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Introduction to Enterprise Architecture University of Jyväskylä 23rd Aug. 2007 Ari Hirvonen 2006-03-23 Copyright ©
Introduction to Enterprise Architecture
University of Jyväskylä
23rd Aug. 2007
Ari Hirvonen
2006-03-23
Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation
Page 1
Agenda Why EA What is EA EA frameworks and methodologies 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator
Agenda
Why EA
What is EA
EA frameworks and methodologies
2006-03-23
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Some TietoEnator facts Annual net sales exceeding EUR 1,5 billion Over 15 000 employees in
Some TietoEnator facts
Annual net sales
exceeding EUR 1,5 billion
Over 15 000 employees in
more than 25 countries
Listed on Stockholm and
Helsinki Exchanges
Focusing on selected
industries
Since 1968
Superior expertise
At the core of our customers´ businesses
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Some speaker facts - Department manager of EA consulting in Government Services Finland - CTO
Some speaker facts
- Department manager of EA consulting in Government Services Finland
- CTO of GMR Business Area
- Ph.D. (economics) 2005
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Why EA? 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 5
Why EA?
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The Changing Role of ICT The internet And WWW (late 90s to present) IT IT
The Changing Role of ICT
The internet
And WWW
(late 90s to
present)
IT IT
Next: BPM/Business
orientation ,
Agile computing,
Multiple channels
Regulated
free market
(mid 80s to
late 90s)
Organization
Organization
Distributed
Systems
(late 70s to
mid 80s)
IT IT
Organization
Mainframe
Monolopoly
(eraly 60s to
late 70s)
IT IT
Organization
Isolated
Machines
(late 50s to
eraly 60s)
Strategic
Information
Systems: 1980s-
IT IT
Organization
IT IT
Management
Information
Systems: 1970s-
Data
Prosessing
Systems: 1960s-
Time
Source: Ward and Peppard 2002, Dickson 2003
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More than multi-device e-“banking” Warrants Time depos E-invoicing General Insu- 2002-4 E-salary Adding new:
More than multi-device e-“banking”
Warrants
Time depos
E-invoicing
General
Insu-
2002-4
E-salary
Adding new:
rance
WAP-eq
1. Banking,
2.E-business and
3.General Insurance =
Adding value exponentially
WAP-fx
2001
Foreign
E-mortg
payments
E-student-
2000
loan
E-Loans
E-billing
1999
Customer
E-signature
value
Inv.Funds
1998
E-shopping
E-identi-
1996
fication
Equity,bond
1992
etc trades
Balances+
1988
Payments
Services
1982
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Nordea: Netbank customers 1982 - 2005 4 500 000 4 000 000 3 500 000
Nordea: Netbank customers 1982 - 2005
4
500 000
4
000 000
3
500 000
3
000 000
2
500 000
2
000 000
1
500 000
1
000 000
500 000
0
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1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
customers
Number of transactions (private customers – Nordea level) 200 180 E-bank up 160 140 128
Number of transactions (private customers – Nordea level)
200
180
E-bank up
160
140
128 million
payment trx
120
100
80
60
40
Manual down
95 million trx
20
0
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
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Megatrend: Business and ICT are merging Industrial Information Society Society Business Banking Business Business
Megatrend: Business and ICT are merging
Industrial
Information
Society
Society
Business
Banking
Business
Business
Travel
New
Increasing
New
Abyss
Business
Interaction
management
logic
ICT
Industry
ICT
ICT
Government
Retail trade
Revolution
Productivity
Evolution
leaps
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What are we aiming at? Enterprise Architecture is the aligned big picture of organisation’s business,
What are we aiming at?
Enterprise Architecture is the aligned big picture of organisation’s
business, information, information systems and technologies, and their
management
ICT is today any organisation’s strategic asset
– ICT enables new business opportunities, improvements in
efficiency and effectiveness as well as cost savings
”The concepts fundamental to managing information technology are those of business,
not of technology: portfolios, business value, investment, and alignment of resources
with strategic goals.
The objective of information technology investment is to provide business value in two
related ways: to successfully implement current strategies and to use the technology to
enable new strategies”,
(Weill, P. and Broadbent, M.)
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Primary Driver for EA Based on data from over 200 EA programs 2006-03-23 Copyright ©
Primary Driver for EA
Based on data from over 200 EA programs
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SOA adoption approaches Integration ESB (60-70% of cases) – Uncover services from existing applications –
SOA adoption approaches
Integration ESB (60-70% of cases)
– Uncover services from existing applications
– Use an ESB to solve traditional A2A integration problems
BPM top down (20-30% cases)
– Pick a business process for automation, model it and implement it in a
BPM system
– Expose/Discover services from existing applications and use them in
process
BAM (10-20% cases)
– Inject measurement points into existing infrastructure and collect
performance data about a business process with a BPM/ESB-tool
– Analyse results and choose a way to make the measured process more
efficient
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IT-reality? 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 14
IT-reality?
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Mission impossible? 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 15
Mission impossible?
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Enterprise Architecture 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 16
Enterprise Architecture
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Consepts “The general term architecture is defined as the design of any type of structure
Consepts
“The general term architecture is defined as the design of any type of
structure whether physical or conceptual, real or virtual” (O’Rourke et
al. 2003)
“Enterprise means a group of people organized for a particular
purpose to produce a product or provide a service” (O’Rourke et al.
2003)
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Enterprise Architecture "Enterprise architecture (EA) identifies the main components of the organization, its
Enterprise Architecture
"Enterprise architecture (EA) identifies the main components of the
organization, its information systems, the ways in which these
components work together in order to achieve defined business
objectives, and the way in which the information systems support the
business processes of the organization.
The components include staff, business processes, technology,
information, financial and other resources, etc.
Enterprise architecting is the set of processes, tools, and structures
necessary to implement an enterprise-wide coherent and
consistent IT architecture for supporting the enterprise's
business operations.
It takes a holistic view of the enterprise's IT resources rather than an
application-by-application view." (Kaisler et al., 2005)
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Enterprise Architecture "Enterprise Architecture is a strategic information asset base, which defines the mission,
Enterprise Architecture
"Enterprise Architecture is a strategic information asset base, which
defines the mission, the information necessary to perform the mission
and the technologies necessary to perform the mission, and the
transitional processes for implementing new technologies in
response to the changing mission needs. An enterprise architecture
includes a baseline architecture, target architecture, and a
sequencing plan. " (CIO Council 2001)
"A defined EA is
providing
to people at all organizational levels an
explicit, common and meaningful structural frame of reference that
allows an understanding of what the enterprise does, when, where,
how and why it does it and what it uses to do it" (GAO, 2003)
(GAO = US Government Accountability Office)
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Enterprise Architecture “The design of business and IT system alignment is the domain of Enterprise
Enterprise Architecture
“The design of business and IT system alignment is the domain of
Enterprise Architecture (EA). Enterprise architects seek to align
enterprise processes and structure with their supporting IT systems.”
(Wegmann et al. 2005)
“Enterprise Architecture is the process of translating business
vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating,
communicating and improving the key principles and models that
describe the enterprise’s future state and enable its evolution”.
(Gartner Group 2006)
• Business and IT structures
• Business oriented
• Holistic
• Alignment
• Transitional
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Enterprise Architecture (EA) EA = Fin. Kokonaisarkkitehtuuri = Yritysarkkitehtuuri The Open Group's Enterprise
Enterprise Architecture (EA)
EA = Fin. Kokonaisarkkitehtuuri = Yritysarkkitehtuuri
The Open Group's Enterprise Architecture definition (TOGAF 2003):
– There are four types of architecture that are commonly accepted as
subsets of an overall Enterprise Architecture:
business architecture: this defines the business strategy, governance,
organisation, and key business processes.
data/information architecture: this describes the structure of an
organization's logical and physical data assets and data management
resources.
application (systems) architecture: this kind of architecture provides a
blueprint for the individual application systems to be deployed, their
interactions, and their relationships to the core business processes of the
organization.
Information Technology (IT) architecture: the software infrastructure
intended to support the deployment of core, mission-critical applications.
Architecture != Just technology
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Layered Model of Software Architecture guide software Meta-Architecture architects • Architectural vision,
Layered Model of Software Architecture
guide
software
Meta-Architecture
architects
• Architectural vision, principles, styles, key concepts and mechanisms.
• Typically part of EAEA
• Focus: high-level decisions that will strongly influence the
structure of the system; rules certain structural choices out,
and guides selection decissions and tradeoffs among others
Software Architecture
• Structures and relationships, static and dynamic views, assumptions and rationale
• Focus: decomposition and allocation of responsibility, interface design, assignment to
processes and threads
guide
Architecture Guidelines and Policies
designers
• Use model and guidelines; policies, mechanisms and design patterns;
frameworks, infrastructure and standards
• Focus:guide engineers in creating designs that maintain the integrity of architecture
Malan, R., Bredemeyer, B., 2002
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Enterprise Architecture Impact Areas Enterprise IT architecture decisions Domain architect decisions Application
Enterprise Architecture Impact Areas
Enterprise IT architecture decisions
Domain architect decisions
Application architect
decisions
Enterprise
Scope
Group IT
Domain A
Domain B
Scope
Scope
Domain IT
Application
IT Vendor
scope
Application Application
Architecture Architecture
Component
Component (Service) owner
decisions
Domain Domain
(Service)
scope
Malan, R., Bredemeyer, B., 2002
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Modeling of Business Processes Modeling levels and the hierarchy Suppliers Input Company Output Customer Customer
Modeling of Business Processes
Modeling levels and the hierarchy
Suppliers
Input
Company
Output
Customer
Customer
Process map
Process 1
Process 2
Core
processes
Process 3
Process 4
Support
processes
Process n
Process m
Process X
Process environment
Process flow chart, Sub-Process 24
Customer Processes
Customer
Process 1
Process m
Process 3
Role 1
Role 2
Sub-Process 21
Sub-Process 22
Sub-Process 24
Supplier
Application
Sub-Process 23
Interface
Process n
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EA frameworks and methodologies 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 25
EA frameworks and methodologies
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Consepts ”An EA framework is an abstract graphical representation of the enterprise or – more
Consepts
”An EA framework is an abstract graphical representation of the
enterprise or – more pragmatically – its information landscape. EA
frameworks help enterprise architects classify different models,
facilitating different viewpoints and levels of detail for a spectrum of
users. They can also ease communication by clearly establishing
boundaries and responsibilities, depending on whether firms adopt
decentralized, centralized, or federated architect groups.” Forrester
Research 2006
”EA methodologies describe the different steps and deliverables
needed to progress along the EA front. Most methodologies are
available from private consulting companies. TOGAF from The Open
Group is the only methodology freely available to the end customers.”
Forrester Research 2006
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Consepts ”An Enterprise Architecture framework is a communication model for developing an Enterprise Architecture
Consepts
”An Enterprise Architecture framework is a communication model
for developing an Enterprise Architecture (EA). It is not an architecture
pe se. Rather; it presents a set of models, principles, services,
approaches, standards, design concepts, components, visualisations
and configurations that guide the development of specific aspect
architecture.” Schekkerman, Jaap: How to survive in the jungle of
Enterprise Architecture Frameworks. Trafford, 2006.
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“Which EA framework do you mainly use and plan to use in the next 18
“Which EA framework do you mainly use
and plan to use in the next 18 months?”
Source: Forrrester Research 2006
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The history of EA frameworks JTA DoD AF 2004 C4ISR ISO/IEC EA DoD TRM 1999
The history of EA frameworks
JTA
DoD AF
2004
C4ISR
ISO/IEC
EA
DoD TRM
1999
14252
Grid
TOGAF
EIF
TAFIM
TOGAF
2002 2005
Zachman
Zachman
1987
2003
TEAF
2000
EAP
FEAF
FEAF
NORA
1992
1999
2003
2006
TISAF
E2AF
E2AF
1997
2003
2005
UVA Model
IAF v1
IAF v3
XAF
1994
1996
2001
2003
Source: Schekkerman, Jaap: How to survive in the jungle of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks. Trafford, 2006.
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Zachman Framework WHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHY Pros : Cons : • The first
Zachman Framework
WHAT
HOW
WHERE
WHO
WHEN
WHY
Pros :
Cons :
• The first and was long
time unique
• Too complex
• Columns historically
sorted
• Well Known
• Need to be tailored
• Really exhaustive
• Not for operations
• Different viewpoints
• Fragmentation effect
• No typical models for the
columns on the right
• Separates the
considerations on
enabling technologies
from strategies and
business development
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TOGAF Pros: Cons: • Well known and widely used • Too strong technology focus •
TOGAF
Pros:
Cons:
• Well known and widely
used
• Too strong technology
focus
• Strong process
• Public and available
• Limited support for
abstraction perspective
• Commonly accepted EA
views included
• Version 9 not yet available
• Strong support for
technology architecture
• Comes with a lot of
detailed information,
impossible to learn and
adopt in short projects
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FEAF: NIST Pros: Cons: • Simple and easy to understand • Too simple (e.g. abstraction
FEAF: NIST
Pros:
Cons:
• Simple and easy to
understand
• Too simple (e.g.
abstraction levels missing)
• Reference models
• Developed for government
purposes
• From the 80’s – today’s
networking platforms &
technologies not
considered
• Process for large
government organisations
• Separates the
considerations on
enabling technologies
from strategies and
business development
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NAF Pros: Cons: • In use and proven in practice • Interoperability • All you
NAF
Pros:
Cons:
• In use and proven in
practice
• Interoperability
• All you need is included
(e.g. method, framework,
tamplates)
• Focus in technology and
systems development
rather than overall
planning
• Focus in defence domain
• Heavy methodology
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The EA Grid: framework for the EA process Business Information Applications Technology Architecture Architecture
The EA Grid: framework for the EA
process
Business
Information
Applications
Technology
Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
Pros:
Cons:
• Simple and easy to
Enterprise level decisions
Limited user base
Enterprise
understand
level
• Based on long term
• Even too simple for some
situations
consultancy practice &
theories of
IS planning
Domain level decisions
• Domain
4 main views commonly
level
shared
• Includes all necessary
views
• Based on common
Systems level decisions
public models (e.g.
Systems
TOGAF) and therefore
level
can be integrated
• Public and available
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Other light weight frameworks EAP – Two highest levels from Zachman framework. Thus only business
Other light weight frameworks
EAP
– Two highest levels from Zachman framework. Thus only business view
included.
– A linear process suited for taking on EA work
– Not a continuous, cyclic management process
Pera
For industry
For enterprise systems (ERP, SCM, MRP) development rather than
overall planning
ProACT, Forrester
Both owned by a consulting company
ARIS
– Originally for enterprise systems development
– Owned by a tool vendor
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EA-frameworks and users Source: Forrrester Research 2006 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 36
EA-frameworks and users
Source: Forrrester Research 2006
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EA development process 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 37
EA development process
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Architecture Process Model examples Prelim: Framework and Principles TOGAF ADM cycle DoC IT Architecture Process
Architecture Process Model examples
Prelim:
Framework and
Principles
TOGAF
ADM cycle
DoC IT Architecture Process
6.
1. Define Vision,
Objectives &
Principles
A
Implementation
Architecture
H
Vision
B
Architecture
Business
Change
Architecture
Management
5. Migration
Options
7. Continuous
Review &
Update
2. Characterize
Baseline
C
G
Information
Requirements
Implementation
System
Governance
Architectures
4. Opportunity
ID & Gap
Analysis
3. Target
Architecture
F
D
Migration
Planning
Technology
E
Architecture
Opportunities
and Solutions
TEAF
cycle
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EA project phases Enterprise Architecture Development Process Current State Analysis Target Architecture Development
EA project phases
Enterprise Architecture Development Process
Current State Analysis
Target Architecture
Development Plan
Business Analysis
Business Process
Analysis
and Development
Road Map
IT Analysis
Application and
Information
Cost Estimation
IT Infrastructure
and
Technology
Risk Management
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Architecture Process Scheduling workshop5 workshop5 workshop2 workshop2 workshop3 workshop3 workshop6 workshop6
Architecture Process Scheduling
workshop5 workshop5
workshop2 workshop2
workshop3 workshop3
workshop6 workshop6
kick-off kick-off
Information Information Systems Systems
Architecture Architecture
presen-
presen-
interviews interviews
workshop4
workshop4
tations tations
workshop7 workshop7
workshop1 workshop1
finalising finalising
Prestudy Prestudy
Technical Technical Architecture Architecture
Roadmap Roadmap
presen-
presen-
tations tations
IT IT Service Service
Architecture Architecture
month1
month2
month3
month4
Here is an outline for a 3 calendar month architecture process.
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Consulting 1. Consulting Facilitative Operative 1.1. 1.2. Consulting Consulting 1.1.1. Information Process
Consulting
1. Consulting
Facilitative
Operative
1.1.
1.2.
Consulting
Consulting
1.1.1. Information
Process
1.1.2.
Facilitation
Facilitation
1.1.1.1.
1.1.1.2.
1.1.2.1.
1.1.2.2.
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
Technology Oriented
Business Oriented
Process
Method and
Information Facillitation Information Facillitation
Support
Process use
Technology Oriented
Operative Consulting
Business Oriented
Operative Consulting
Involvement to
the development process
Low
High
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How far are you? Methodologies for EA Maturity Evaluation Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (Federal
How far are you?
Methodologies for EA Maturity Evaluation
Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (Federal Enterprise
Architecture Program Management Office, US FEAPMO),
The Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model, EAMM (National
Association of State Chief Information Officers , NASCIO)
The Extended Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model, E2AMM
(Institute for Enterprise Architecture Developments, IFEAD).
A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture
Management, EAMFF (US General Accounting Office, GAO)
The COSM (Component Oriented Software Manufacturing) Maturity
Model (Herzum Software).
IT Architecture Capability Maturity Model, ACMM (US Department of
Commerce, Doc)
Capability Maturity Models Integration, CMMI (The Software
Engineering Institute, SEI)
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Questions 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 43
Questions
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Just do it! 2006-03-23 Copyright © 2007 TietoEnator Corporation Page 44
Just do it!
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