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Sartoria A Paper Presentation On UV Protection Finishes Presented By:K. SATHISHVARAN (contact no: 7418674394) III. B.



ABSTRACT In the recent years, consumers have become increasingly aware of the need for sun protection, which is related to the incidence of sun induced skin damage and its relationship with increased exposures to UV light. UV radiation

can lead to acute and chronic reactions and damage, such as acceleration of skin ageing and sunburn. Billions of people live on the earth and each has his or her own color of the skin. In human body the skin color depends on the quantities of melanin, carotene and oxygenated or reduced hemoglobin combined in the skin, as well as the thickness, water content etc. Among other factors, the quantity of melanin that is distributed in the skin determines its fairness or darkness and greatly influences the human complexion, at the same time melanin plays an important role in minimizing the damage that UV rays cause in the skin.

INTRODUCTION What is UV ? Protection of the skin against the action of solar radiation is a relatively new objective of textile finishing, since the textile does not always guarantee adequate protection. Specific protective functions of textiles against the most diverse influences are attracting more and more attention. A notable objective of increasing interest in this area is the protection against UV radiation. The reason for this is the tendency for human to suffer increased harmful exposure to UV through natural radiation. The unfinished fabric has the limitation to guarantee adequate protection. Thus, a special additional sun protection finish is applied in the form of UV stabilizers. Electromagnetic radiations of wavelength between 150 and 400 nm are termed as Ultraviolet rays. Approximately 10% of suns energy is in the form of ultraviolet radiations. Atmosphere absorbs most of the noxious radiations emitted by the sun, only 5% of the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth. Need for UV protection

All wave lengths of light including visible light affect fabrics to some extent. There are two critical elements for comprehensive protection and not just UV blocking property. UV absorbers such as Benzotriazole and phenyl enzotriazole, molecules are able to absorb the damaging UV rays of sunlight. UV absorbers convert UV energy in to harmless heat energy. This transformation is regenerative and can be repeated indefinitely. At the same time UV absorbers an cause discoloration, if used in higher concentrations. The construction of woven and knitted fabrics and the fiber types have a great influence on protection from ultraviolet transmittance. The ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of textiles depends on their construction, the spaces between the yarns, their fiber types, the color, the textile impregnation, and the presence of optical brighteners and ultraviolet absorbers. UPF also depends on the swelling capacity of the fibers. The UV blocking capacity of a fiber can be improved by incorporating TiO2 into its structure. Good skin protection, which is absolutely essential due to the accumulation of the radiation dose, is achieved by the textile itself with a sufficient weight of the fabric. In other case, e.g., light weight summer garments, a UV absorber can be applied either during fiber manufacture or in the final fabric finish which also offers the same degree of protection. Suitable organic or in organic products are also applied during this process. By using UV absorbers, exposure of the fabric to UV lights is reduced on the one hand as well as the intensity of the transmitted UV light on the other.

To indicate the protection from UV radiation the term Sun protection Factor {SPF} is widely used. SPF is a measure of how much a sun screen protects the skin protection products. SPF is a measure of how a sun screen protects the skin from burning and is measured by timing, as to, how long skin covered with sun screen .The term Ultra Violet Protection Factor { UPF } is widely used by the textile and clothing industry. Relation with the fabric property:

UV radiation and textile materials: UV radiation degrades the textile materials, due to excitations in some parts of the polymer molecule. Much depends on the type of fiber and its chemical structure. Due to large surface area available, textile fabrics are more susceptible to attacks by UV radiation. Natural fibers like cotton silk, and wool have lower degree UPF absorption than synthetic fibers. Cotton fabric in a grey state provides a higher UPF because of natural pigments, pectins, and waxes. Dyed cotton fabrics exhibit higher UPF and undyed bleached cotton yields very poor UPF. UVR attacks polyamides the most, by photo oxidation. The fabric looses its strength and its crystalline structure. Polyester too get affected by UV radiation, to the tune of 45-50% after 30 days of exposure. Polyester fibers absorb more in the UVA and UVB

regions than aliphatic polyamide fibers. Bleached silk and bleached PAN show very low UPF of 9.4 and 3.9 respectively.

The Technologies used: Sun protection involves a combination of sun avoidance and the use of protective garments and accessories. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective clothes are the three ways of protection against the deleterious effects of UV radiation.. The fabric is rated according to an Ultraviolet Protection Factor ("UPF"). UPF is like SPF except UPF rates protection against both UVA and UVB. A garment with a UPF of 50 only allows 1/50th of the UV radiation falling on the surface of the garment to pass through it. In other words, it blocks 98% of the UV radiation. Sun protection clothing is an easy and reliable form of UV protection and so is becoming more and more popular. Garments are tested according to AATCC test method 183. UV protection textiles include various apparels, accessories, such as hats, shoes, shade structures such as umbrellas, etc. UV absorbers incorporated in dyeing decreases the dye uptake, except in post treatment application. They are compatible with dyes and are applied by normal padding, exhaust, pad thermosol, pad dry cure methods. UV absorbers are applied between 30-40g/l depending on the type of fiber and its construction. The main limitations of UV are that they cannot be applied in a single bath along with other finishing agents. Anything in excess will have a detrimental effect on the fabric. With the advent of nano science and technology, a new area has developed in the area of textile finishing called Nano finishing. Growing awareness of health and hygiene has increased the demand for UV protective textiles. Coating the surface of textiles and clothing with nano particles is an approach to the production of highly active surfaces to

have UV blocking properties. Zinc oxide {Zno} nano particles embedded in polymer matrices like soluble starch are a good example of functional nanostructures with potential for applications such as UV. Metal oxides like Zno as UV blocker are more stable as compared to organic UV blocking agents. Hence nano Zno will enhance the UV blocking property due to their increase surface area and intense absorption in the UV region. UV Stabilizers /Absorbers UV absorbers are organic or inorganic colorless compounds with very strong absorption in the uv range of 290 360nm. UV absorbers incorporated in to the fibers convert electronic excitation energy in to thermal energy. They function as radical scavengers and oxygen scavengers. The high energy short wave UVR excites the UV absorber to a high energy absorbed may then be dissipated as longer wave radiation. Alternatively, isomerisation can occur and the UV absorber may then fragment in to non- absorbing isomers. Nano Finish: The UV-blocking property of a fabric is enhanced when a dye, pigment, delustrant, or ultraviolet absorber finish is present that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and blocks its transmission through a fabric to the skin. Metal oxides like ZnO as UV-blocker are more stable when compared to organic UV-blocking agents. Hence, nano ZnO will really enhance the UVblocking property due to their increase surface area and intense absorption in the UV region. For antibacterial finishing, ZnO nanoparticles scores over nano-silver in cost-effectiveness, whiteness, and UV-blocking property. Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes deflect the

Harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a persons UVR exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage. The extent of skin protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV radiation intensity & distribution in reference to geographical location, time of day, and season. This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun Protection Factor), higher the SPF Value better is the protection against UV radiation. Clay nanoparticles or nano flakes are composed of several types of hydrous aluminoosilicates, each type differ in chemical composition and crystal structure. Clay nano particles posses electrical, heat, chemical resistance and an ability of locking UV light. Nano clay particles of montmoriblonite being one of most commonly used UV blocker. It also increases 40% tensile strength, 60% flexural strength.
Characteristics of nano finishing in garments 1. Nano-processed garments have protective coating, which is water and beverage repellent. 2. Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye. 3. When a substance is manipulated at sizes of approximately 100 nm, the structure of the processed clothing becomes more compressed. This makes clothing stain- and dirt-resistant. 4. Saving time and laundering cost. 5. This technology embraces environmental friendly properties. 6. Nano-materials allow good ventilation and reduce moisture absorption, resulting in enhanced breathability while maintaining the good hand feel of ordinary material. 7. The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.

8. Nano-processed products are toxic free. 9. Garments stay bright, fresh looking and are more durable than ordinary materials. 10.Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products.

PHOTO CATALYTIC SELF-CLEANING During the last two decades, advanced orientation processes that are combination of powerful oxidizing agents (catalytic initiators) with UV or near UV light have been applied for the removal of organic pollutants and xenobiotics from textile effluents among them, TiO2 has been proved to be an excellent catalyst in the photo degradation of colorants and other organic pollutants. Photo catalytic propensity of semi conductors such as TiO2 has been attributed the valence band to the conduction band brought above by the absorption of a photon of ultra-band gap light. In the coating composition developed by XIN and Daoud, a sol mixture may be prepared at Room temp by mixing titanium tetraisopropoxide, ethanol and acetic acid in a molar ratio of 1:100:0.05 respectively. The fabric to be coated was dried at 1000C for 30 min, dipped in the above mentioned nanosol for 30sec and then pressed at a nip pressure of 2.75 kg/cm2 .The pressed substrates were then dried then at 800C for 10 min in a pre-heated oven to drive off ethanol and finally cured at 1000C for 5 min in a pre-heated curing oven. Nano sized TiO2 particles show high photo catalytic activities because

they have a large surface area per unit mass and volume as well as diffusion of the electron/ holes before recombination.

UV protected sun screen This finish also have anti bacterial properties after having been subject to 55 washes through home laundry machine & UV protection characteristics for 20 washes. Conclusion The textile industry has the biggest customer base in the world. Therefore, advances in the customer-oriented products should be the focus for the future nanotechnology applications. The future research should be targeted on developing improved dirt, crease and shrink resistance properties in fabrics, temperature adaptable clothing and odor-less undergarments. These methods can replaced traditional finishing technique of textile products and readymade clothing with products of superior quality and lower

production costs. In feature, one can expect to see many more developments in textiles based on Nano Technology.