CONTEXTUAL LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

Why do I have to learn this lesson?

You might have to use it in future.

The Average Child
I don’t cause teachers trouble, my grades have been OK. I listen in my classes and I’m in school everyday. My teachers think I’m average, my parents think so too. I wish I didn’t know that ‘cause there’s lots I’d like to do. I’d like to build a rocket, I have a book that tells you how, or start a stamp collection-well there’s no use in trying now. ‘Cause since I found I’m average I’m just smart enough you see, to know there is nothing special that I should expect of me. I’m part of the majority, that hump part of the bell, who spends their life unnoticed in an average kind of hell.

Failure in helping the students to search the linkage : • between new information and current experiences • • • between school and outside world between one subject with another subject between previous knowledge and new challenges, new challenges with future responsibilities

What are the weaknesses of teaching & learning today?

• •

Management and administration burdens on schools and teachers Examination orientation in education system Pressure in covering the syllabus Worry that introduction on new element in the class will increase the burden of the teacher Too restricted to the behaviorist teaching style which emphasis on observed behaviour

What are the threats in building the linkage?

• •

What is Contextual Learning? Contextual Learning is a learning method which combines the content with the individual daily experiences, society and career. This method is prepared with concrete hands-on and minds-on learning activities.
Individual daily experience

Life of society Schooling

Career

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Contextual Learning Theory

Current Knowledge

New Knowledge

Learning only happens when the students manage to process the information or new knowledge meaningfully in their mind.

Culture

Multiple Contexts Physical Social

Psychology

The learning will be more effective if the information is delivered in multiple contexts and is meaningful to the students.
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Classroom

Multiple Learning Environment

Laboratory

Working Area

Daily Life

Emphasis is needed on multiple learning environment to produce effective learning.

For which targeted group of student the contextual approach MOST suitable?

Type of student

Average group

• 13 –17 years old
Student’s characteristic

• more towards on concept of application • fond of doing hands-on activities • not confident studying M&S abstractly

Location

technical and vocational schools

• daily schools

Contextual Approach through multiple knowledge disciplines

Mathematics

Science

Language

ICT

Communication

Technical and vocational

Humanity

Some pedagogy experts’ view on contextual learning approach
Students’ involvement in their schoolwork increases significantly when they are taught why they are learning the concepts and how those concepts can be used outside the classroom. And most students learn much more efficiently when they are allowed to work cooperatively with other students in groups or teams. Dan Hull

A curriculum and teaching methodology tied to the child’s experiences and interests. John Dewey

Learning as a complex process that cannot be addressed adequately through drill-oriented, stimulus/response methodologies. Howard Gardner The mind seeks meaning through searching for relationships that make sense dan fit with past experiences. Renate Numella Caine and Geoffrey Caine

Learning tasks that are situated in some meaningful real-world task, or are stimulated through some case-based or problem-based learning environment. Jonassen

Suasana pembelajaran yang melibatkan pelbagai pengalaman yang mungkin dalam konteks sosial, budaya, fizikal dan psikologi. D.A. Kolb

Why Contextual ?

Why contextual aproach is needed in teaching & learning?

Individual maintains the information effectively through his own experiences.

Individuals have multiple intelligence.

• Contextual Learning considering the learning style.

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Learning styles

Student

Advantage of Contextual Learning to:

Teacher

Industry

METHODS OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING

R E A C T

Relating
(Menghubungkait)

Belajar dalam konteks menghubungkaitkan pengetahuan baru dengan pengalaman hidup Belajar dalam konteks penerokaan, penemuan dan reka cipta Belajar dalam konteks bagaimana pengetahuan atau informasi boleh digunakan dalam situasi lain. Belajar dalam konteks bekerjasama, memberi maklum balas dan berkomunikasi Belajar dalam konteks pengetahuan sedia ada dengan menggunakan atau membina daripada apa yang telah diketahui

Experiencing
(Mengalami)

Applying
(Mengaplikasi)

Cooperating
(Bekerjasama)

Transfering
(Memindahkan)

Relating (Menghubungkait)
Murid melakukan aktiviti mengutip sampah di sekitar sekolah untuk menanam sikap cintakan kebersihan. Menerusi pengalaman ini murid dapat mengaitkan aktiviti yang dilakukan oleh ibu bapa mereka semasa membersihkan kawasan tempat tinggal mereka setiap hari.

Experiencing (Mengalami)
Murid dibawa ke makmal untuk menyaksikan demontrasi serta membuat latihan amali menyambungkan wayar kepada plug 3 pin. Pengalaman ini boleh digunakan di rumah apabila berlakunya situasi di mana wayar plug 3 pin sterika tertanggal.

Applying (Mengaplikasi)
Murid mempelajari teori dan konsep tuas. Mereka dapat mengaplikasikan pengetahuan ini apabila bertemu situasi di mana sebuah kereta yang tayarnya pancit tidak mempunyai jek. Dengan mengamalkan pengetahuan yang ada, murid boleh menggunakan konsep tuas untuk menggantikan jek kereta bagi membolehkan penukaran tayar.

Cooperating (Bekerjasama)
Murid ditugaskan secara berkumpulan untuk menyelesaikan masalah pencemaran alam menerusi satu aktiviti yang memerlukan mereka berbincang dan bekerjasama dengan ahli kumpulan masing-masing . Hasil yang diperolehi adalah lebih baik disebabkan mereka menyelesaikan masalah secara bekerjasama.

Transfering (Memindahkan)
Murid mempelajari cara untuk mendapatkan sudut tegak dengan menggunakan Teorem Pythagoras. Murid boleh memindahkan pengetahuan bahawa segitiga bersisi 3m, 4m dan 5m akan menghasilkan sudut tegak dalam aktiviti mengecat garisan gelanggang permainan.

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How to implement ?

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How to implement the contextual teaching and learning?
MOTIVATION

Introduction Discussion on issues T & L Aids

UNDERSTANDING

Explanation on concept and classroom discussion Reading Research

APPLICATION SKILL

Hands-On activities Problem solving

TURNING BACK AND ASSESSMENT

Reminding the main facts Assessment on progress

Things to be considered in implementing the effective Contextual Learning

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Students’ Learning

Teachers’ Teaching

Support from the School Administration

Support from the Society

The main aim of contextual learning is to produce qualified students. To proceed it, all members involved have to agree with what is needed to be studied and agree about its learning strategies. Beside that, supports from the society might provide the encouragement and sources to help the students and teachers to make the conducive teaching and learning becomes reality.

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

“ I knew Applied Math wouldn’t be easy for me. Math never is. I’m learning how to comprehend problems and think through instead of just doing the mechanics of math. I like being able to have a group or partner.” (Komen seorang murid selepas satu semester kelas Matematik Gunaan secara kontekstual di Portage High School, Amerika Syarikat).

Thus, contextual approach is …..
Still the SAME Mathematics, History, Music, Science … BUT … taught and learned DIFFERENTLY

THANK YOU

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