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Course: Basic Electronics (EC21101) Course Instructor: Dr. S.K. Varshney (Sec. 4) Contact Email: skvarshney@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in skvarshney.iitkgp@gmail.com

TAs: N. Vijay Kumar, A. Maity, P. Mondal, A. Bag, A. Das, I. Das, S. Chowdhury

Course contents

• Introduction to electronics and electronic systems, Semiconductor and devices like diodes, BJT, FET, MOSFET, Rectifier and Filters, Transistor biasing. Small signal transistor amplifiers, Operational amplifiers, Feedback and Oscillators, • Digital circuit and combinational logic, Sequential logic and flip-flops, ADC & DAC, Data acquisition systems, Memory systems • Case studies of electronic systems like microprocessors, radio & TV broadcasting, Mobile & cellular telephones, fiber optics & networking.

References

• Donald A Neamen, Electronic Circuits-Analysis and Design Text book • Sedra and Smith, Microelectronics Text book (some portion). • Raza Vi, Fundamentals of Microelectronics, Reference book • Milliman and Halikas, Microelectronics, Reference book

Variation of bandgap with temperature .

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(acceptor) holes: majority n-type p-type Rough sketch of bandgap for n-type . Al.Extrinsic semiconductors (adding impurities to intrinsic semiconductors) Group V elements P. Sb (donor) free electrons: majority Group III elements B. As.

Rough sketch of bandgap for p-type .

Fermi-Dirac distribution • Electrons in solids obey Fermi-Dirac statistics • tells the probability of an available energy state E to electron f (E ) = 1+ e 1 ( E − EF ) kT .

f(E) Intrinsic semiconductor n-type semiconductor p-type semiconductor .

• Fermi distribution function can be used to know the carrier concentration at thermal equilibrium. .

In case of intrinsic semiconductor … • Fermi energy level EF lies at some intrinsic level Ei (middle of bandgap) .

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it will be. Eg ni pi = N c N v exp − kT • As ni=pi.• Product of n0 and p0 is constant for a particular material and temperature (even if the doping is varied) Eg n0 p0 = N c N v exp − kT • If we compute product of ni and pi (in case of intrinsic semiconductor). Important relation .

81 ×1019 1.83 ×1019 GaAs 4.Effective carrier densities at 300 K Ge Nc (cm-3) Nv (cm-3) 1.02 ×1019 5.57 ×1018 T N c (T ) = N c (300 K ) ⋅ 300 Another way of writing n0 and p0 .64 ×1018 3/ 2 Si 2.35 ×1017 7.

166 0.477 235 Si 1.473 636 GaAs 1. 400 K.541 204 β (K) αT 2 E g (T ) = E g (0) − T +β Calculate the energy bandgap of Ge.519 0. 500 K and 600 K? . Si. GaAs at 300 K.7437 0.Ge Eg(0) eV α (meV/K) 0.

Temperature dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration .

Example: • A Si sample is doped with 1017 As atoms/cm3. . what is equilibrium hole concentration at 300 K? Where is the EF relative to Ei? Draw bandgap diagram.

o no net motion of group of n electrons/cm3 over any period of time .Transport of free carriers in semiconductors Drift Random motion of carriers in semiconductors with and without field o Thermal motion of an individual electron impurities. and defects) random scattering (lattice vibration. other electrons.

. What is the electron concentration at 300 K? What is the resistivity? • Find out the expression of minimum conductivity. • Calculate σmin for Si at 300 K and compare it with intrinsic conductivity.Problems: • Show that the minimum conductivity of a semiconductor sample occurs when n0 = ni µp µn • A Si sample is doped with 1017 Boron atoms/cm3.

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concentration gradient • Charge carriers in absence of electric field move toward region of low concentration • More nonuniform the concentration.Diffusion • Flow from region of high concentration to low concentration . the larger the current .

and the semiconductor has cross-section area A Dn: diffusion constant (cm2/s) Dn = 34 cm2/s (for electrons). Dp=12 cm2/s (for holes) Current density (electrons) Current density (holes) .n : carrier concentration at given point along x Concentration gradient If each carrier has charge q.

Determine the diffusion current. the total current density is • Consider a situation as shown in figure below.• With both electron and hole gradients present. Suppose the electron concentration is N at x=0 and falls linearly to zero at x=L. .

Ld is constant Make an analysis of both gradient profiles (linear and exponential) Exercise At what value of x does the current density drops to 1% of its maximum value? .

Now.diff = qnµn For holes: ε dn + qDN dx JP = JP.diff = qpµp And TOTAL current: ε dp – qDP dx .drift + JN.drift + JP. we can FINALLY write down the TOTAL current in a semiconductor: For electrons: JN = JN.

total current must always be zero Jdrift = -Jdiffusion J N = qnµ nε + qDN dn =0 dx Leads to the Einstein Relationship: D µ = kT q This is very. very important because it connects diffusivity with mobility. or open circuit conditions.Under equilibrium. which we already know how to look up .

• Biased pn junction can be used – Voltage variable capacitors – Photocells – Light emittters … .pn junction • Simplest semiconductor device • Flow of current freely when p region has external positive voltage (forward bias) • No current in reverse bias mode • This asymmetry in current flows makes pn junction diodes useful as rectifier.

Nd=5×1015 cm-3. Calculate the electron and hole concentrations on the two sides. p-type electrons holes n-type .What are we going to study . Na=1016 cm-3.. No external connections Terminals are open A pn junction employs following doping levels.

Evolution of junction with time t =0 - + + t =t1 ..Ein + + + + t =∞ Junction reaches equilibrium once the electric field is strong enough to stop diffusion .

Can you measure the built-in potential with a voltmeter? .

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