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CONTEXTUAL LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

Why do I have to You might have to


learn this lesson? use it in future.
The Average Child

I don’t cause teachers trouble,


my grades have been OK.
I listen in my classes
and I’m in school everyday.

My teachers think I’m average,


my parents think so too.
I wish I didn’t know that
‘cause there’s lots I’d like to do.

I’d like to build a rocket, I have


a book that tells you how,
or start a stamp collection-well
there’s no use in trying now.

‘Cause since I found I’m average


I’m just smart enough you see,
to know there is nothing special
that I should expect of me.

I’m part of the majority,


that hump part of the bell,
who spends their life unnoticed
in an average kind of hell.
Failure in helping the students to search the
linkage :
What are the
• between new information and current weaknesses of teaching
experiences & learning today?
• between school and outside world
• between one subject with another subject
• between previous knowledge and new
challenges, new challenges with future
responsibilities

• Management and administration burdens


on schools and teachers
• Examination orientation in education
What are the threats system
in building the • Pressure in covering the syllabus
linkage? • Worry that introduction on new element
in the class will increase the burden of
the teacher
• Too restricted to the behaviorist
teaching style which emphasis on
observed behaviour
What is Contextual Learning?

Contextual Learning is a learning method which combines


the content with the individual daily experiences, society
and career. This method is prepared with concrete
hands-on and minds-on learning activities.

Individual daily experience

Life of society

Schooling

Career
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Contextual Learning Theory

Current Knowledge

New Knowledge

Learning only happens when the students manage


to process the information or new knowledge
meaningfully in their mind.
Culture

Multiple
Contexts
Physical Social

Psychology

The learning will be more effective if the information is


delivered in multiple contexts and is meaningful to the
students.
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Classroom

Multiple Learning
Environment Laboratory

Working Area

Daily Life

Emphasis is needed on multiple learning


environment to produce effective learning.
For which targeted group of student the contextual
approach MOST suitable?

Type of student • Average group

• 13 –17 years old

Student’s • more towards on concept of application


characteristic
• fond of doing hands-on activities
• not confident studying M&S abstractly

• technical and vocational schools


Location
• daily schools
Contextual Approach through multiple
knowledge disciplines

Mathematics Science

Language ICT
Communication

Technical and vocational Humanity


Some pedagogy experts’ view on contextual learning approach

Students’ involvement in their schoolwork increases significantly when they are taught why they are learning the
concepts and how those concepts can be used outside the classroom. And most students learn much more
efficiently when they are allowed to work cooperatively with other students in groups or teams.
Dan Hull

A curriculum and teaching methodology tied to the child’s experiences and interests.
John Dewey

Learning as a complex process that cannot be addressed adequately through drill-oriented, stimulus/response
methodologies.
Howard Gardner

The mind seeks meaning through searching for relationships that make sense dan fit with past experiences.
Renate Numella Caine and Geoffrey Caine

Learning tasks that are situated in some meaningful real-world task, or are stimulated through some case-based
or problem-based learning environment.
Jonassen

Suasana pembelajaran yang melibatkan pelbagai pengalaman yang mungkin dalam konteks sosial, budaya,
fizikal dan psikologi.
D.A. Kolb
Why Contextual ?
Why contextual aproach is needed in
teaching & learning?

• Individual maintains the


information effectively through
his own experiences.

• Individuals • Contextual
have Learning
multiple considering the
learning style.
intelligence.

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Learning styles
Student

Advantage of
Teacher
Contextual
Learning to:

Industry
METHODS OF CONTEXTUAL
LEARNING
Belajar dalam konteks
Relating
R (Menghubungkait)
menghubungkaitkan
pengetahuan baru dengan
pengalaman hidup

E Experiencing
(Mengalami)
Belajar dalam konteks
penerokaan,
penemuan dan reka cipta

Belajar dalam konteks


A Applying
(Mengaplikasi)
bagaimana pengetahuan atau
informasi boleh digunakan
dalam situasi lain.

Belajar dalam konteks


C Cooperating
(Bekerjasama)
bekerjasama, memberi
maklum balas dan
berkomunikasi
Belajar dalam konteks
pengetahuan sedia ada
T Transfering dengan menggunakan atau
membina daripada apa
(Memindahkan)
yang telah diketahui
Relating (Menghubungkait)
Murid melakukan aktiviti mengutip sampah
di sekitar sekolah untuk menanam sikap
cintakan kebersihan. Menerusi pengalaman
ini murid dapat mengaitkan aktiviti yang
dilakukan oleh ibu bapa mereka semasa
membersihkan kawasan tempat tinggal
mereka setiap hari.

Experiencing (Mengalami)
Murid dibawa ke makmal untuk menyaksikan
demontrasi serta membuat latihan amali
menyambungkan wayar kepada plug 3 pin.
Pengalaman ini boleh digunakan di rumah
apabila berlakunya situasi di mana wayar plug 3
pin sterika tertanggal.
Applying (Mengaplikasi)
Murid mempelajari teori dan konsep tuas. Mereka dapat
mengaplikasikan pengetahuan ini apabila bertemu situasi
di mana sebuah kereta yang tayarnya pancit tidak
mempunyai jek. Dengan mengamalkan pengetahuan
yang ada, murid boleh menggunakan konsep tuas untuk
menggantikan jek kereta bagi membolehkan penukaran
tayar.
Cooperating (Bekerjasama)
Murid ditugaskan secara berkumpulan untuk
menyelesaikan masalah pencemaran alam
menerusi satu aktiviti yang memerlukan mereka
berbincang dan bekerjasama dengan ahli
kumpulan masing-masing . Hasil yang
diperolehi adalah lebih baik disebabkan mereka
menyelesaikan masalah secara bekerjasama.

Transfering (Memindahkan)
Murid mempelajari cara untuk mendapatkan sudut
tegak dengan menggunakan Teorem Pythagoras.
Murid boleh memindahkan pengetahuan bahawa
segitiga bersisi 3m, 4m dan 5m akan menghasilkan
30 sudut tegak dalam aktiviti mengecat garisan
gelanggang permainan.
How to implement ?

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How to implement the contextual
teaching and learning?

MOTIVATION
 Introduction
 Discussion on
issues
 T & L Aids UNDERSTANDING
 Explanation on
concept and
classroom APPLICATION
discussion SKILL

 Reading  Hands-On

 Research activities
TURNING BACK
 Problem AND ASSESSMENT
solving
Reminding the
main facts
 Assessment on
progress
Things to be considered
in implementing
the effective
Contextual Learning

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Students’ Teachers’ Support from the Support from the
Learning Teaching School Society
Administration

The main aim of contextual learning is to produce qualified


students. To proceed it, all members involved have to agree
with what is needed to be studied and agree about its
learning strategies. Beside that, supports from the society
might provide the encouragement and sources to help the
students and teachers to make the conducive teaching and
learning becomes reality.
CONTEXTUAL TEACHING
AND LEARNING

“ I knew Applied Math wouldn’t be easy for me. Math never is. I’m
learning how to comprehend problems and think through instead of just
doing the mechanics of math. I like being able to have a group or
partner.”
(Komen seorang murid selepas satu semester kelas Matematik Gunaan
secara kontekstual di Portage High School, Amerika Syarikat).

Thus, contextual approach is …..


Still the SAME
Mathematics, History, Music, Science …
BUT …
taught and learned DIFFERENTLY
THANK YOU