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espite the lack of political unity, a surprisingdegree of stylistic coherence is manifest in
Indiansculpture. is mediaeval This coherence basedupon religiousunity.
However, the diversity of local artistictraditionsis enhancedby a certainreligious diversity
and limited as well. Thuswe haveminordeitieswith geographically sometimes chronologically
spheresand periods of worship, like Jyesthaand Aiyanar.We also encounterforms or manifesta-
in tions of the greatgods whichareunknown otherpartsof the country.2
I the Among the latter, an exclusively southern icon is Siva Daksin.amurti, Lord or Teacher of the South.3When he taught the rsis, Siva was seatedunder a banyanor pipal tree in the Himalayas,facing south, on a tiger skin or a white lotus. As theAgamasdescribehim, his lower right the the handis innana-or sandars'ana-mudrd; backrightholdsa rosary; backleft fire or serpent or or lotus; the front left is in varada- danda-mudrd-it also hold a book. His locks are emmay
with a serpent a smallbell,with skullandcrescent and with poisonousdatura bellished flowers,
moon; there also should be the face of the river-goddess Ganga. His right leg, hanging down, generallyrests on the Dwarf of Ignorance (apasmara-purusa).He is surroundedby four or more
At .r.sis. his feet, deerandsnakeshavegathered.
The four basic aspects of Siva as the teacher are Yoga-Daksinamurti(the teacher ofyoga), or Vinadhara-Daksinamurti teacher of the vinda lute), Jnana-Daksinamurti (the (the teacher of
and of (the knowledge), Vyakhy5na-Daksinamurti expounder the adstras).
Siva expounding the sdstras (scripture)is the most frequentlyencounteredform. At the same time, the Daksinamurticoncept is relatedto that of Siva as masterof the dance (Nrttamurti). The Vinadharaform is mentionedby the hymnistsAppar (early8th century)and Sambandar
(ca.73o);the Daksinamuirti (after by conceptis described Manikkavasakar 85o0).4
This article was finished in Spring I974. In the meantime, D. Barrett published his Early Cola Architecture andSculpture, London I 974. It persuaded me to change a good many Cola temple dates according to Mr. Barrett's interpretation of the
2 C. Sivaramamurti,
Geographical and Chronological Factors in Indian Iconography, Ancient India, No. 6 (I950). T. A. Gopinatha Rao, Elements of Hindu Icanography,Madras 19I4-I6, pp. 273ff; J.N.Banerjea, The Development of Hindu
4 K.R. Srinivasan, Some Aspects of Religion as Revealed by Early Monuments and Literatureof the South, Journalof the Madras University, Vol. XXXII, No. I (July 96o), p. I87.
Calcutta I 6, p. 464 ff. 195 Iconography,
Theimageof the greatteacher by sittingundera pipaltreesurrounded foursagesandby the
animalsof the forest clearlyis derived from that of the Buddhateachinghis first sermon in the relief at Deogarh is related to the same condeerparkof Sarnath.The famous Nara-Narayana
cept.s as A LateGuptaterracotta (U.P.)6hasbeeninterpreted a possible plaquefromAhicchatra
representationof Siva Daksinamurti;it may, however, illustrate a differentalthough similar concept. All known Daksinamurtiimages come from the south. The earliestexisting ones can be seen on Pallavamonolithicand structural temples. On the south side of the Dharmaraja-ratha (about A.D. 700), we encounter, on the centraltier, a Vinadhara-and on the upper tier what On seemsto be a Vyakhyana-Daksinamurti. the southside of the Olakkannisvara(700-728),
nicheis occupiedby a Daksinamurti.7 samepattern is the The also at Mamallapuram, central at followedin theKailasanatha Kanchi(730) aswellasin the Mukteuvara I), Iravatanesvara (Fig. the eighth century.8 iconic aspectis theyoga(meditation) The and otherlocal templesof or
vydkhyana(exposition) type; the location the south side of the vimana. The same pattern continues in the Bana and Late Pallava temples, i.e. at Takkolam (mid-ninth century) (Fig. 2),
wherethe half-open seemto chantthe Vedas,as well as at Tiruttani 897)9and Tiruk(ca. lips the kalukkunram (898)(Fig.3). At Velakannampudi ninthcentury), loose Yoga-Daksina(early murti(? the backhandsholdaxeanddeer)probably belongswiththe groupof SevenMothers;
the same goes for the loose Yoga-Daksinamurti (?) at Tiruttani (with rosary and deer).Io
Carved into the cliff outside the Pandya cave temple at Tirukkolakudi, there is a deep niche
with a Saptamatrka group; it is flanked by Ganesa and (?) Daksin.amurti. We recognize a Nandi
of Virabhadra. behind,-vehicle In the Muttaraiyar cave temple at Malayadipatti (8I2), the Seven Mothers are accompanied
by Ganesa and Yoga-Daksinamurti (?). The monolithic Pandya temple at Kalugumalai (ca. 800) has, like the structural Pandya
temples, no sculptural decoration in the viwna-niches (devakosta). We encounter the Daksinamurti, facing south, on the grivdaI (neck, below the dome) (Fig. 4). The beautiful icon is most unusual: Siva is shown as the teacher of music but, instead of playing the lute (vizd), he plays
the drum (mrdanga) which is associated with the dance. On the later Pandya temple at Tiruvalisvaram (ca.g95o), a seated Siva appears on the south side of the griva while the Daksinamurti is placed on the principal tier of the superstructure, on the west side, next to the central Lingodbhavamurti. In the Muttaraiyar temple at Tillaisthanam (ca. 884 or 878), Daksinamurti appears on the central tier (seated), and on the grivdaas well (standing) (Fig. 5). The devakostaSivas are not differentiated; all hold rosary and deer. A loose at Vinadhara-Daksinamuiirti Nangavaram (ca. 9Io-920) may belong to the southern vimana niche.
5 C. Sivaramamurti, Royal Conquestsand Cultural Migrations in South India and the Deccan, Calcutta I 9 5 5, p. 17.
6 Banerjea loc. cit., p. 471, pl. VII/3 .
C. Sivaramamurti, Mahabalipuram, New Delhi I972, p.I8. Srinivasan loc. cit., p. i 86; Temples of South India, New Delhi I 971, p. I14; S. R. Balasubrahmanyam, Early Chola Temples, Bombay, etc. I97I, p. 342. 9 D. Barrett, The Temple of Virattanesvara at Tiruttani, Bombay I958, pl.4. 10 Barrett, loc. cit., pi. 15. 11 C. Sivaramamurti, Kalugumalai and Early Pandyan Rock-cut Shrines, Bombay I96I, pp. 20-2I. Sivaramamurti identifies as Daksinamurti also the seated Siva on the central tala; loc. cit., p. 24, pi. I I.
The Irrukuvel temple at Narttamalai(ca. 860) has no vimdana niches; a Vinadhara-Daksinamurti occupies thegrivaniche on the south side (Fig. 6). A beautifulVinadhara-Daksinamurti(?) from Narttamalaiin the Pudukkottai MuseumI2 probably belongs to the group of Seven
Mothers;he holds tridentandrosary. A loose Daksinamurti Viralurmaycome from eitherthe devakosta at nicheof the (central wall) or thegriv (south). At Tirukkattalai(ca.890-900), Vindhara-Daksinamurtioccupies the southern niche. grivd
and niche a Tripurantaka On the centraltier, we encounter Bhiksatanamurti, in the devakosta
The Muvarkovil at Kodumbalur (ca. 880) is the most accomplishedIrrukuveltemple; two of the original three main shrines are left. The southern shrine has, in the southerndevakosta, a This standing Vinadhara-Daksinamurti.I3 is not repeated on centraltier andgriv. The central niche houses a Daksinamurti;the icon on the second shrine'ssouthernniche is empty. Thegrivda
tier perhaps another.14 is
the Of the twin temples at Kilaiyur (ca. 892), built by the Paluvettaraiyars, Agastyesvaram
on The temple has a beautifulstandingVinadhara the front (west) of the grivda.s southern
niche displays a standing Siva holding axe and deer who probablystands for Daksinavimdnaa
A Daksinamurti(? back hands hold trident and rosary)accompaniesthe Seven Mothers. The neighbouring Colisvaramhas a seated crowned Daksinamurtiunder an umbrellain the niche.17The motif is repeated by the more familiartype of Daksinamurti, southern devakosta
tier seatedas well, on the central (Fig.7) andon thegriva(Fig.8). In the EarlyCola temples,the standard patternas it had been developedby the Pallavas, seems to have been followed without with Daksinamuirti the southernvimdana in devakosta,
exception. At Tiruvedikudi (ca. 889) and at Kumbakonam(ca.9Io) the original image has been (ca. replaced; so it has at Tiruchchatturai 883)-repeated on centraltier (seated)andgrkr (standnot at Srinivasanallur(ca.927) (Fig.g It has the form of a seated Vinadharaat 9). ing)-but and of a standing one at Lalgudy (ca.897) (Fig. II), Tiruppunturutti (ca.940-70) (Fig.Io),
(after970) whereagainthe themeis (ca. Tiruchchenampundi 920) (Fig.i2), and at Thudaiyur
on repeatedby a seatedDaksinamufrti the griva. This standardpattern continues right down to the great temples of Thanjavur(IOIO)and images are often repeated (Io30). In the larger temples, the devakosta Gangaikondacolapuram on the upper tier or tiers. Among the most beautifulones, we point out the icons at Gramam(943) (Fig. 13), Erumbur
icon is flanked (ca.975)(Fig.I5). The Punjai (935),18 Punjai(ca.940)(Fig.14)andMayuram by
two old and two young rsis. At Mayuram,a feline and a sleeping bear (?) have joined the deer
12 S.R. Balasubrahmanyam, Early CholaArt, Part I, New York, 1966, pl. I7b.
(II), pl. Ioo. Balasubrahmanyam 14 The scheme published by Balasubrahmanyam p. I 32) is different. (II, Is Balasubrahmanyam(I), loc.cit., pl. 53. I6 (I), Balasubrahmanyam loc.cit., pl. 57. I7 (I), Balasubrahmanyam loc.cit., pl. 59. 18 Balasubramanyam(II), loc.ctt., pl. 73.
cit.cit. it was due to the influence of the Pandya style. Chalukyas worshiped Lakulisa. of with is mirtiin question in facta variant Virabhadra (TumburuI influenced or confused ). and On Makuitesvara. Vishveshvaranand Journal I. to Io67.In both throneis heldup by two Naga-kings. the southwall of the Safngamesvara (eighthcentury) at leastfour sub19 20 de M. 23 Soundara-Rajan.seated as ayogi. Indological Banerjea loc. Th. in the south generallyis called Daksinamurti. On a relief from Orissa he preachesto four sages-like Daksinamurti. Lakulisa. Dec. vol. I. Soundara Rajan. pp.His cult started Gujarat his to Kathiawar Orissa.the Daksinamurti nothingto do. pt.2I Sometimeshis double-lotus he sometimes sitsabovethe wheelandtwo deer. As for the Vinadharaaspect. I (March 963). on the basis of an inscription. At Badami.loc. in Damilica. Les Enseignements Iconographiquesl'Agni-Purana.loc. it seems to have been an independent form of Siva which laterwas classifiedunder the Daksinamurtiheading.a northerndeity.Thereis a seated Lakullsa. pl. his principalemblem is the club. with the SaptaMatrka.amurti.seatedasayogiand holdingthe club. pp.24 is identified as a rare form of Daksindamurti What looks like a staffactuallyis a broken trident. and As for the diversity of place which we notice in the Muttaraiyar Irrukuveltemples. in of wherehe was born. 45 o ff. imagesarefrequent. we have the impressionthat originallythere only were Thereis not muchdifference formsof Daksinamurti. 24 Banerjea. 21 22 Banerjea.in a kfdu(arched the roof-cornice the Malegitti-Sivalaya of a window motif) of templeat Badami.Nagaswamy I970.Paris 1963.22The Lakulisacult probablyis a continuationof the Mahayogior Yogisvara traditionand relatedto the Mahesa-Sadasiva concepts. 6. loc..The sameinfluence devakosta icons otherdevakosta on the superstructure. His appearancein these Pandya cave-templesprobably is one more example in influence the Pandya of Chalukya kingdom.. de Mallmann.who the of and livedin the secondcentury ourera. R. K.often in a yoga-position (with patta). by the Daksinamurti concept. however. the Insteadof Daksin. theologically. p. Rajasthan. XXXIX/I. I 5 ff.Aihole. Daksinamurti is totallyabsent. V. cit.-the Pandya temples not having any probably wouldaccount the repetitions this and of for nicheson the walls. cit. A fourth form (Jnana) thenwas addedfor symmetry. I72 . the The form of Siva which accompanies SevenMothers. pp.23 of Lakulisain Tamilnaduare extremelyrare. The Lakullsatemple in the Bhutanatha group dates from the late eighth or ninth century. 17) in the cave-temple at Aritapatti (Madurai) and another in the cave-temple at Devarmalai (Pudukkottai). smallseated Vinadhara.20 He is generallyshown as ithyphallic. 62ff. betweenthe the Yoga and Vyakhyana latter and the Jnanaform. I6) now Images and dated.with club (Fig. On the monuments createdby the Early (Western)Chalukyasat Badami.Summingup the iconographicdata. aspects the Buddhist connotation is obvious. The Devi Cult Nucleus at Jagat. or playing the vina.with mattedhair.Lakullsaappearson a smallreliefof caveII (ca. Mahakut the icon and Pattadakal...The image at Tiruvorriyur(Fig.Thereis.organized reformed Pasupata heis considered sect. has The However.600).and spread from the 28thincarnation Siva.
25 26 I73 . sawonly a LateChalukya th century) (I Lakullsain the Bala-Brahma temple. 1 87. loc.appears the firsttierof the superstructure on a At Pattadakal.late eighth century). Thus. we also see him in a vismdna (ca. Arts Asiatiques VIII I/2 (I96I).amurti the southfacadeof the Visva-Brahma (mid-seventh century).. with club.25 This ratherunusual form probably of is a variant the Lakulisa concept. However. Early Chalukya Icons. II/I.thereis a beautiful Yoga-Daksin.a standingLakullsa Furthereast. niches (Fig. 1 87.The righthandis in the mudrd charity. niche (south side) of the Sangamesvara(697-733). R. Bhik?atana-Kankalamuiirti. Srinivasan loc. 9.Adiceam. 27 O. shrines. influencre this place. it is once more Lakulisa who occupies fsouth. on the way he kills the brahman refused to admit him. loc. cf. There is no DakSinamurti. This legend has differentroots from that of Bhairavaand his crimes.Filliozat. Artibus Asiae XXXIV/4 (1972). southern vimdna of on At Sangamesvaram Sangamesvara (Bhavanasi Sangam). but I have no photo and cannot tell its period.30 Just as there is no clear iconographic borderline between Bhairavaand Ksetrapalaon the on and one hand. certainly due to Pallava Further north-east. Thereis a I At Alampur. In the Bala-Brahma and Virabhadra.nude or with diaphanousgarments.26 Like this. One set of legends is connected with the complex: Siva creates Bhairava who Lifngodbhavamurti cuts off the fifth head of Brahma who had lied about having reached the top of the fiery pillar (linga). In order to expiate this crime. On the on otherhand. who had grimage. Siva Lingodbhava-murti. pp.27 Nearbyon the Safigamesvara Kudaveli. the superstructure the Rupala (south) (Fig. at Biccavolu. 29 Gopinatha Rao. Yoga-Daksinamrtiis placedin the (ca. pp. p.there is a standing Siva in the devakosta. two cases he stands on the Dwarf of Ignorance (apasmara). A. In addition to the skull (cup) of Brahma.doorkeeperof Visnu. Mothersareaccompanied Ganesa (Vinadhara) by on at appears the northwall. Yoga-Daksinamurtiadorns the grivda second tier is empty. Les Temples d'Alampur et de ses Environs. cit. fig.the Seven (late manydapa seventh century) (Fig. I9). The second set of legends concerns the naked.28 II Bhiksatanamurti29is another southern icon that practically does not exist in the north.. (south) on the Virupaksaand the Mallikarjuna 740-745). standingon the Dwarf.Divakaran. loc.the firsthas Siva as yogi.cit. 30 J. 20).he now-as Kankalamurti-has to carrythe corpse or bones of Visvaksena until he is delivered of both upon arrivalin Varanasi (Benares). Srinivasan. in of in holdinga battleaxe with serpent his left hand. Arts Asiatiques XXIV (I971). M. K.295ff. fig. 59.483-84. Banerjea.E.R. Siva Daksinamurti theyoga form) (in appears in this eastern realm of the Early Chalukyas and Rastrakutas. The (Rastrakuta.. there is none between Bhiksatanamurti Kankalamurti the other.. 28 K.He seduces their wives and proves that their exercises are vain and fruitless. Lippe. cit. on the twin templesof Satyavolu 700). Arts Asiatiques XII/2 (I965). standingLakulisa. i 8). strangelybeautiful Siva in the deodar forest where sages are practising austerities. p. Siva takes the form of a young ascetic and goes on a pilVisvaksena. Lakulsain the museum. Siva Bhairava.ithyphallic. Arts Asiatiques XI/2 (I965).cit.
34 However. p. the southernmandapa appearsin this place at Tiruk- ca. At Tiruvedikudi niche is empty. loc. south-but temple of Tillaisthanam not at Nangavaram(c.38 31 C. I74 . and at Viralur(ca.as Kafikalamurti (secondtier. pi.he occupiesthe northern (ca.22) and at Tiruppunturutti(ca. Ioo006). nor on the Irrukuveltemple at Narttamalai(ca. Balasubrahmanyam (II)..appear Tirukkattalai 890).884 or 878) griva.3I the On we encountera Bhiksatanamurti.889). In the early Cola temples.Bhiksatanamurti generally is smiling.Tiruvaduturai The allocation of the northernmandapa niche-which became the standardpattern-begins at Tiruvelvikkudi 970)-still in a very simpleniche-and at Konerirajapuram (ca. I35. (I).. loc. cit. (?) It occurs on the Muttaraiyar-Cola (c.cit. 32 Balasubrahmanyam (II).We do not see it on the monolithic (ca.At Kamarasavalli 977). Aduthurai (985).. serpent belt and sandals. Pullamangai (ca.cit. a drum. templeof Kalugumalai 800). (969-972). He is absent at Tiruchchatturai(ca. 26).cit.. 21 We do not find it on ). loc. This still is the case at Uyyakondan-Tirumalai 966) (Fig. Both motifs appearon miniaturepanels of the north face. 35 37 D.9i8). a tuft of grass (for the antelope). I66. whichall havethe sameiconiclayout. Early Cola BronZes. naked. Erumbur (ca. At Lalgudy (ca. Tirunaraiyur (987). (ca. nearPondichery)(Fig. pl.Sivaramamurti. p. at Tirumayanam 985) as well (ca. It does. loc. the corpse or bones dangling from the staff sometimes are by replaced feathers. 90-9I20).883).870)-two armed-in the northernvimdna niche (Fig. (ca. LXXXVI/i. Bhiksatanamurti (ca.935).we see himin a lateral hand. 33 Balasubrahmanyam loc. the temples the Irrukuvel of at (ca. 34I. pl. (Uttara-Kailasa.94o)andThudaiyur (after970). north side. pl... like the Kankalamurti a lateralniche of the vimdna niche of the vimadna in west face. 28) and Tiruvayaru (ca. 38 Balasubrahmanyam (II).His hands hold (beginning with the lower right). cit.gIg920). on the centraltierof the southside (belowDaksinamurti). 36 Balasubrahmanyam (II). Kumbakonam (Nagesvara. motherof UttamaCola.36 The latteris the first of a seriesof temples built by Sembiyan-Mahadevi.but on the latePandya Pandya templeof Tiruvalisvaram(ca. Govindaputtur (983) (Fig. pl. cit. (943).32 icon does not of vimdna the Kanchi Kailasanatha The (730) occur on the Bana and Late Pallava temples of the Tondai-nadu.cit. On the centraltier (west) of the Dharmaraja-ratha (ca.940-70) (Fig. (ca. a staffwith peacockfeathers(or a trident)and a skull-cup. Gopinatha Rao. 9Io)33and Srinivasanallur 927) (Fig. and Tiruvarur (992). 23). i I2. Gramam (945).95o).. loc. 34 Balasubrahmanyam (II).cit. loc.35this is perhapsa later addition as well.Mahabalipuram. 700) there is a Kankalamurti. 269. loc. on the other vimdna niche. The earliestexamplesof the Bhiksatana-Kankalamurti concept occur on Pallavamonuments.897) (Fig.Barrett.west). as at Tiruvandarkoyil 999. (c. Sembiyan-Mahadevi (98i) (Fig. kandiyur (ca. wears matted hair.69a. occurrence as well as location are irregular.24). capital Kodumbalur 880). 25).. Bombay I965. I I I.Kankalamurti generallyis dressed and crowned.Punjai(ca. pl. and is accompaniedby antelope and dwarf.37 We point out the icons at Mayuram(975-0ooo00). at however.nor on the Paluvettaraiyar temples at Kilaiyur 892).86o). 27). A small bell on his right shin warns the caste Hindus of his approach.
Coomaraswamy.He also destroys fettersthatbindeachseparate soul. Theheartof the believer is the burning ground where the ego is destroyed. at The a graceful movementof the body. from fire proceeds destruction. the one he dancedbeforethe assembly the goldenhallof the SriNataraja danceposecalled with was by templeatChidambaram identified Coomaraswamyo0 the particular or with the termNataraja King of the Dancein It is dnanda-tadndava. K. 283f. "Master In mediaeval Saiva thought. Siva and his cult were associatedwith the dance. the divine body has the fullness of the mid-centurystyle. Aihole. in dancesof the god. 25) the dwarf carriesan alms bowl. and even less so in the lovely. Rudra. in is fromhis niche.Visnu.The scene eastface (Fig.Hismovement less rigidlysymmetrical the earlier forward panelat Lalgudy relief at Srinivasanallur 24).it. Banerjea. New York 19 8. The Dance of Siva. this new standardpattern is not without exceptions. 39 40 A.3o)andon the VisvaBrahma (68I-969)mandapa mandapa the in forest. Chandella).The Saivahymnists-as well as King Rijaraja the Dancer". conferment of grace. 175 . of only slightvariations the standard is Bhiksatanamurti not in evidence on the Early Chalukyamonuments of Badanmi.22) is a superb beautiful. 21) is characterized a slightly tilted head. I050. and power of veiling."We remember in that the fourth hand points to the raisedfoot. At Uyyakondan(Fig. preservation. and Mahakut Pattadakal. at Gangaikondacholapuram the west side (second tier). pp. Adavallar.dalathis context signifies illusion. 41 J. This led. We might south add that on the Rajaraje?vara appearson the vimana temple at ThanjavurBhiksatanamurti on side (firsttier) (Fig.23). 29).the foot held aloft gives release. protection proceeds from the hand of hope. As Coomaraswamy explains. ColaBhiksatana Tiruppunthe but turutti(Fig. they correspond to the activities of Brahma. The two panels on Queen SembiyanMahadevi'stemples (Fig. depictedon the firstpanelis Bhiksatana the deodar The same subject is representedon the KandariyaMahadevatemple at Khajuraho(ca. they are all expressedin the icon. Sivaas Lordof the Dance.39 III From very early times. destruction. Siva by his dancing destroys heavens and earth at the close of the a worldcycle. 26-27) show formwhichby now had developed.and a dreamy expression.As we have seen already.Amongthe numerous to the conceptsof Natesaand of Nataraja.. however. god steps Unsmiling irresistibly pieceof sculpture. Mahesvaraand Sadasiva. (Fig. the flamingprabhadma. the fivefold activities of Siva were creation. (Fig. a At Alampur.To the believer. 446. this pose whichI associate it order to differentiate from all other modes and poses which I group under the term "Natesa" or I-called the god Adavallan (DancingSiva).seducing wives of the sages.loc. at Viralur (Fig. eventually.Filliozat in Artibus Asiae XXIV (I96I). p.where illusion and deeds are burnt away. The only Muttaraiyar by example.we encounter Bhiksatana (68I-696) panelon the SvargaBrahma northwall. though mutilated.4I Nataraja An early Tamil text says: "Creationarises from the drum.
cit.46 all in central India and dating from about A. fig. Satyavolu. Manikkavasakar Chidambaram mentions an The templeat Chidambaram. They are followed. 39. V. loc. is repeated Manikkavasakar 85o) who is thefirstto (after by mention the term "dnanda-tydava". I76 .R.9 (I96I). R.48 On ceilings and in devakosta niches.Viennot.The back hands hold fire and axe. loc.Agrawala.. of A. A. 49 A. Cave-Temples of the Pallavas. of is the of thepurpose his dance to release countless soulsof menfromthesnares illusion.Harle.. p. but quickly spread across the subcontinent in order to become especially prominent in the south.it is the imageof his rhythmic significance Siva'sdanceis threefold. by the famous reliefs in the cave temples of Elephanta and Ellora (XXI). The specific Nataraja con- cept is a creation of the south. became the family deity of the dynasty. which is represented the arch. was early associated with the dancing Siva. figs.I. In southern literature. perpetual to the life of the cosmosandto give release thosewho seekhim. The god of Chidambaram. O. 42. Thus. Arts AsiatiquesXVIII (I 968).47 somewhat later. of The essential First.43 The concept of the dancing Siva was developed in the north. Lippe.so50 sanatha to Sangamesvaram. although Arcot)51 (Fig. D. we encounter it in the Aihole Saiva cave. Le probleme des temples a toit plat dans l'Inde du nord. This development is reflected by the archaeological evidence. Banerji. Simultaneously with Badami. Around A. According to Stella Kramrisch there is also an image from Orissa of this period in the museum of Bhuvaneshvar. Lalit-Kala. the Natesa motif appears in the south. 42 44 45 in J.rhythmicenergy. 43 K. O.C.cit. loc. cit. A survey of Gupta art and some sculptures from Nachna-Kutharaand Khoh. TempleGateways SouthIndia. Lippe. so50 Divakaran. It is. Memoirs the Archaeological of Survey India. R. 46 47 48 A. 31). less than one hundred years later. in the Chalukya Cave I at Badami (Bijapur).D. 89ff. we find it. 625. it occurs in the Pallava cave temple at Siyamangalam (North mode. the first definition of the three attributes held by the Lord of the Dance-serpent. No. I 89.Third the placeof the dance. The earliest existing sculptures of the dancing Siva are the reliefs at Sakor (Damoh)..42 ColaKing Paranimageof the dancingSivain the SriNataraja taka I (907-95 5) had the roof of the sanctum covered with gold. He dances maintain the to Anandameans"bliss". loc. the Lord of the Dance (Sri Nataraja). New Delhi 1964. cit. and in the Ganga temples of Mysore (eighth-ninth century). Oxford I 963. in the Pattadakal temples49 as well as at AlamWe also do in the Rastrakuta temples from the Ellora Kailapur (seventh-eighth century). etc. pp.D.. Coomaraswamy "the clearest imageof the activityof God whichany art or religioncan boast of". the serpent coils at Siva's feet. The Temple of Siva at Bhumara. of Chidambaram-he placecenter Chidambaramthe enterof the universe-is withinthe heart. as any said. The last can perhaps be interpreted as a proto adnanda-tdndava or it is differently classified (Rrdhva-janu bhujangatradsa).44 from Nachna (Panna)45 and from Bhumara (Satna). loc.Secondly..Srinivasan. 40. in the eighth century.S. at its roots the dance of Siva is the manifestationof primal. by play as the sourceof all movementwithin the cosmos. Srinivasan.cit. No. fig. 43. hand-drum and bowl of fire-occurs in a song of the Saiva hymnist Sundarar this (firsthalfof the ninthcentury). oo to the early sixth century. 5sI K..S.4I.danceis the god's "play"(lila).Lippe. 16 (I924).
I77 . awe. pp. 54 C.s5 Natesa carries a bull standard-as on the Chalukya panel of the Virupaksa (Pattadakal) (Fig.R. 33.(Figs.. (Velakanampudi.There is no Natesa s the same on the Pandyamonolithic temple now called Vettuvankoil (ca. an outstretched pointsto heaven(talasamsphotitam). but he actuallysaluteshim. 35). I08-37.33) of the Kanchi Kailasahasta).a bent kneeis liftedhigh (bhujangatrdsa) an armswingsin frontof the chest(gajaThe firstoccursin the vestibule(Fig.Iravatanesvara.the repertoryis enlargedby at least in the two moredanceposes. I have not seen any Natesa in the late Pallavaand Banatemples of the Tondai-naduwhich I have visited. have I encounteredhim in the Muttaraiyar He does appear on one of the two remaining temples of the Muvarkoil at Kodumbalur (Pudukkottai)on the second tier (south). in worship.54 the Muktesvarathe Dwarfof Ignorance evidence for the first time. p.Nor caves and structuraltemples.In one. under his five-fold cobra-hood. Ancient India..In the latterrelief. In the Pandya generally dances in the catura pose (Tirumalaipuram) (Fig. Bharata's NdtyaSdstra.38). the natha.the serpentis held by a left hand (as on the KuramNatarja).cit. pp. the Agastyesvaram. loc.40). pp. in of the identification literary termswith the variousdanceposes whichwe encounter art is contradictoryand confusing.Srinivasan.Sivaramamurti.Takkolam. p. of the eighth is in In (aparan-purusa) century (all in Kanchi).Natesa also occurs on the Olakkannesvara Natesa. 880. by some scholars. loc. In a number of earlyCola temples he appearson one or more of the miniaturepanels of the 52 P.. i8. Natesa-when present-has fourarmsand cavetemplesof the eighthcentury. Balasubrahmanyam (II). the lifted foot still touches the ground. 37).a ndga in reliefin the Kailasanatha king. Parvati. 55 Sivaramamurti. Tiruttani. and Nandi has joined the dance-a unique configuration. leg while other.56 at On one of the twin temples of the Paluvettaraiyars Kilaiyur(892). is being held aloft. nadga Nataraja both ther The otherreliefsshowthe god in eitherthe catra or the lalitapose in whichgenerally legs are in a diagonal position and. pp.R. at Kunnakudi we count eight is arms (the prabhad a later addition in stucco) (Fig.52 has been interpretedas A relief on the centraltier of the Dharmaraja-ratha (Mamallapuram) it probably representsSiva Kalarimurti.. As Sivaramamurti pointed out. I4 (I958). Kalugusmalai.we in find a miniatureNatesa (eight-armed.cit. We recall that the Nallur holdsa three-hooded in his left. cit. 53 C. 56 K.. Tiruvathigai). loc.The second pose is illustratedby another cloister(Fig. under the dancer'sfeet (Fig. Pattabiramin.cit. Balasubrahmanyam in Journal of Indian Museums XVII-XX. In the vestibule relief (Fig. Trouvailles de Nedoungadu.) or the classicof the dance. loc. I2-1 3.53 etc. as against S. I I-26. Sivaramamurti.34). 99-I02. watchesthe greatdancer. four-armed. Mahabalipuram. Muktevara. pp. No.. K.. 39)-where he dances in the same pose as in the Kailsanatha cloister at Kanchi (Fig. Some Aspects. 800). 34). Z. and The Pallava Architecture of South India. Tandavas de Siva. the Muktesvara. Tirukkallukkunram..cit. either religious texts (Agamas.3 5) Mtanigevara. Incidentally. he is in evidence at Tirupparamkunram (773) (Fig.catura) the toraVa above the Daksinamurti(south). Krishnan in Epigraphica Indica XXXII (I957). G. Pondichery 195 6. This is due to the fact that the terms are taken from different sources. a ganaseems to support the ten-armedgod. will The Natarajaon the Pandyastructuraltemple at Tiruvalisvaram be discussedbelow. loc. (Mmallapuram). The Dwarf of Ignorance is absent. 340-43.I). loc. cit.32) andthe cloister(Fig. and Early Chola Temples. 36).in the catura-mode (Fig. often. These Irrukuvel temples are.etc.In the subsequentPallavatemples of the eighth century. convincingly dated to ca..
57 a torana.in orderto assume rightful placein a devakosta As Douglas Barrett first observed. S. A related motif. popular on is these miniaturepanels as well (Tiruchchenampundi.940) (Fig. Spring I97I (N. 920) (Fig. Thanjavur(IoIo) (Fig. firstof thesetemples the one at Konerirajapuram (ca. the explanation for these mutilations must lie in the peculiarities of the icon itself. Melakkadambar In (1113. Propelled by the impetus of his dance. stonepresumably of temperature humidity. The Natarajacan be seen on a miniaturepanel at Thudaiyur(after970) (Fig. at his left. Barrett.Nagaswamy in order to update the Nataraja motif. XVII/I). so). 69. The same goes for compositionally related icons like Kalarimurti (Govindaputtur).47) etc. 5I). or in a toraVa (arch)above a devakosta murti. Tirumiyachchur (969 to 985). the Nataraja in a devakostafirst appears.cit.969-972) (Fig. Natesa appears at Kumbakonam (ca. I78 . we see him on miniaturepanels at Kandiyur(ca.4I--Pullamangai(ca. 947. The other reliefs are in good condition. In the torana over the Daksinamurti at Tiruvaduturai (945) (Fig. Kamarasavalli (ca. Incidentally. v. Pullamangai (9I-920)- twice-Tiruvaduturai (945). planes. p.. Kalantaka. Tirunaraiyur (987) and others are more or less severely damaged. the Konerirajapuram Nataraja has a Ganga on his locks. In a toraya. Early Cola Architecture and Sculpture.977) (Fig. rising from the mouths of two sea monsters (makara). Aduthurai (985). the upper half of the toranadoes not necess- the of arilybelongto the lower one. 42). Vriddhachalam (98I). 59 D.). 5o cm) and is almost free-standing.43).9Io-920)-three times-. pilaster). wild geese (hamsa).927)-on a (after970). The Nataraja does appear-in a torana-at Tiruverumbur (95 2) (Fig. the Nataraja has become larger (ca. However. mentions a panel on the Surya shrine of the Nages- vara. Srinivasanallur (ca.whenweakened weathered and bronzecaster. when there are any. The swinging arm and leg. superbly realized by the skilful in causedtoo muchstressand.etc. It resembles torana Pullamangai (91-920). His The is placeis on the southfaceof the ardhamandapa.44). Tirumiyachchur (between 969-985). and wereaptto break.he already appears at Tiruchchenampundi58 (ca. 12). 7I. loc. Barrett. 58 This torana has been quoted by R. is made up of rows of horned lions (vyala). She is pre- sentin the otherreliefsmentioned the properright)exceptat Govindaputtur Kilappaand (at luvur.niche. The Punjai torana. Thudaiyur pilaster valli (ca.Bombay I965. in the temples built by Queen Sembiyan Mahadevi. Kilappaluvur (984). The Natarajas at Sembiyan Mahadevi (98i) (Fig.Kamarasa(Fig. and horsemen.Kilap- paluvur (984).977). See also Barrett.9i8). Another beautiful example is the devakostaimage at Mayuram (between 975 and Iooo) (Fig.4s). p. London I974.970) for the beginning of Barrett's Phase III (of the Early Cola period).gIo). generallyabove Daksinabase.s9 The same can be said for the toranafigure (above Durga) at Punjai (ca.49) which provides the date (ca. Both are undamaged-two almost unique instances ofluck.46). whentherewerefaultsin by changes especially the stone. Early Cola Bronzes. Thudaiyur. As hardly any Muslim iconoclasts reached the south. Govindaputtur (983). as part of the new and standardized icononic layout. Oriental Art. Thus. 57 D. the god seems to be stepping out of the relief his niche. datable to ca.which alreadyoccurs on the Dharmaraja-ratha.
Srinivasanasserts that no adnanda-tdndava occurs before Parantaka (907-95 5 ).62There are. vols. a "tour de force" created at a later period. of Mayuramand Tirunaraiyur. on this panel as well as at Konerirajapuram.cit. full-size. I (andthus does not belong to the EarlyCola son and successor I030 by Rajaraja's Rajendra period). i. XXVI/2 & XXVII/I-2.Vol. of course. R. 58.beginning (ca.Wefind. I79 . Srinivasan. he does of indeed appearon miniaturepanels and in toranas the reign of Parantaka At the same time. at that.. Barrett'sEarly Cola period. The sameis the caseon the GreatTempleat Gangaikonda-Cholapuram 53) whichwas builtin (Fig. Srinivasan. p. 63 This was first suggested by John Irwin.940)seemto represent intermediate which now is datedto This might be confirmed the Pandyatempleat Tiruvalisvaram by but 900-950 . Siva dancing in the adnanda-tdndava mode. 62 K. loc.thathe appears in the reignof Parantaka I. The late appearanceof this icon-representing the family deity of the Cola kings-in the at devakosta scheme-and. 61 See above. it fromthe weather.. I. on the south side (Fig. earlier miniature on panelsandin toraas. a dancing Kali besides the three-legged Bhrngi evokes the legend in which Siva wins a dance contest with the goddess. Temples.60 Barrett does not exclude the possibilitythat the Nataraja(in dnanda-tdndava mode) appearsin pre-phaseIII temples in the small sculptured panels but "feels fairly confident" that he does not. because wasprotected hassurvived mode I P. as a processionalicon. in the vestibule of the Tirukkaravasal temple (Fig. We rememberthat a full-size Natesa wasplacedin the samelocationat Kodumbalur (880). of the torapa (ca. VIII. Madras I963. The presence. On the other hand.in a secondarylocation-is surprising. probablyby a Vijayanagar artist.R. The swinging arm is broken.justbeforethe full-blown (ca. Roopa-Lekha. 54) carved completely in the round. The emaciatedwoman next to theganamusiciansis the saintKaraikkal the Ammaichanting glory of the Lord. Bullettin of the Madras Government Museum. prior to the Rajarajesvara Thanjavur.e. and was only afterward into This seemsto be confirmed the archaeological translated stone.. Bronzes of South India. was first developed in bronze.61 As we have shown above. devakosta phase. notes 57.94 )--already pointedout by Barrett-and Punjai Natarajas Tiruvaduturai an icon.originally in which was builtby King Rajaraja I003-IOIO and thus still belongsto calledRajarajesvara. The Natarajahere appears on the vimana(south) (Fig.The most likely explanationseems to be that the Natarajamotif. in the middle of the centraltier (second tala).R.It is astonishingas well to see the perfectionwith which this motif-so difficult for the sculptor-is realized even at its first large-scale and almost three-dimensional appearance.63 evidence by 60 P. date of in we can confirmBarrett's for the appearance the Nataraja devakosta Summing up.We conclude this chapter with the Natarajaon the great temple of Thanjavur.970). I23.however. on the basis of an incomplete survey of databletemples. no devakostas the Natarajais placed. after 985. 48). The awkwardnessof Natesa'slower left leg is due to a clumsy repairwhich once more illus- of tratesthe vulnerability thisicon.47). according to Barrett.
literary quotedabove. 7.anikkavasakar) 64 Barrett. This corresponds with the evidence(Sundarar. M. loc. Barrettquotes the earliestknown inscriptionalreferenceto a bronzeNataraja.. the unique assembledhere.. loc. the temple of Tirunamanallur I. I8o .64 (bronze) Natarajain adnanda-tadndava was evolved in Thanjavur districtcertainlyby the beginning of Phase III (970) and possibly during Phase II (940 to in 970). as well as by the physicalcondition of the devakosta in of potential this motifhasonlybeenrealized the bronzes. e. (South Arcot) which is dated the thirty-eightyear of Parantaka i.4I. cit. p. 65 Barrett.cit.65 The evidence presented above encourages us to adjust the dates suggested by Barrett and to place the development of this motif in bronze in Phase I (8 50-940). mode the According to Barrett. 945. p.icons. In any case.
Muktesvara. Kanchi.Fig. btw. 732 and 796. (Pallava) Illustrations: Copyright AscbwinLippe . I Daksinamurti and NateSa.
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Kilaiyur.Fig.ca. 892 (Pal.uvettaraiyar) . Kilaiyur. 892 (Pal. Coli?vara.ca. 8 Daksinamurti. 8 Daksinamurti.uvettaraiyar) Fig. ColiSvara.
927 (Cola) Fig.Srinivasanallur. 9 Daksi.ca. .namu-rti.
ca. 940-70 (Cola) Fig. ii Vinadhara-Daksinamuirti.Tiruppunturutti.d Fig. 897 (Cola) . ca. Lalgudy. Io Vinadhara-Daksinamurti..
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Varanasi . ca. Svarga Brahma.Fig. Tiruvandarkoyil.Thanjavur. Ramnagar.Alampur. o Rajarajesvara. 68I-696 (ChIlukya). Courtesy American Institute of Indian Studies. 30 Bhiksatanamurti. 28 Bhiksatanamuirti. I o (Cola) Fig. 29 Bhiksatanamurti. 999 (Cola) Fig.
Fig. 31 NateSa. ca. Siyamangalam. 580-630 (Pallava) Fig Fig. Klanchi. 32 Nate$a. Kailasa .
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Kunnakudi. 36 Nate?a.eighth century (Pandya) Fig. 37 Natesa. . Tirumalaipuram.Fig.
Tirupparamkunram. ca. Courtesy Archaeological Survey of India Fig. Pattadakal. Virupaksa. 773 (Pandya).Fig. 38 Natesa. 745 (Chalukya) . 39 Natesa.
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977 (Cola) . after 970 (Cola) Fig. ca. ca. 927 (Cola) Fig. Kamarasavalli.Fig. Thudaivur. Srinivasanallur. 4I Natesa. 42 Nataraja. 43 Nataraja.
Fig. 44 Nataraja. 952 (Cola) Fig. Punjai. 940 (Cola) . ca. Tiruverumbur. ca. Tiruvaduturai. 46 Nataraja. 45 Nataraja. 945 (Cola) Fig. ca.
47 Nataraja. Fig. (Cola) IoIo Fig. RajarajeSvara. Thanjavur. 47 Natar-ija.- | Thnau.Raa 20 v 10 Co .IOIO (Cola) . Rdjardjeivara.5 Fg47Ntrj.Thanjavur.
95o (Pandya) . ca. Tiruvalisvaram.'J 'ZZi Fig. 48 Nataraja.Al 'I%. i .
btw. 5I Nataraja. 98I (Cola) . 969-72 (Cola) Fig. 49 Nataraja. ca.Fig. 5o Nataraja. Sembiyan-Mahadevi. Konerirajapuram. ca. 975 and Iooo (Cola) Fig. Mayuram.
Rajarajesvara. Thanjavur. 53 Nataraja. 5 2 Nataraja. Gangaikonda-Colapuram. IoIo (Cola) Fig. o1030 (Cola) .Fig.
. century? Tirukkaravasal.tar~ja. ci\~..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i ? ::. (Vijayanagar)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i .~ .~.:~~~~. i sth Fig. p.54 Na. ?..t .
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