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Energy Profile of India

India celebrated 100 years of hydro power development in 1997. Power Generation in India Power Mix (2010) Thermal: 65 per cent Hydro: 25 per cent Nuclear: 3 per cent Renewable: 7 per cent India has seen excellent economic growth in the last two decades. One of the prime reasons behind this is the availability of good infrastructure. Electrical energy is essential for industrial growth of any country. The availability of good power supply benefits almost every sector of a nation. That is why the Government of India has given high priority to the power sector of the nation. India has a flourishing power sector that is meeting most of the energy needs of the country. Electricity generation in India The 21st century finds a huge number of electric power plants located across India. India has sufficient technology and expertise to generate electricity through the use of
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Coal power Wind power Water power Nuclear power

Coal-based plants are the main source of fuel for the electric plants in India. These are run by coal supplies from mines situated in several states of the country. Since 1947, the Government of India has given special attention to the exploitation of coal. Coal is one of the prominent natural resources in India. States like Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal are rich in coal. These take care that the thermal power plants in India are not short of coal supply. Major Electricity Generator Plants in India India has a number of electric power generators. These are situated across the country. The entire country is dependent on these power stations for its energy requirement. NTPC The National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC), New Delhi, was set up in 1975 as a Central sector power generating company for the development of thermal power.

NTPC has an approved capacity of 22,955 MW and an installed capacity of 19,425 MW representing about 27.5 per cent of the all-India thermal capacity. National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation. The National Hydro-electric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC) was set up in 1975 to promote the development of hydro-electric power in the Central sector in all its aspects including investigation, research, design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydro-electric power stations. The Corporation has so far completed construction of eight hydro-electric projects in India, namely, Baira Siul (HP) 198 MW; Loktak (Manipur) 105 MW; Salal Stage-I 8c II (J 8c K) 345 MW each, Tanakpur (UP) 120 MW, Chamera Stage-I (HP) 540 MW, Uri (J 8c K) 480 MW and Gangu Stage-II (Sikkim) 60 MW. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited The Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) was incorporated as a Government of India enterprise on 23 October, 1989. The mission is establishment and operation of regional and national power grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the regions with reliability, security and economy on sound commercial principles. It has been declared a Mini-Ratna company. Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd.: REC was set up in 1969 with the object of providing financial assistance for rural electrification in the country. REC was declared a public financial institution in 1992. The company has financed for electrification of villages including tribal villages and 'dalit basis', energisation of pumping sets, provision of power for small agro-based and rural industries, light to households and streets. Power Finance Corporation Ltd.: EFC was set up in 1986. It was declared Public financial institution in 1990. Its aim is to finance power generation projects, transmission and distribution, renovation and modernization of Power plants. North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited The North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited (NEEPCO), Shillong was set up in 1976 under the Companies Act with the objective of harnessing the power potential of the northeastern region through planned development of power generation projects.

Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Limited The Nathpa Jhakri Hydro-electric Power Project (NJHPP) was sanctioned in April 1989 for execution by the Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Limited (NJPC), Shimla, a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Himachal Pradesh. The mission of NJPC is to plan, promote, operate and maintain Hydroelectric Power Projects in the Sutlej river basin in Himachal Pradesh. The project envisages harnessing the hydro power potential in the upper reaches of river Sutlej. On commissioning, the 1500 MW NJHPP will generate 6,700 MUs of electrical energy. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Limited The Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC) was incorporated on 12 July, 1988 as a joint venture of the Government of India and Government of Uttaranchal to execute the 2,00 MW Tehri Hydro Power Complex in Tehri Garhwal (Uttaranchal) and also to plan, promote and organize the development and harnessing of hydroelectric projects in Bhagirathi, Bhilangana valley. The Project will provide drinking water facilities for Delhi and towns and villages of Uttaranchal and UP. Bhakra Beas Management Board Bhakra Nangal Project is something tremendous, something stupendous, and something which shakes you up when you see it. Bhakra today is the symbol of India's progress. -Nehru The Bhakra Beas Management Board manages the facilities created for harnessing the waters impounded at Bhakra and Pong in addition to those diverted at Pandoh through the BSL Water Conductor system. The Board is responsible for the administration, maintenance and operation at Bhakra Nangal Projects, Beas Project Unit I 8c Unit II including Power Houses and a network of transmission lines and grid sub-stations. Geothermal Energy. Use of geothermal energy has been demonstrated for small scale power generation and thermal applications. Geothermal potential for direct heat applications and also for power generation is being assessed. Attempts are being made to develop suitable sites for utilization of geothermal energy for power generation. About 340 geothermal hot springs have been identified throughout the country for the purpose. Ocean Energy. The Ocean acts as a natural collector of solar energy. The temperature gradients, waves and tides contained by ocean can be used to generate electricity. However, with the present technological development, only tides can be harnessed for power generation.

A detailed project report is being prepared for the establishment of a 3 MW mini-tidal power project in Durgaduani Creek of Sunderbans area in West Bengal. For harnessing wind energy C-WET, an autonomous body based at Chennai will serve as a focal point for wind power development. In addition nine regional offices have been set up at Ahmadabad, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Patna. AUTOMATION IN POWER DISTRIBUTION The demand for electrical energy is ever increasing. Today over 21% (theft apart!!) of the total electrical energy generated in India is lost in transmission (4-6%) and distribution (15-18%). The electrical power deficit in the country is currently about 18%. Clearly, reduction in distribution losses can reduce this deficit significantly. It is possible to bring down the distribution losses to a 6-8 % level in India with the help of newer technological options (including information technology) in the electrical power distribution sector which will enable better monitoring and control. Bottlenecks in Ensuring Reliable Power Lack of information at the base station (33kV sub-station) on the loading and health status of the transformers and associated feeders is one primary cause of inefficient power distribution. Due to absence of monitoring, overloading occurs, which results in low voltage at the customer end and increases the risk of frequent breakdowns of transformers and feeders. In fact, the transformer breakdown rate in India is as high as around 20%, in contrast to less than 2% in some advanced countries. In the absence of switches at different points in the distribution network, it is not possible to isolate certain loads for load shedding as and when required. The only option available in the present distribution network is the circuit breaker. However, these circuit breakers are actually provided as a means of protection to completely isolate the downstream network in the event of a fault. Using this as a tool for load management is not desirable, as it disconnects the power supply to a very large segment of consumers. Clearly, there is a need to put in place a system that can achieve a finer resolution in load management. In the event of a fault on any feeder section downstream, the circuit breaker trips (opens). As a result, there is a blackout over a large section of the distribution network. If the faulty feeder segment could be precisely identified, it would be possible to substantially reduce the blackout area, by re-routing the power to the healthy feeder segments through the operation of switches (of the same type as those for load management) placed at strategic locations in various feeder segments. Like most countries, India's electricity is distributed to its population via a large, centralised grid system. Through the construction of thermal power plants and large hydroelectric dams, the

Government has added 150MW of installed generating capacity to this grid in the years since Independence, yet such priority is given to feeding the insatiable demands of the cities that 78 million people in India are still living without an electricity connection. Yet a connection to the electricity grid far from assures a dependable supply of power for those living in rural areas. A recent report by Greenpeace India, Still Waiting, surveyed a tier A city, a tier B city and three villages in five states across India, and found that, while the cities received between 22 and 24 hours of electricity supply per day, all the villages surveyed had a power supply of less than 12 hours a day on average. In the villages, electricity is used for pumping drinking water, irrigating crops and keeping wild animals at bay, in addition to lighting and for small industry. To compound their problems, the rural population is often the ones who must suffer the local environmental and health impacts of centralised power plants, such as the choking grey ash produced by burning coal, or the inhospitable and marshy land created by impounding large water bodies.