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the engine s Variable Geometry Turbocharger, thereby improving engine performance directly. Standard turbochargers use a turbine in the engine s exhaust channel to capture the kinetic energy of exhaust gas and convert it to rotational power. This rotational power is then transmitted through a shaft to a turbofan that pressurizes (charges) air in the engine s intake manifold. A limitation of standard turbochargers is poor low-speed performance. At low engine speeds, exhaust flow is not strong enough to provide sufficient charging of the intake air. However, Komatsu s Variable Geometry Turbocharger uses a hydraulic cylinder to vary the effective area of the exhaust turbine. This causes the turbofan to rotate fast enough to charge the intake air at lower engine speeds. The hydraulic cylinder controls the axial position of the exhaust turbine. At high engine speeds, the cylinder is fully retracted, which exposes the full width of the turbine to the stream of exhaust. However, at lower engine speeds, a directional control valve commanded by the engine s electronic control system causes the cylinder to extend. This removes a portion of the turbine (the right side, as shown in the drawing) out of the exhaust flow. The narrower flow path of the exhaust passage increases laminar velocity of the exhaust flow, which causes the turbine and turbofan to rotate faster from lower exhaust flow. The result is cleaner exhaust and higher fuel economy without sacrificing engine performance. Komatsu uses a hydraulic cylinder to control the position of its engine s exhaust turbine, thereby rotating the intake turbofan at high speed even at low engine speeds.
stroke.9-in rod diameter.3 gpm. and for heavy contaminants to settle. The entire hydraulic system requires 96. 50.4 cylinders. and 3. stroke. The bucket cylinder has a 5. The arm cylinder has a 6. Relief pressure for the cylinder and hydrostatic circuits is set at 5400 psi. Cast iron guard rings prevent The reservoir must be sized to accommodate return fluid from all leakage and extend life of these cylinders at once.5-in.3-in.5.6-in. Therefore. This main pump powers cylinders for the machine s boom. rod diameter. This is a dramatic departure from reservoirs designed for stationary (industrial) equipment. the PC390LC makes much more extensive use of hydraulics than just for the variable geometry turbo.7 gal. Two cylinders for actuating the main boom have a 5.9-in.3-in. 58.9-in. and the reservoir holds 49.in. reservoirs in mobile equipment typically use baffles to reduce fluid turbulence. rod diameter. gal of fluid. . Mobile equipment generally cannot benefit from these luxuries because repeated motion of the machine would prevent contaminants from settling and air from rising. and the swing motor circuit relief pressure is 4050 psi. bore.Functionality with hydraulics Of course. bore. and 3. and heat exchangers. stroke. 71. for air to rise to the surface of the fluid. bore. where reservoirs are usually sized to hold one minute s worth of maximum pump flow.3. The cylinders are controlled through dual-spool valves with Komatsu s Proportional Pressure Control (PPC) feature.in. Its 257-hp EPA Tier 4 interim engine drives a variable-displacement axial-piston pump rated for maximum flow of 141. one for a swing drive and a pair for the hydrostatic travel drive. and 4. The larger volume of industrial hydraulic reservoirs provides an opportunity for fluid to rest before being drawn back into the pump. This rest allows sufficient time for cooling. and three axial-piston hydraulic motors. and bucket. PPC allows fine control and reduces the effort and travel distance the operator must execute to control the machine. arm. diffusers to promote deaeration.
In the metric system.4 lbs.48 gallons in a cubic foot. flow direction. or elevation changes. Liquids in motion produce forces and pressure whenever the velocity.4 pounds per cubic foot (62.48 gal x 8. one cubic foot (1ft x 1ft x 1ft) of water weighs 62. Other important design information: One pound per square inch (lbs/in2 or psi) is approximately equal to 2. Why is understanding hydraulics important? The science of hydraulics is as old as civilization itself. The physical and hydraulic behaviour of wastewater is so similar to that of clean water that there is generally no difference in the design or analysis of systems involving these two liquids. Water or wastewater has a unit weight of 62. or even one they can consult. . The second will discuss flow.8 kN/m3).34 pounds. It also can help in determining what pipe material would work best in given situations. More appropriately. they are usually related to the hydraulics involved in pipe flow. this is expressed as 9. with each gallon weighing approximately 8. measuring. engineers have succeeded in making water flow from one place to another with as few hitches as possible. Further.800 N/m3). transporting. For practical purposes.800 New tons per cubic meter (9. and using water and other liquids. and the unit weight of water is 9. Knowing pipe pressure and flow at certain points along the pipe¶s path can help determine pipe size and capacity.Summary Hydraulics is the branch of engineering that focuses on the practical problems of collecting. having an understanding of hydraulics can help system managers decide if pressure reducers or pumps are necessary to transport water in an efficient manner.000.8 kilo new tons per cubic meter (9. There are 7. Most small water and wastewater systems do not have an engineer on staff. where the prefix kilo stands for 1. When problems do occur. This Tech Brief is the first of two that will discuss some fundamental hydraulic problems and will focus primarily on pressure.34 lbs/gal = 62. storing.31 feet of water height (column of water) no matter how big around or square the column is.434 psi. the term for weight (force due to gravity) is called a Newton (N). Units and Variables First of all. System designers need this information to calculate other variables. controlling. so 7. For centuries. And the cost of engineering advice can quickly add up. water and wastewater are considered to be incompressible liquids because their volume does not change significantly with changing pressure. Because many small systems are on tight budgets. understanding hydraulics can save money. so. One foot of water height is approximately equal to 0.4 pounds.4 lb/ft3). understanding that water has a unit weight is important. who might be able to answer simple or basic questions about hydraulics.
000145 psi). although they are closely related. In this equation. units.145 psi. Since a pressure of 1 Pa is a relatively small pressure (1 Pa = 0. Specifically. 1 kPa = 1000 Pa = 0. pressure is defined as force per unit area. But there is a difference between force and pressure. In SI metric units.S. pressure is expressed in New tons per square meter (N/m2).Pressure Water or wastewater exerts force and pressure against the walls of its container. pressure is usually expressed in pounds per square inch (lb/in2 or psi). the unit N/m2 is called a Pascal (Pa). In U. For convenience. whether it is stored in a tank or flowing in a pipe. the term kilopascal (kPa) will be used in most practical hydraulics applications. pressure can be expressed as: P = F/A Where P = pressure F = force A = area over which the force is distributed .