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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

KOSM 2006

FORM 5
BIOLOGY

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BIOLOGY FORM 5

OVERVIEW OF THE

CURRICULUM
SPECIFICATIONS

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
AIMS
To provide students with the knowledge
& skills in S&T and enable them to
solve problems and make decisions in
everyday life based on scientific
attitudes and noble values,
AND
To develop a concerned, dynamic and
progressive society with a S&T culture
that values nature and works towards
the preservation and conservation of the
environment.
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
OBJECTIVES
1. Acquire knowledge in S&T in the context of
natural phenomena and everyday life
experiences.
2. Understand developments in the field of
Science & Technology.
3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.
4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and
critical manner for problem solving and
decision making.
5. Face challenges in the scientific and
technological world and be willing to contribute
towards the development of S&T.
6. Evaluate S&T- related information wisely and
effectively.
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OBJECTIVES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and


good moral values.
8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence
among living things and the management of
nature for survival of mankind.
9. Appreciate the contributions of S&T towards
national development and the well-being of
mankind.
10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result
of human endeavour to the best of his or her
intellectual and mental capabilities to
understand natural phenomena for the
betterment of mankind.
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Objectives
11. Create awareness on the need to love and
care for the environment and play an
active role in its preservation and
conservation.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Emphasis Of The Curriculum

The curriculum emphasises the


integration of knowledge, skills
and values through inquiry-
discovery and problem solving.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Emphasis Of The Curriculum

Learning through
experiences
Students are encouraged to
find information, to question
and to investigate

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Emphasis Of The Curriculum
Learning through
discovery
Students are encouraged to
investigate and discover the main
concepts and principles of science
by themselves

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Emphasis Of The Curriculum
Learning through
problem solving
Students define problem and
analyse the problem to identify
possible solutions. Students select
the most viable solution,
implement and evaluate its
effectiveness
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ELEMENTS IN THE CURRICULUM
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

 Knowledge
 Thinking Skills
 Scientific Skills
 Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Knowledge

Principles
Theories
Concepts
Laws
Facts

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
THINKING SKILLS
… acquiring the tools to utilise knowledge and solve
problems
Critical Thinking - the ability to evaluate an idea
Creative Thinking - generate and produce ideas
Reasoning - used in making logical, just and rational
judgements

Thinking Strategy

Creative Skills Critical Skills

Conceptualise, Make Decision, Solve Problems


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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Thinking Skills
THINKING SKILLS
CRITICAL CREATIVE
 Attributing  Generating ideas
 Comparing &  Relating
Contrasting  Making inferences
 Grouping &  Predicting
Classifying  Making hypotheses
REASONING
 Sequencing  Synthesising
 Prioritising  Making
 Analysing generalisations
 Detecting bias  Visualising
 Evaluating  Making analogies
 Making conclusions  Inventing
THINKING STRATEGIES
*Conceptualising *Making decisions *Problem solving14
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

 Science emphasises inquiry and problem


solving processes.
 Scientific skills and thinking skills are
utilised.
 Scientific skills are important in any
scientific investigation.
 Examples of scientific investigation such
as conducting experiments and carrying
out projects.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
Science process skills enable students to
formulate their questions and find out the
answers systematically.

Basic Science Integrated Science


Process Skills Process Skills

• Observing • Using Space-Time Relationship


• Classifying • Interpreting Data
• Measuring and Using • Defining Operationally
Numbers • Controlling Variables
• Inferring • Hypothesising
• Predicting • Experimenting
• Communicating 16
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS

Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are


psychomotor skills that enable students to:
• use and handle science apparatus and
laboratory substances correctly,
• handle specimens correctly and carefully,
• draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory
substances accurately,
• clean science apparatus correctly,
• store science apparatus and laboratory
substances correctly and safely.

Focusing on techniques of operation and aspects of


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safety
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
NOBLE VALUES
• Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment.
• Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data.
• Being diligent and persevering.
• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and
the environment.
• Realising that science is a means to understand nature.
• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living.
• Appreciating the balance of nature.
• Being respectful and well-mannered.
• Being thankful to God.
• Thinking rationally.
• Being confident and independent. 18
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA NOBLE VALUES

Noble values and scientific attitudes can be


inculcated through the learning of science.
Through science activities students will develop
an interest and curiosity about their
surroundings. They will learn to be objective and
systematic in carrying out investigations.
Students also learn to be honest and accurate in
recording and validating data. They develop
concern for living things and an awareness of
their responsibility towards the environment.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
INCULCATING PATRIOTISM
Provides an opportunity for the
development and strengthening of
patriotism among students when they
learn about:
the earth’s resources,
the richness and variety of living things,
the development of S&T.
Students will appreciate the diversity of
natural and human resources of the
country and deepen their love for the
country.
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CONCLUSION
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

The Biology Curriculum has been


designed not only to provide
opportunities for students to acquire
science knowledge and skills, develop
thinking skills and thinking strategies, and
to apply this knowledge and skills in
everyday life, but also to inculcate in them
noble values and the spirit of patriotism.
The content and context suggested are
chosen based on their relevance and
appeal to students so that their interest in
the subject is enhanced 21
T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

The Biology Curriculum aims at producing


active learners.
Students are given ample opportunities to
engage in scientific investigations through
hands--on activities and experimentations.
hands
The inquiry approach, incorporating
thinking skills, thinking strategies and
thoughtful learning should be emphasised
throughout the teaching-
teaching-learning process.
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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Integrate :
Content and Pedagogy in an interesting,
understandable and meaningful way.

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Learning activities should be planned in a


holistic and integrated manner that enables the
achievement of multiple learning outcomes
according to needs and context.

Teachers should avoid employing a teaching


strategy that tries to achieve each learning
outcome separately according to the order
stated in the curriculum specifications.

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Emphasise :

 Acquisition and application of knowledge.


 Mastering the thinking skills and scientific
skills.
 Inculcation of scientific attitudes and
noble values.

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Filled with Activities:


Hands – on, Minds – on, Hearts
Hearts--on
Interesting, challenging and meaningful …

to encourage students to carry out


investigations and explorations in a systematic
and fun way

You can tell students what they need to know


very fast. But they will forget what you tell them
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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Based on ‘hands-
‘hands-on and minds-
minds-on
experience”
I listen……..….I forget

I Look………….I remember

I DO………….. I UNDERSTAND

Hands-on experience creates excitement and


interest.
Students learn best by doing. 27
T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

FOCUS

Thoughtful learning and


Optimise learning outcomes

(to deepen learning and retention)

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Thoughtful Learning
A process that helps students acquire
knowledge and master skills that will
help them develop their minds to the
optimum level

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Optimise Learning Outcomes

Use technology as one of the means.


Invite experts to give talks.
Visits and use external resources.
Do Projects.

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Various Teaching and Learning


Approaches

Inquiry and Discovery


Constructivism
Contextual learning
Mastery Learning
Science, Technology and Society.

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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Various Teaching and Learning


Methods :
Experiments
Discussions
Simulations
Projects
Visits & Use Of External Resources
Use of Technology
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T & L STRATEGIES
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Changes in culture
1. Reduce teacher’s talking – from 80-90% to
20-30%, do more practical works or activities.
2. Use a lot of graphics in presentation.
3. From teacher and student-centred to
learning-centred (activity-based).
4. Use examples/applications which are relevant
to students knowledge and experiences.
5. Support verbal statements with
actions/writing.
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ASSESSMENT
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

“Teachers like to teach,


they rarely like to assess”

Teachers who can assess well


will be better teachers

Effective assessment will


enhance a teacher’s
instructional effectiveness
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
ASSESSMENT

To determine a student’s status


with respect to the knowledge,
skills or attitudes and values
that the teacher attempts to
promote

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
ASSESSMENT

Why Assessment?

• To diagnose students’ strengths and


weaknesses

• To monitor students’ progress

• To determine instructional effectiveness

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
ASSESSMENT
Continuous assessment through
observation and questions
Teachers may observe students during
activities to assess students understanding
as well as the development of skills and
noble values.

Students’ work products such as folios,


models, scrap books and presentations can
also be used as indicators.

Teachers may also question individual 37


students to assess their understanding.
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
ASSESSMENT

Answers: What, How, Why, and When

Do the students know:


• what they have to do,
• how to do,
• why they are doing it, and
• when they have done it?
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Content Organisation
THEME: PHYSIOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS
LEARNING AREA: 4.0 REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH
Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Objectives Activities
4.3 Use diagram and A student is able to:
Understanding computer simulations to  describe what
the early discuss the following: fertilisation is, fertilisation
development a) the formation of  describe in simple
zygote, Only a – persenyawaan
of a zygote in terms the early simple
humans b) the early development of a
development of a account
zygote, is
zygote as the
 name the two main required.
formation of a ball
of cells which stages in the
becomes development of a identical twins
implanted in the zygote in – kembar seiras
wall of the uterus, preparation for
c) identify morula and implantation,
fraternal twins
blastocyst from the  describe the

formation of twins, – kembar tak


diagrams given,
d) formation of  compare identical
seiras
identical twins, twins with fraternal
fraternal twins and twins, implantation
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Siamese twins. – penempelan
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Content Organisation
Theme
Learning Area
Learning Objectives
Suggested Learning Activities
Learning Outcomes
Notes
Vocabulary

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Theme and Learning Area

Each theme consists of various


learning areas.

In Form 5 Biology Curriculum:


2 themes, and
6 learning areas.

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Theme and Learning Area
Theme: Physiology of Living Things
Learning Areas: 1.Transport,
2. Locomotion and Support,
3. Coordination and Response,
4. Reproduction and Growth.

Theme: Variation and Inheritance


Learning Areas: 1. Inheritance,
2. Variation.

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Objectives

Learning objectives (LO) are specific


statements of the learning outcomes
that students are expected to achieve

Learning objectives define the specific


skills, the key concepts and ideas, or
the specific facts that the student must
learn
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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Objectives
WORDS/PHRASES USED IN THE LEARNING
OBJECTIVES – BASED ON LEVELS IN THE
COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE DOMAINS

COGNITIVE DOMAINS AFFECTIVE DOMAINS

Knowledge to be aware of
Understanding to realise
Application to be appreciative
Analysis to be thankful
Synthesis to love
Evaluation to practise
to internalise
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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Objectives

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Outcomes
LEARNING OUTCOMES (LOC)
are written …
• based on the hierarchy of the
cognitive and affective domains,
• in the form of measurable behavioural
terms, and organised in order of
complexity.

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Outcomes
BEHAVIORAL TERMS USED IN THE
LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Explain Illustrate
Identify Make generalisation
Describe Construct
State Give suggestions
Compare and Contrast Classify
Relate Make conclusions
Predict Determine
Deduce Justify

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Learning Outcomes
AFFECTIVE DOMAINS: SCIENTIFIC
ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES

Learning outcomes related to the affective


domain are explicitly stated where possible.

The inculcation of relevant scientific attitudes


and noble values should be integrated into
every learning activity.

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Suggested Learning Activities
SUGGESTED LEARNING ACTIVITIES (SLA)
provide …
 information on the scope and depth of
learning outcomes,
 some guidance as to how learning
outcomes can be achieved.

Teachers may modify the suggested activities to suit


their students’ abilities and styles of learning.
Teachers are encouraged to design and use other
innovative and effective learning activities.
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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Suggested Learning Activities
WORDS AND PHRASES USED IN THE
SUGGESTED LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Carry out activities Draw and label
Investigate Play games
Examine Simulate
Construct Invite
Observe Make presentations
View Gather information
Discuss Search the Internet
Exhibit Compile materials
Read and interpret Visit
Debate Prepare folio or scrap book
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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Notes

NOTES

 Give suggestions on materials used


for activities
 Precautions to be taken when carrying
out activities
 Explanations of difficult technical terms
 To clarify further the scope of the
content

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Content Organisation:
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Vocabulary

VOCABULARY
Scientific vocabulary, terminology,
conventions (including symbols, quantities and
units) mentioned in the respective SLA and
Learning Outcomes

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CURRICULUM SPECIFICATIONS
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

There are some differences as


compared to the “semakan
semula” version.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

The End

Thank you

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WORKSHOP
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Study the CS for Biology Form 5.


In groups (9 groups):
1. For each learning area :
 Map out the content into concept maps.
 Suggest suitable teaching strategies.
 Develop questions.
 Suggest suitable activities that can be
included in a teaching courseware.

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PRESENTATION
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Group No. Learning Area

1 Transport

2 Locomotion and Support

3 Coordination and Response

4 Reproduction and Growth (LO 1 – 4)

5 Reproduction and Growth (LO 5 – 8)

6 Inheritance

7 Variation

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map

 A concept map is a special form of a


web diagram for exploring knowledge
and gathering and sharing information.

 Concept mapping is the strategy


employed to develop a concept map.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map

 A concept map consists of nodes or cells that


contain a concept, item or question and links.

 The links are labeled and denote direction


with an arrow symbol. The labeled links
explain the relationship between the nodes.

 The arrow describes the direction of the


relationship and reads like a sentence.

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map
Uses:
 Develop an understanding of a body of
knowledge.
 Explore new information and relationships.

 Access prior knowledge.

 Gather new knowledge and information.

 Share knowledge and information generated.

 Design structures or processes such as written

documents, constructions, web sites, web


search, multimedia presentations.
 Problem solving options. 59
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map

Critical Questions:

 What is the central word, concept, research


question or problem around which to build
the map?

 What are the concepts, items, descriptive


words or telling questions that you can
associate with the concept, topic, research
question or problem?

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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map
Suggestions:

 Use a top down approach, working from general


to specific or use a free association approach by
brainstorming nodes and then develop links and
relationships.
 Use different colors and shapes for nodes &
links to identify different types of information.
 Use different coloured nodes to identify prior
and new information.
 Use a cloud node to identify a question.
 Gather information to a question in the question
node.
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KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Concept Map: an example
1.5 DEFENCE MECHANISM
through

external environment internal environment


as involving circular system
2nd line 3rd line
1st line such as
e.g. immunity immunisation
phogocytosis gives
skin, type
by
mucus,
passive active
tears. white blood cells
known as known as

natural artificial natural artificial


e.g. e.g. e.g.
breast serum vaccination
feeding injection 62
form of
Glossary of Terms Used In
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Curriculum Document
1. Define
only a formal statement or
equivalent paraphrase being
required
2. State
implies a concise answer with little
or no supporting argument
3. List
requires a number of points,
generally each of one word, with no
elaboration 63
Glossary of Terms Used In
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Curriculum Document

4. Explain
may imply reasoning or some reference in
theory, depending on the context
5. Describe
state in words (using diagrams where
appropriate) the main points of the topic.
It is often used with reference either to
particular phenomena of particular
experiments. It should include reference
to observations associated with the
phenomena.
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Glossary of Terms Used In
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Curriculum Document
6. Discuss
to give a critical account of the points
involved in the topic.
7. Predict
making a forecast about what will happen
in the future based on prior knowledge
gained through experiences or collected
data.
8. Deduce
produce the required answer not by recall
but by making a logical connection between
other pieces of information. 65
Glossary of Terms Used In
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Curriculum Document

9. Suggest
used in two main context, i.e. either to
imply that there is no unique answer or to
imply applying general knowledge to a
‘novel’ situation.
10. Calculate
used when numerical answer is required.
11. Measure
implies that quantity concerned can be
directly obtained from a suitable measuring
instrument.
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Glossary of Terms Used In
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
Curriculum Document

12. Experimenting
planning and conducting activities to test
a hypothesis. These activities include
collecting, analysing and interpreting
data.

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