends are not indicative of any realistic solution to human population growth during the 21st century. A variety of print materials (flyers. stickers) needs to be produced and distributed throughout the communities such as at local places of worships. like the People's Republic of China." Such prompts work to introduce the problem so that social norms are easier to implement. 4. sporting events. local food markets. there are several mitigation measures that have or can be applied to reduce the adverse impacts of population growth. fact sheets.1 Birth regulations Population growth is related to the issue of birth control. An example of a country whose laws and norms are hindering the global effort to slow population growth is Afghanistan. and can be denied food if they do. All of these mitigations are ways to implement social norms. Other societies have already begun to implement social marketing strategies in order to educate the public on overpopulation effects. Religious and ideological opposition to birth control has been cited as a factor contributing to overpopulation and poverty. women have no right to deny their husbands sex unless they are ill. Some leaders and environmentalists (such as Ted Turner) have suggested that there is an urgent need to strictly implement a China44 . the government has put policies in place that regulate the number of children allowed to a couple. In societies like China. ―The approval by Afghan President Hamid Karzai of the Shia Personal Status Law in March 2009 effectively destroyed Shia women‘s rights and freedoms in Afghanistan. Population growth is an issue that threatens the state of the environment in the mentioned ways in previous chapter and therefore societies must make a change in order to reverse some of the environmental effects brought on by current social norms.

" Birth credits would allow any woman to have as many children as she wants. then the first child would be free. because this would help control and reduce population gradually. some 514. affordable means and services to determine the size and spacing of their families. Urban designer Michael E. for example. This program is still remembered and criticized in India. but many unmarried young men. In the developing world. family planning. and birth control methods. 4.like one-child policy globally by the United Nations. and the market would determine what the license fee for each additional child would cost.000 women die annually of complications from pregnancy and abortion. Officially. Arth has proposed a "choice-based. and to make birth-control devices like male/female condoms. which hampered Government program for decades. Indira Gandhi. do not want another child or want to space their pregnancies. implemented a forced sterilization program in the 1970s. men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization. An estimated 350 million women in the poorest countries of the world either did not want their last child. If that allotment was determined to be one child. political opponents and ignorant men were also believed to have been sterilized. marketable birth license plan" he calls "birth credits. so the credits would serve more as a wake-up call to women who might otherwise produce children without seriously considering the long term consequences to themselves or society. and is blamed for creating a public aversion to family planning. Worldwide. The actual cost of the credits would only be a fraction of the actual cost of having and raising a child. late Prime Minister of India. but they lack access to information. with 86% of these deaths occurring in the sub-Saharan Africa region and 45 . Extra credits would expire after a certain time. pills and intrauterine devices easily available. nearly 40% of pregnancies are unintended (some 80 million unintended pregnancies each year). so these credits could not be hoarded by speculators.2 Education and empowerment One option is to focus on education about overpopulation. as long as she buys a license for any children beyond an average allotment that would result in zero population growth (ZPG).

It was announced in June 2008 by the Minister of Health and Population Hatem el-Gabali. Clarke. almost half of pregnancies were unintended.[243] Egypt announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women. has suggested in Engines of Creation that colonizing space will mean breaking the Malthusian limits to growth for the human species. based on the concept that breathable air is a lifting gas in the dense Venusians atmosphere. Lewis suggests that the resources of the solar system could support 10 quadrillion (1016) people. Venus would. suggesting this could happen within a few centuries. including Carl Sagan. dollars) for the program. Geoffrey Landis of NASA's Glenn Research Center in particular has pointed out that "[at] cloud-top level. It may be possible for other parts of the Solar System to be inhabited by humanity at some point in the future. in the upper layers of their atmospheres. 4. Many authors. 8 million infants die. like also Saturn.000 times the carrying capacity of Earth using just the asteroid belt and that the Solar System as a whole could sustain current population growth rates for a thousand years. "the 46 . and Neptune. Eric Drexler. Freeman Dyson (1999) favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity. Additionally. even afford a gravitation almost exactly as strong as that on Earth (see colonization of Venus). The government has set aside 480 million Egyptian pounds (about 90 million U.[242] In the United States. K. in 2001.South. According to Clarke. famous inventor of the futuristic concept of molecular nanotechnology. Gerard O'Neill suggested building space habitats that could support 30. Venus is the paradise planet". Arthur C. and Isaac Asimov. John S.3 Extraterrestrial settlement In the 1970s.S. many because of malnutrition or preventable diseases. with the majority in the asteroid belt. In Mining the Sky. Marshall Savage (1992. Uranus. as one could construct aerostat habitats and floating cities there easily. have argued that shipping the excess population into space is not a viable solution to human overpopulation. 1994) has projected a human population of five quintillion throughout the Solar System by 3000. especially from lack of access to clean drinking water.

A hypothetical extraterrestrial colony could potentially grow organically. with most of the inhabitants being the direct descendants of the original colonists 47 . but the physical impracticality of shipping vast numbers of people into space to "solve" overpopulation on Earth.population battle must be fought or won here on Earth‖. The problem for these authors is not the lack of resources in space (as shown in books such as Mining the Sky. However. Gerard O'Neill's calculations show that Earth could offload all new population growth with a launch services industry about the same size as the current airline industry.

Over the last five decades the country has built up a massive healthcare infrastructure for delivery of FW services to the population in the Government. The opportunity is to utilize available human resources to achieve rapid economic development and improvement in quality of life. improvement in economic social and human development. Demographic transition does not occur in isolation. The focus of planners. .Chapter-5 Conclusion Demographic transition is a global phenomenon. the transitions can be completed rapidly. health transition and reproductive health transition. education transition. The challenge is to ensure human development and optimum utilization of human resources. For India the current phase of the demographic transition is both a challenge and an opportunity. there are ongoing economic transition. India is currently in the phase of demographic transition during which where it will be possible for the country to accelerate the pace of decline in fertility. it will be possible for them to meet all their needs. If the population now has ready access to good quality services at affordable cost. achieve the desired family size and enable the country to achieve population stabilization rapidly. There is universal awareness about the need for these services. If there is synergy between these transitions. program implementers and the people during the next two decades will have to be in achieving the synergy so that India can achieve rapid population stabilization. In the next two decades the population growth will be mainly among the young adults who will be more literate. private and voluntary sectors. population growth is inevitable in the initial phases of the transition. there will be substantial improvement in human development and economic development. All these affect human development. 48 . Simultaneously. aware and likely to make optimal use of available facilities. The RCH program envisages wider range of services and improvement in quality of services provided.

Flowler. Environmental Science. Publication.com/lr/demographics/15359/1 6. 2004.. Energy &the Environment.htm. 2. Environmental Science: General Perspectives.C. http://dieoff.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_India 5.htm 49 .org/wiki/Environmental_issues 4. New Delhi.1984.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/Population_Statistics. 3. P-250. http://geography. M. Websites: 1.).wikipedia.wikipedia. http://geography. http://geography. McGraw Hill. Affluence and Technology [1] 3.Bibliography Book: 1. New York. Santra S. 1994.about. Santra S. Rethinking the Environmental Impacts of Population..about.htm 2.com/od/populationgeography/a/populationgrow. http://en.org/page111.D.John M.C.about. Ecology: Basic & Applied. (2nd ed. http://en.

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