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INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION OFOF HIGHERHIGHER AXLEAXLE LOADSLOADS ONON INDIANINDIAN RAILWAYSRAILWAYS

OF OF HIGHER HIGHER AXLE AXLE LOADS LOADS ON ON INDIAN INDIAN RAILWAYS RAILWAYS Shiv Kumar
OF OF HIGHER HIGHER AXLE AXLE LOADS LOADS ON ON INDIAN INDIAN RAILWAYS RAILWAYS Shiv Kumar
OF OF HIGHER HIGHER AXLE AXLE LOADS LOADS ON ON INDIAN INDIAN RAILWAYS RAILWAYS Shiv Kumar

Shiv Kumar Director/IRICEN

OF OF HIGHER HIGHER AXLE AXLE LOADS LOADS ON ON INDIAN INDIAN RAILWAYS RAILWAYS Shiv Kumar

IntroductionIntroduction ofof higherhigher axleaxle loadsloads onon IRIR

AfterAfter experienceexperience ofof successfulsuccessful runrun ofof thethe pilotpilot projectproject ofof runningrunning ofof CC+8+2CC+8+2 trainstrains andand introductionintroduction ofof axleaxle loadload ofof 22.8222.82 tt onon IRIR sincesince May,2005May,2005 onon identifiedidentified ironiron oreore routes,routes, Hon.Hon. MRMR announcedannounced inin hishis BudgetBudget SpeechSpeech ,06,06 thatthat 2525 TT axleaxle loadload trainstrains willwill bebe introducedintroduced onon IRIR duringduring thethe yearyear 06-07.06-07. InitiallyInitially ,two,two routesroutes havehave beenbeen identifiedidentified asas under:under:

1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai

2.Banspani-Daitari2.Banspani-Daitari

identifiedidentified asas under:under: 1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai 2.Banspani-Daitari2.Banspani-Daitari
identifiedidentified asas under:under: 1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai 2.Banspani-Daitari2.Banspani-Daitari
identifiedidentified asas under:under: 1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai 2.Banspani-Daitari2.Banspani-Daitari
identifiedidentified asas under:under: 1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai1.Dallirajahara-Bhilai 2.Banspani-Daitari2.Banspani-Daitari

IndianIndian RailwaysRailways marchmarch towardstowards heavierheavier axleaxle loadsloads

 UniversaliseUniversalise 22.8222.82 tt axleaxle loadload onon IRIR

 ConstructConstruct DedicatedDedicated FreightFreight CorridorsCorridors

DedicatedDedicated FreightFreight CorridorsCorridors (DFC)(DFC) fitfit forfor 3030 tt axleaxle loadsloads 

(DFC)(DFC)

fitfit forfor 3030 tt axleaxle loadsloads

 FeederFeeder RoutesRoutes ToTo DFCDFC toto bebe strengthenedstrengthened forfor runningrunning ofof 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationsoperations

ofof 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationsoperations  OtherOther routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor

 OtherOther routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation

routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation
routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation
routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation
routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation
routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor upgradationupgradation forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload operationoperation

ProposedProposed AxleAxle LoadLoad &TLD&TLD forfor DFCDFC

FormationFormation && BridgesBridges TrackTrack forfor DFCDFC

whichwhich cancan bebe upgradedupgraded toto 30t30t subsequentlysubsequently TrailingTrailing LoadLoad DensityDensity (TLD):12(TLD):12 t/mt/m

:: 3030 tt :: initiallyinitially 25t25t

  TrailingTrailing LoadLoad DensityDensity (TLD):12(TLD):12 t/mt/m :: 3030 tt :: initiallyinitially 25t25t
  TrailingTrailing LoadLoad DensityDensity (TLD):12(TLD):12 t/mt/m :: 3030 tt :: initiallyinitially 25t25t
  TrailingTrailing LoadLoad DensityDensity (TLD):12(TLD):12 t/mt/m :: 3030 tt :: initiallyinitially 25t25t
  TrailingTrailing LoadLoad DensityDensity (TLD):12(TLD):12 t/mt/m :: 3030 tt :: initiallyinitially 25t25t

TrackTrack StructureStructure forfor DFCDFC

ForFor 3030 tt axleaxle loadload 6868 kgkg (90(90 UTSUTS oror higher)higher) RailsRails NewNew DesignDesign ofof PSCPSC sleeper,sleeper, 1660/km1660/km E-clipE-clip elasticelastic fasteningfastening withwith improvedimproved rubberrubber padspads beingbeing developeddeveloped byby RDSORDSO FlashFlash buttbutt weldedwelded jointsjoints ThickThick WebWeb SwitchesSwitches andand swingswing nosenose crossingscrossings inin turnoutsturnouts PSCPSC sleeperssleepers toto bebe designeddesigned forfor turnoutsturnouts ,level,level crossingscrossings ,, SEJs,SEJs, BridgeBridge ApproachesApproaches

designeddesigned forfor turnoutsturnouts ,level,level crossingscrossings ,, SEJs,SEJs, BridgeBridge ApproachesApproaches
designeddesigned forfor turnoutsturnouts ,level,level crossingscrossings ,, SEJs,SEJs, BridgeBridge ApproachesApproaches
designeddesigned forfor turnoutsturnouts ,level,level crossingscrossings ,, SEJs,SEJs, BridgeBridge ApproachesApproaches
designeddesigned forfor turnoutsturnouts ,level,level crossingscrossings ,, SEJs,SEJs, BridgeBridge ApproachesApproaches

Formation,gradientsFormation,gradients ,curvature,curvature forfor DFCDFC

FormationFormation widthwidth inin embankment/cuttingembankment/cutting andand centrecentre toto centrecentre spacing:spacing:

-Single-Single LineLine 6.856.85 mm (as(as existing)existing) -Double-Double LineLine 12.3512.35 mm -- C/CC/C spacingspacing ofof DFCDFC trackstracks 5.505.50 mm -C/C-C/C spacingspacing ofof DFCDFC fromfrom existingexisting 66 mm SuitableSuitable thicknessthickness ofof sub-ballast/blanket/reinforcedsub-ballast/blanket/reinforced earthearth toto bebe providedprovided CurvatureCurvature limitedlimited toto 700m700m (2.5(2.5 degree)degree) RulingRuling GradientGradient -- 11 inin 200200 compensatedcompensated

toto 700m700m (2.5(2.5 degree)degree)   RulingRuling GradientGradient -- 11 inin 200200 compensatedcompensated
toto 700m700m (2.5(2.5 degree)degree)   RulingRuling GradientGradient -- 11 inin 200200 compensatedcompensated
toto 700m700m (2.5(2.5 degree)degree)   RulingRuling GradientGradient -- 11 inin 200200 compensatedcompensated
toto 700m700m (2.5(2.5 degree)degree)   RulingRuling GradientGradient -- 11 inin 200200 compensatedcompensated

ProposedProposed LoadingLoading StandardsStandards forfor bridgesbridges onon DFCDFC

LoadingLoading StandardsStandards –Heavy–Heavy MineralMineral loadingloading Locomotives:Locomotives:

AxleAxle LoadLoad

-- 3030 tt

TractiveTractive EffortEffort -- 6060 tt perper locoloco forfor doubledouble headedheaded -- 4545 tt perper locoloco forfor tripletriple headedheaded BrakingBraking ForceForce -- 2525 tt perper locoloco TrainTrain Loads:Loads:

AxleAxle LoadsLoads

TrailingTrailing LoadLoad Density-12t/mDensity-12t/m

-- 3030 tt

  TrainTrain Loads:Loads: AxleAxle LoadsLoads TrailingTrailing LoadLoad Density-12t/mDensity-12t/m -- 3030 tt
  TrainTrain Loads:Loads: AxleAxle LoadsLoads TrailingTrailing LoadLoad Density-12t/mDensity-12t/m -- 3030 tt
  TrainTrain Loads:Loads: AxleAxle LoadsLoads TrailingTrailing LoadLoad Density-12t/mDensity-12t/m -- 3030 tt
  TrainTrain Loads:Loads: AxleAxle LoadsLoads TrailingTrailing LoadLoad Density-12t/mDensity-12t/m -- 3030 tt
MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor
MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor
MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor

MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor

MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor
MMDMMD forfor DedicatedDedicated freightfreight CorridorCorridor

TRACKTRACK STRUCTURESTRUCTURE FORFOR RUNNINGRUNNING 25T25T AXLEAXLE LOADLOAD TRAINSTRAINS

AsAs perper RailwayRailway Board’sBoard’s thth TrackTrack PolicyPolicy CircularCircular no.no.

July,06,theJuly,06,the minimumminimum tracktrack

22 ofof 20062006 dtddtd 1919

structurestructure forfor routesroutes identifiedidentified forfor runningrunning ofof 25t25t axleaxle loadload trains,trains, toto bebe adoptedadopted inin allall futurefuture tracktrack renewals,renewals, constructionconstruction ofof newnew lines,lines, doublingdoubling etc.etc. willwill bebe asas follows:follows:

RailRail Section……

……60kgSection……

……60kg

90UTS90UTS

SleepersSleepers andand density….PSCdensity….PSC ofof existingexisting designdesign ,, 16601660 nosnos perper kmkm

BallastBallast cushion……….300mmcushion……….300mm PointsPoints && crossing……Fan-shapedcrossing……Fan-shaped layoutlayout withwith 60kg60kg curvedcurved switchesswitches

&& crossing……Fan-shapedcrossing……Fan-shaped layoutlayout withwith 60kg60kg curvedcurved switchesswitches
&& crossing……Fan-shapedcrossing……Fan-shaped layoutlayout withwith 60kg60kg curvedcurved switchesswitches
&& crossing……Fan-shapedcrossing……Fan-shaped layoutlayout withwith 60kg60kg curvedcurved switchesswitches

TRACKTRACK STRUCTURESTRUCTURE FORFOR RUNNINGRUNNING 25T25T AXLEAXLE LOADLOAD TRAINSTRAINS (contd.)(contd.)

 ExistingExisting tracktrack structurestructure consistingconsisting ofof 52kg52kg 90UTS90UTS railsrails onon PSCPSC sleeperssleepers withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion maymay bebe permittedpermitted forfor runningrunning ofof 25t25t axleaxle loadload trainstrains atat aa restrictedrestricted speedspeed ofof 6060 kmph,kmph, forfor BOXNBOXN andand similarsimilar typetype ofof wagons.wagons.  InIn casecase ofof sidings,sidings, thethe minimumminimum tracktrack structurestructure forfor 25T25T axleaxle loadload operationoperation willwill bebe ofof 52kg52kg 90UTS90UTS railsrails onon PSCPSC sleepersleeper withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion forfor speedsspeeds uptoupto 6060 kmph.kmph. InIn casescases wherewhere speedspeed isis notnot exceedingexceeding 30kmph,30kmph, tracktrack structurestructure comprisingcomprising ofof 52kg52kg 72UTS72UTS railsrails onon PSCPSC sleepersleeper withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion willwill suffice.suffice.

withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion willwill suffice.suffice.
withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion willwill suffice.suffice.
withwith 15401540 nos.nos. perper kmkm andand 250mm250mm ballastballast cushioncushion willwill suffice.suffice.

TRACKTRACK RENEWALRENEWAL FORFOR 25T25T AXLEAXLE LOADLOAD OPERATIONOPERATION (contd.)(contd.)

52kg52kg 90UTS90UTS railsrails willwill bebe replacedreplaced onlyonly whenwhen theythey becomebecome duedue forfor renewalrenewal onon age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basis.basis. WhereverWherever thethe existingexisting sleepersleeper densitydensity isis 15401540 nosnos perper km,km, worksworks forfor increaseincrease inin sleepersleeper densitydensity alonealone willwill notnot bebe sanctioned.sanctioned. TheseThese willwill onlyonly bebe donedone asas andand whenwhen sleepersleeper replacementreplacement isis required,required, eithereither duedue toto age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basisbasis oror toto suitsuit higherhigher railrail section.section.

duedue toto age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basisbasis oror toto suitsuit higherhigher railrail section.section.
duedue toto age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basisbasis oror toto suitsuit higherhigher railrail section.section.
duedue toto age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basisbasis oror toto suitsuit higherhigher railrail section.section.
duedue toto age-cum-conditionage-cum-condition basisbasis oror toto suitsuit higherhigher railrail section.section.

TRACK RENEWAL FOR 25T AXLE LOAD OPERATION (contd.)

 WhereWhere tracktrack renewalrenewal isis sanctionedsanctioned asas 52kg52kg 90UTS90UTS railsrails andand PSCPSC sleeperssleepers withwith 15401540 nosnos perper km.,km., thethe sleepersleeper densitydensity shouldshould bebe increasedincreased toto 16601660 nosnos perper kmkm byby MaterialMaterial Modification.Modification. RailwaysRailways should,should, however,however, startstart executionexecution withwith thethe increasedincreased sleepersleeper densitydensity pendingpending approvalapproval ofof MMMM estimate,estimate, toto avoidavoid thethe delay.delay. ItIt howeverhowever shouldshould alsoalso bebe ensuredensured thatthat MMMM getsgets sanctionedsanctioned withinwithin threethree months.months.  RailRail sectionsection shouldshould immediatelyimmediately bebe modifiedmodified toto 60kg60kg 90UTS90UTS rails,rails, whereverwherever itit isis feasible.feasible. ForFor otherother cases,cases, itit shouldshould startstart withinwithin nextnext 66 months.months. DuringDuring thisthis period,period, preparatorypreparatory workwork suchsuch asas procurementprocurement ofof relatedrelated fittingsfittings etc.etc. bebe ensured.ensured. RailwayRailway shouldshould alsoalso ensureensure sanctionsanction ofof MMMM estimateestimate withinwithin threethree months.months.

shouldshould alsoalso ensureensure sanctionsanction ofof MMMM estimateestimate withinwithin threethree months.months.
shouldshould alsoalso ensureensure sanctionsanction ofof MMMM estimateestimate withinwithin threethree months.months.
shouldshould alsoalso ensureensure sanctionsanction ofof MMMM estimateestimate withinwithin threethree months.months.

EXAMINATIONEXAMINATION OFOF EXISTINGEXISTING BRIDGESBRIDGES FORFOR 25T25T AXLEAXLE LOADLOAD (Feeder(Feeder routes):routes):

BridgesBridges havehave toto bebe checkedchecked forfor 2525 tt axleaxle loadload && trailingtrailing loadload densitydensity ofof 9.33t/m.9.33t/m. WorksWorks alreadyalready plannedplanned andand awardedawarded especiallyespecially forfor constructionconstruction ofof bridges/rebuildingbridges/rebuilding willwill bebe asas perper existingexisting loadingloading standards(standards( i.e.i.e. MBG)MBG) CorrectionCorrection slipslip nono 2323 && 3434 issuedissued byby RDSORDSO nono CBS/PSBCCBS/PSBC dtd.21/23.03.06dtd.21/23.03.06 ,CBS/PBR,CBS/PBR dtd.24/26.05.06dtd.24/26.05.06 respectivelyrespectively shouldshould bebe takentaken intointo accountaccount whilewhile checkingchecking thethe suitabilitysuitability ofof existingexisting bridgesbridges Superstructure:Superstructure:

RDSORDSO hashas examinedexamined onon followingfollowing premises:premises:

examinedexamined onon followingfollowing premises:premises:     ActualActual axleaxle loadload andand

onon followingfollowing premises:premises:     ActualActual axleaxle loadload andand axleaxle

ActualActual axleaxle loadload andand axleaxle spacingspacing forfor movingmoving loadsloads ofof WAG9WAG9 locomotivelocomotive andand 2525 TT BOXNBOXN wagons.wagons. CoefficientCoefficient ofof DynamicDynamic AugmentAugment (CDA)(CDA) forfor limitedlimited speedspeed ofof 60kmph60kmph

CoefficientCoefficient ofof DynamicDynamic AugmentAugment (CDA)(CDA) forfor limitedlimited speedspeed ofof 60kmph60kmph

RESULTSRESULTS

OFOF

ANALYSISANALYSIS

(for(for

superstructuressuperstructures ofof standardstandard spans):spans):

SPEEDSPEED POTENTIALPOTENTIAL OFOF BRIDGESBRIDGES FORFOR DIFFERENTDIFFERENT LOADINGLOADING STANDARDSSTANDARDS OFOF
SPEEDSPEED POTENTIALPOTENTIAL OFOF BRIDGESBRIDGES FORFOR DIFFERENTDIFFERENT LOADINGLOADING
STANDARDSSTANDARDS OFOF EXISTINGEXISTING BRIDGESBRIDGES
STANDARDSTANDARD
SPAN(M)SPAN(M)
BGMLBGML LOADINGLOADING
RBGRBG
LOADINGLOADING
MBGMBG
LOADINGLOADING
AxleAxle loadload
22.5T22.5T
AxleAxle loadload
25.0T25.0T
AxleAxle loadload
22.9T22.9T
TLDTLD
7.67T/M7.67T/M
TLDTLD
8.25T/M8.25T/M
TLDTLD
7.67T/M7.67T/M
T.T. EffortEffort
75.0T75.0T
T.T. EffortEffort
100.0T100.0T
T.T. EffortEffort
47.6T47.6T
1-201-20
60kmph60kmph
60kmph60kmph
60kmph60kmph
20-6320-63
6060
kmphkmph
5555
kmphkmph
6060
kmphkmph
78.878.8
5050
kmphkmph
5555
kmphkmph
5555
kmphkmph

Substructure:

Substructure analysis to be done case by case.

Bearings:

– Bearings of standard spans designed for MBG loading are fit for 25 T axle load.

– Bearings

BGML/RBG loading having spans 31.9m, 47.25 m, 63.0m and 78.8m (all effective spans) needs strengthening.

– One time inspection of Bearings apart from schedule inspection to be done by Zonal Railways for running of 25 T axle load.

of

standard

designed

for

spans

apart from schedule inspection to be done by Zonal Railways for running of 25 T axle
apart from schedule inspection to be done by Zonal Railways for running of 25 T axle
apart from schedule inspection to be done by Zonal Railways for running of 25 T axle

BridgeBridge InspectionInspection andand MonitoringMonitoring

FollowingFollowing locations/memberslocations/members toto bebe monitoredmonitored asas beingbeing criticalcritical fromfrom fatiguefatigue consideration.consideration.

ConnectionConnection ofof crosscross girdergirder withwith stringer.stringer. OutstandingOutstanding legleg ofof thethe toptop compressioncompression flangeflange ofof thethe stringerstringer atat itsits junctionjunction withwith webweb rivet.rivet. RivetsRivets connectingconnecting bottombottom flangeflange angleangle ofof thethe stringerstringer withwith webweb atat midmid span.span. VerticalVertical membersmembers atat connectionconnection withwith toptop chords.chords. RivetsRivets connectingconnecting bottombottom flangeflange ofof crosscross girdersgirders withwith webweb atat midmid span.span. RivetsRivets ofof splicesplice jointsjoints ofof bottombottom flangeflange inin plateplate girders.girders.

Rivets of of splice splice joints joints of of bottom bottom flange flange in in plate
Rivets of of splice splice joints joints of of bottom bottom flange flange in in plate
Rivets of of splice splice joints joints of of bottom bottom flange flange in in plate
Rivets of of splice splice joints joints of of bottom bottom flange flange in in plate
Rivets of of splice splice joints joints of of bottom bottom flange flange in in plate

PhysicalPhysical conditioncondition ofof bridgesbridges toto bebe certifiedcertified byby ZonalZonal Railways.Railways. MoreMore intensiveintensive BearingBearing && SubstructuresSubstructures InspectionInspection toto bebe donedone (( willwill needneed moremore manman power)power) DirectionsDirections forfor checkingchecking superstructuresuperstructure ofof nonnon standardstandard spansspans includingincluding ArchArch BridgesBridges etc.,etc., bearingbearing ofof nonnon standardstandard spansspans andand substructuresubstructure ofof allall bridgesbridges issuedissued toto ZonalZonal Railways.Railways.

spansspans andand substructuresubstructure ofof allall bridgesbridges issuedissued toto ZonalZonal Railways.Railways.
spansspans andand substructuresubstructure ofof allall bridgesbridges issuedissued toto ZonalZonal Railways.Railways.
spansspans andand substructuresubstructure ofof allall bridgesbridges issuedissued toto ZonalZonal Railways.Railways.
spansspans andand substructuresubstructure ofof allall bridgesbridges issuedissued toto ZonalZonal Railways.Railways.

ConclusionsConclusions

ExperienceExperience ofof increasedincreased axleaxle loadload onon otherother majormajor railwayrailway systemssystems inin worldworld hashas shownshown thatthat FatigueFatigue lifelife ofof railrail comescomes downdown drasticallydrastically withwith increaseincrease inin axleaxle loadsloads andand itit maymay taketake 55 toto 1010 yearsyears forfor heavyheavy axleaxle loadsloads toto telltell itsits effecteffect onon rails.rails. RailRail grindinggrinding isis requiredrequired toto bebe undertakenundertaken toto preventprevent RollingRolling ContactContact FatigueFatigue andand increaseincrease railrail life.life. TheThe railrail lifelife obtainableobtainable underunder presentpresent axleaxle loadload itselfitself isis inin rangerange ofof 350-400350-400 GMTGMT whichwhich isis wayway belowbelow thethe prescribedprescribed lifelife ofof 800800 GMTGMT forfor 9090 UTSUTS rails.rails. TillTill railrail grindinggrinding isis implemented,implemented, therethere isis aa needneed toto safesafe guardguard againstagainst railrail fracturesfractures duedue toto RCFRCF byby extensiveextensive andand effectiveeffective USFD.USFD. FatigueFatigue lifelife ofof railsrails alsoalso needsneeds aa review.review. LifeLife ofof railsrails subjectedsubjected toto heavierheavier axleaxle loadload needsneeds toto bebe realisticallyrealistically broughtbrought downdown tilltill grindinggrinding isis introduced.introduced.

toto bebe realisticallyrealistically broughtbrought downdown tilltill grindinggrinding isis introduced.introduced.
toto bebe realisticallyrealistically broughtbrought downdown tilltill grindinggrinding isis introduced.introduced.
toto bebe realisticallyrealistically broughtbrought downdown tilltill grindinggrinding isis introduced.introduced.
toto bebe realisticallyrealistically broughtbrought downdown tilltill grindinggrinding isis introduced.introduced.

ConclusionsConclusions

InstallationInstallation ofof way-sideway-side vehiclevehicle conditioncondition monitoringmonitoring systemssystems forfor identifyingidentifying poorlypoorly performingperforming wagonswagons willwill gogo aa longlong wayway inin reducingreducing stressstress statestate ofof tracktrack byby identifyingidentifying defectivedefective rollingrolling stockstock andand removingremoving themthem fromfrom service.service. TheseThese are:are:

WheelWheel ImpactImpact LoadLoad DetectorDetector (WILD),(WILD),

TruckTruck PerformancePerformance DetectorDetector (TPD),(TPD),

HotHot BearingBearing DetectorDetector (HBD),(HBD),

DraggingDragging EquipmentEquipment DetectorDetector (DED),(DED),

HotHot WheelWheel DetectorDetector (HWD),(HWD),

TruckTruck HuntingHunting DetectorDetector (THD),(THD),

WheelWheel ProfileProfile MonitoringMonitoring SystemSystem etcetc

DevelopmentDevelopment ofof tracktrack friendlyfriendly bogie,bogie, selfself steeringsteering isis required.required. ReviewReview afterafter oneone moremore yearyear ofof operationoperation ofof 22.82t22.82t axleaxle loadload maymay helphelp toto firmfirm upup thethe position.position.

ofof operationoperation ofof 22.82t22.82t axleaxle loadload maymay helphelp toto firmfirm upup thethe position.position.
ofof operationoperation ofof 22.82t22.82t axleaxle loadload maymay helphelp toto firmfirm upup thethe position.position.
ofof operationoperation ofof 22.82t22.82t axleaxle loadload maymay helphelp toto firmfirm upup thethe position.position.
ofof operationoperation ofof 22.82t22.82t axleaxle loadload maymay helphelp toto firmfirm upup thethe position.position.