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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Standard Competency
Analyzes the nature phenomenon and its regularity within the scope of particles Mechanics

Base Competency

Analyzes the relation between impulse and momentum concepts to solve the collision problems

Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, all students should be able to: 1 2 3 Formulates the concept of impulse and momentum and their relationship and their applications in daily life Formulate the conservative law of momentum for a system without external forces Integrates the conservative law of energy and the conservative law of momentum for several collision problems

[1] John D Cutnell dan Kenneth W. Johnson (2002). Physics 5th Ed with Compliments. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. [2] Sunardi dan Etsa Indra Irawan (2007). Fisika Bilingual SMA/MA untuk SMA/MA Kelas XI. CV Yrama Widya hal. 255-298

References

IMPULSE
Impulse is a force acting on an object that is not constant but varies with time. In a short, impulse = time-varying force. Definition of impulse: The impulse of a force is the product of the average force and time interval during which the force acts I = F t SI unit of impulse is newton.second (Ns). Impulse could be describe graphically as an area under the F-t curve
F (N)

I
t (s)

MOMENTUM (Linier Momentum)


Newtons observation on OBJECT MOTION IN NATURE revealed that all the object has mass. While moving, some are fast and some are slow

m, v
m, v

Momentum describes how fast or how slow an objects moving is. This is normally applies to an object that moves in a straight line. Thats why it is refer as linier momentum.

Definition of momentum: The linier momentum of the object is the product of the objects mass and its velocity p=mv

If two momentums are configured an angle , then p1 p

p2
2 2 p1 + p1 + 2 p1 p2 cos

p=

Exercises [1] What is the momentum of a 22 grams bird when flying at the speed of 8.1 m/s? [2] A 12500 kilograms of loco train is moving smoothly without any frictions at 18.0 m/s. What is the locos momentum? [3] A bullet of mass of 21.0 grams was fired and crash out at speed of 210 m/s. Determine its momentum! [4] A car (m = 1600 kg) moves to the left with velocity of 10 m/s. Determine the momentum of the car

THE IMPULSE-MOMENTUM CHANGE THEOREM


How impulse and momentum are related, is shown in mathematical description below. momentum: Impulse: Newton II Law: p=mv I = F t F = m a ; a = v/t

F = m v/t F t = m v I = p This is very popular equation and is refer as The ImpulseMomentum Change Theorem.

The greatest change in velocity will occur when the impulse is the greates By increasing the amount of force and the amount of time the force applied, the greatest change in velocity can be achieved

Example A man is washing his car using using nozzle which has water debit 1.5 kg/s and sprays the water at speed of 20 m/s. Determine force that delivered by water to the cars body.

Solution In every second, water delivered from the nozzle has a momentum of px = m vx = (1,5 kg)(20 m/s) = 30 kg.m/s If the force of water when strikes the cars body is constant,

F=

p pakhir pawal 0 30 kg.m/s = = = 30 N 1,0 s t t

Change In Momentum
Consider the two objects (a teddy bear doll and a ball) which are dropped in a same height and time. The teddy bear will not bounced contrary to the ball.

Change in momentum: p = pafter pbefore Teddy Bear: p = 0 (mv) = mv (apparently not bounces)

Bouncing Ball: p = mv (mv) = 2mv

To stop such an object, it is necessary to apply a force against its motion for a given period of time

MOMENTUM AND NEWTONS II LAW


Newtons II Law in term of calculus differential

r r r v F = ma = m t r (mv ) = t r p = t

According to Newton, force is the rate of

change of momentum

Applying force could change how fast or how slow the objects motion. This equation is only valid for objects that have constant mass. Here is a more general form in terms of momentum, also useful when the mass is changing:

APPLICATION OF IMPULSE IN DAILY LIFE


[1] When a force is limited: Apply a force for a long time
Follow through on a golf or a softball swing

Pushing a car

[2] Minimize the force: increase t

Catching a ball

bungee jumping

[3] Maximize momentum change: apply a force for a short time

karate

pinalty kick

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM


The momentum of any closed, isolated system DOES NOT CHANGE. When there is a collision between two objects, Newton's Third Law states that the force on one of the bodies is equal and opposite to the force on the other body. Total momentum before an event (p) is equal to total momentum after the event (p) p1 + p2 = p1 + p2 m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2

Exercises [1] Calculate the revolving distance of a rifle (m = 5 kg) while fires a bullet 50 gr at the speed of 120 m/s. [2] A log wood (length = 40 cm) that stand perpendicular to the ground being dropped by a hammer (m = 10 kg) at 50 cm above the top of the wood. If the average force resitance of the ground is 1000 N, determine the number needed for hammer in order the wood is buried [3] Ball A with momentum p moves in straight line and collides ball B which is moves on the same line. After the collision, momentum of ball A become 3p. Determines the change in momentum of ball B. [4] A car (m = 500 kg) moves with velocity 40 m/s. A truck moves with velocity 10 m/s heading to the car. Estimate the mass of the truck if the both have collision and move together at the velocity of 15.5 m/s. [5] A rain drop comes straight down with a velocity of vo = 15 m/s and hits the roof of the car perpendiculary. The mass of the rain per second that strikes the car roof is 0.060 kg/s. Assuming that the rain comes to rest upon striking the car (vt = 0 m/s), find the average force exerted by the rain on the roof

[6] The compressive force per area necessary to break the tibia in the lower leg, is about F/A = 1.6 10 N.m2 . The smallest cross sectional area of the tibia, about 3.2 cm, is slightly above the ankle. Suppose a person of mass m = 60 kg jumps to the ground from a height h = 2.0 m and absorbs the shock of hitting the ground by bending the knees. Assume that there is constant deceleration during the collision. During the collision, the person lowers his center of mass by an amount d = 1 cm.

a) What is the collision time tcol? b) Find the average force of the ground on the person during the collision. c) What is the average impulse of the ground on the person? d) Will the person break his ankle? How much would you need to lower your center of mass so you do not break your ankle? [7] A rocket can expel 200 kg of mass per second at a velocity of 4000 m/s. If the launce of the rocket requires an acceleration of 2.0 m/s, what is the greatest mass the rocket may be at the time of launch? (assume net mass of rocket is constant) [8] A 0.04 kg bullet is fired at a velocity of 1200 m/s from a 6 kg gun. What is the recoild velocity of the gun [9] A neutron (mass = 1.67 x 1027 kg (collides with a "resting" helium atom (mass = 6.64 x 1027 kg) at a velocity of 2 x 106 m/s. The final velocity of the neutron is 1.8 x 106 m/s. What is the velocity of the helium atom, assuming the collision is in one dimension?

COLLISION
Collision is likely to mean some sort of automotive disaster (crash accident). In Physics, collision is any strong interaction between bodies that lasts a relative short time. Types of Collisions [1] Elastic Collision:
head on collison

[2] Inelastic Collision

[1] Elastic Collision:


target at rest

Two Laws of Conservation which are involve in collision, i.e,: - Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy - Law of Conservation of Momentum It end up with equation of restitution coefficient

e=

v vB A v A vB

Proofing Law of conservation of momentum

pA + pB = p + pB A mA v A + mB v B = mA v + mB v B A mA v A mA v = mB v B mB v B A mA (v A v ) = mB (v B v B ) A
Law of conservation of energy

K (1)

Ek A + EkB = Ek + EkB A
1 2

mA v 2 + A

2 mB v B =

2 mA v + A

2 mB v B K (2)

2 2 mA (v 2 v ) = mB (v B v B ) A A mA (v A + v )(v A v ) = mB (v B + v B )(v B v B ) A A

mA (v A v ) = mB (v B v B ) (2) A = (1) mA (v A + v )(v A v ) = mB (v B + v B )(v B v B ) A A v A + v = vB + vB A v v B = (v A v B ) A

(v v B ) A =1 (v A v B )

Prove that e =

h2 h1
h1 h2

Exercises [1] A ball is dropped from height of 15 m above the ground, then bounced back as height as 0.9 m. Calculate the coefficient of restitution between ball and the ground [2] An object drops from the height of 9 m and bounces in 1 m. Calculate (a) coefficient of restitution, (b) height after third bounce [3] A 5 grams bullet fired and get in through a wood log (m = 495 grams) which is hangin in balistic pendulum. The log and the bullet are then swing at 5 cm height from its stationer position. If g = 10 m/s2, determine the velocity of the bullet. [4] A ball is hit by a force of 100 N and makes it flew 200 m/s. The stick hit the ball within 0,2 seconds. Determine the mass of the ball [5] Two objects of similar masses moves in velocity of 10 m/s and 20 m/s each. The both are heading and exert a complete elastic collision. Determine the final velocity of each object after collision [6] A massive cube (m = 4.9 kg) is on a smooth plane hit by a bullet
[7] An object with mass m1 is initially moving with a velocity v = 3.0 m/s and collides elastically with another object of equal mass m2 = m1 that is initially at rest. After the collision m1 moves with an unknown speed vf1 at an angle = 30o with respect to its initial direction of motion. After the collision, m2 moves with unknown speed vf2 , at an unknown angle f (see sketch). Find the final velocities of each of the masses and the angle f.