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INSTRUCTION : Answer FIVE (5) Questions Only.

QUESTION 1 (i). What are collision domains and how do they affect network traffic? (4 marks) (ii). What are broadcast domains? What is the impact of a large broadcast domain on the network? (4 marks) What devices are used to break up collision domains? (4 marks) (iv). What devices are used to break up broadcast domains? (4 marks) (v). In the following diagrams, identify the number of collision domains and broadcast domains. a)

(iii).

b)

(4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

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QUESTION 2

(i).

Name and describe three (3) switching modes (4 marks)

(ii).

The address 172.16.208.16 /20 is a host address. What subnet address does this IP belong to? (4 marks) Describe how switches learn MAC Addresses. (4 marks)

(iii).

(iv).

Differentiate between Intranet VPN and Extranet VPN? (4 marks)

(v).

You have a network as shown in the following diagram. Why cant the host talk to remote networks over the Internet?

(4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

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QUESTION 3

(i).

What is a routing metric? (4 marks)

(ii).

What are the most common routing metrics used in routing algorithm? (4 marks)

(iii).

Distinguish between a routed protocol and a routing protocol. (4 marks)

(iv).

How do routing protocols maintain their routing tables with each other? (4 marks)

(v).

What is an autonomous system (AS)? (4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

QUESTION 4

(i).

What are LAN standards? (4 marks)

(ii).

What do Ethernet and IEEE802.3 standards define? List three Ethernet protocol standards that define the transmission medium & access. (4 marks) Describe Fast Ethernet standard and briefly explain each of the four different Fast Ethernet specifications (4 marks) Explain as to how Ethernet using CSMA/CD algorithm works? (4 marks)

(iii).

(iv).

(v).

What is Gigabit Ethernet? (4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

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QUESTION 5

(i).

List five (5) key reasons why ISO created OSI reference model? (4 marks)

(ii).

The OSI reference model contains seven layers. What are they? Include the layer number and the name of each layer in your answer. (4 marks) What does the application layer (Layer 7) of the OSI model do? Give some examples of this layer. (4 marks) What does the presentation layer (Layer 6) of the OSI model do? Give some examples of this layer. (4 marks) How do the different layers of the OSI model communicate with each other and define data encapsulation? (4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

(iii).

(iv).

(v).

QUESTION 6

(i).

Define what communication protocol is. (4 marks)

(ii).

Differentiate between TCP and UDP. (4 marks)

(iii).

Describe TCP and UDP port numbers? What are the TCP port numbers to the following applications namely HTTP, FTP, SMTP and Telnet? (4 marks)

(iv).

What is a socket? (4 marks)

(v).

Differentiate between BOOTP and DHCP. (4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

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QUESTION 7

(i).

What is a DOS (denial-of-service) attack and how to reduce it? (4 marks)

(ii).

Describe the function of file encryption. (4 marks)

(iii).

What is the security protocol that operates at the application layer? What was it originally developed for? (4 marks) What are private and public encryption keys? (Give some analogies to illustrate the concept of public/private key in your answer.) (4 marks) With the aid of the diagram below, explain the operation of a public/private key encryption security method.

(iv).

(v).

(4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS] QUESTION 8

(i).

What is the binary number 11010011 in Hexadecimal? (4 marks)

(ii).

You borrow 5 bits for subnetting and you are left with 3 bits for hosts. How many valid subnets you could have and what is the number of hosts can be assigned for each subnet, a valid IP address. (4 marks)

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(iii).

What is the range of valid host addresses for subnet 172.16.1.64 / 26? (4 marks)

(iv).

A small company has a class C network license and needs to create five usable subnets, each subnet capable of accommodating at least 20 hosts. Calculate the appropriate subnet mask. (4 marks)

(v).

Your Internet service provider gives you the IP network address 172.15.0.0/16. You have 18 sub-networks, each with 1200 hosts. You want to assign one IP range per network, leaving room for future growth. What subnet mask would best achieve your goals? (4 marks) [TOTAL : 20 MARKS]

QUESTION PAPER ENDS HERE

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS used in the EXAM PAPER

AS BOOTP CSMA/CD DOS FTP HTTP ISO ISP IP IEEE LAN OSI SMTP SSL TELNET TCP MAC UDP VPN

Autonomous System Bootstrap Protocol Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collisions Detection Denial of Service File Transfer Protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol International Standard Organization Internet Service Provider Internet Protocol Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers Local Area Network Open Systems Interconnection Simple Mail Transport Protocol Secure Socket Layer Terminal and Log In emulation protocol Transmission Control Protocol Medium Access Control User Datagram Protocol Virtual Private Network

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