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Learn How to Draw People:


40 Expert Tips on How to Draw a Person

Learn how to draw peopLe:

40 expert tips on how to draw a person

Drawing Basics
How to Draw People the Classical way by Michael P. Kinch
apturing the human form in graphite drawings may seem intimidating, but Tony Ryder believes artists can create masterful drawings by taking a three-step approach toward taming the barrage of visual information presented by the human figure.

part 1:

Envelope, Gesture, and Block-In


Ryder begins with an envelope of lines connecting a few widely separated points on the figure. The envelope establishes the drawings general proportions and institutes what the artist calls pointto-point measurement, the analysis
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of the relationship between two points as defined by the length and tilt of the straight line that connects them. At the same time, or even before he draws the envelope, Ryder is conscious of the gesture of the model. He asks, When do we really begin to draw the figure? I think we begin before the pencil touches the paper, with a response to the pose of the model. More than anything else, at this stage I respond to the action or gesture of the model. It is the fundamental energy that patterns the whole drawing.

Paintbrushes
1998, graphite, 18 x 24. Courtesy John Pence Gallery, san Francisco, California. All images this article from The Artists Complete Guide to Figure Drawing, by Anthony ryder (WatsonGuptill Publications, new York, new York). 2000 by Anthony ryder.
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

40 expert tips on how to draw a person

Music
1998, graphite, 24 x 18. Private collection.

This diagram of Music illustrates breaking down the envelope. Here, the artist established large, axial relationships, such as the axes of the shoulders and knees, as well as the pitch of the arms and torso.

In reality, gesture is an immaterial and invisible energy, but Ryder looks for what he terms the inner curve, an imaginary line that flows like a river through all the forms of the body, never making angular, abrupt changes of direction. Capturing gesture, he says, brings the drawing to life. The figures in drawings should appear as if they were breathing, as if
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their hearts were beating. Gesture is the heart and soul of figure drawing. Gesture guides the anatomy of the body into the shape of the pose. This shape, expressed in its simplest form in the envelope, is more fully defined in the block-in. Constructed within the envelope, and according to the same principles, the block-in is the elabora-

tion and continuation of the envelope. It is a complex shape approximating the appearance of the figure. The block-in shapes are strung along the inner curve. They progress and merge into one another along its invisible path, Ryder describes. They conduct the curve as if it were a kind of electricity, a gestural current, expressed in the fluid interconnection of shapes as they progress into one another. He refines the block-in until there is a rough but delineated outline of the figure, always keeping an eye on the flow of the gesture by establishing large axial relationships, such as the pitch of the arms and torso. Ryder pays special attention to the hands, which he proclaims as the gestural organ par excellence. Hands are one of the most expressive parts of the body and, due to their mobility, are similar to a little body in themselves. That mobility and complexity can make drawing a hand intimidating, so Ryder recommends that artists regard the hand as an outgrowth of the gestural shape of the arm. He suggests first drawing the mitten-shaped envelope of the hand, looking at the fingers as a unit, and then noticing how they taper and overlap. Fingers dont look like sausages neatly lined up on a meat counter, Ryder remarks.

Contour
The second step in Ryders figure-drawing method is contour, which is the refined outline of the figure. He notes, The contour of the body is extremely subtle, difficult to describe accurately,
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and quite fascinatingly beautiful. When the contour is sensitively handled, it can stand alone, like a violin solo. Contour consists of convex curves that delineate the horizon of the models body. Ryder works along the block-in section by section, imposing the curves on the straight-line segments, though not necessarily on a one-to-one basis. The artist routinely corrects the con-

tour, erasing and redrawing small (and sometimes not so small) sections.

Inside Drawing
Ryder refers to the final stage as inside drawing, by which he sculpts the form of the body within the contour through gradations of tone. These gra-

above

Ramona
1995, graphite, 24 x 18. Private collection. As shown here, the gestural currents in this drawing alternate from side to side, spiraling around the central inner curve.
Left

Cynthias Daffodil
1997, graphite and pastel on gray paper, 25 x 19. Private collection.

dations of tone, or tonal progressions, represent the flow of light and shadow across the figure. The most challenging aspect, says Ryder, is learning to see light and form. Given that we process visual experiences every moment of our waking lives, it seems we should be entirely familiar with the nature and behavior of light. Strangely, he remarks, when it comes to drawing its effects, students discover that the action of light is almost entirely unknown territory. Therefore, inside drawing is developed in tandem with the understanding of the actions of light.
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

40 expert tips on how to draw a person

Scotts Back
1997, graphite, 18 x 24. Private collection.

Potential
1996, graphite, 18 x 24. Private collection.
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

40 expert tips on how to draw a person

above

Aurora
1998, graphite and pastel on gray paper, 19 x 25. Private collection.
beLow

Phases of Dane
Crescent, 1998, graphite and pastel on gray paper, 25 x 19. Courtesy van de Griff/Marr Gallery, santa Fe, new Mexico.

Ryder divides the technical aspect of drawing light and shadow into two basic skills: applying graphite to the surface of the paper in a controlled manner and developing washes of shading in a logical sequence. The control is in the deliberate work of hatching and crosshatching. Hatching is a rhythmic activity, he says. The pencil moves like a sewing-machine needle. The trick is to get the lines evenly spaced, gradually increasing or decreasing in length, and in the right value range and progresLEarn How to Draw PEoPLE

sion. Crosshatching is hatching on top of hatching, with the layers of hatching crossing at an angle. Theres no limit to the number of layers of crosshatching that can be applied in a drawing. To mist a drawing with value, crosshatching can be done very softly, as if you were applying washes of value with a brush rather than individual lines with a pencil. The second skill, shading in a logical sequence, is not so much manual as it is procedural. After creating a finely tuned contour drawing an artist may be eager
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DEMonstratIon: tHouGHt ForM

is not an easy process. I always feel like apologizing to my students for breaking the news that drawing the figure in this way is really a lifelong work of devotion, he says. The most important thing is consistent effort. It is also crucial that students learn to pace themselves, to work at a reasonable tempo. Insofar as possible, they should try not to judge themselves too harshly. Progress comes imperceptibly. n
A former university librarian, Michael P. Kinch is an Oregon-based freelance writer and frequent contributor to American Artist and Watercolor.

about the artist


anthony ryder studied at the Art students League of new York, the new York Academy of Art, both in new York City, and with Ted seth Jacobs. He has distilled his drawing techniques in his book The Artists Complete Guide to Figure Drawing (Watson-Guptill Publications, new York, new York). The artist lives in santa Fe. For more information, visit his website: www.Tonyryder.com.

Give Your Art A Solid Foundation


to start shading. But Ryder tempers zeal with an understanding of and respect for the order of the form. The body on the inside is subtly structured, simultaneously orderly and complex. So it should be in our drawings. But, he says, ordering the form on the inside must be done without lines. There are no lines in nature. Ryder locates landmarks on the inside with nearly invisible micropatches of shading, organizing them into pathways of form that collectively create a network. These networks guide Ryder through the development of the tonal progressions. For example, in Scotts Back the landmarks created by muscle and bone catch light and cast shadow to create links within the contour. The artist used shadows, cast-shadow edges, and downturns in the light to organize the models back. Ryder realizes that learning to draw
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40 expert tips on how to draw a person

the compLeted drawing:

Thought Form (detail)


1999, graphite, 18 x 24. Private collection.
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

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using the Camera to Your advantage


Drawing People From a Photograph | b y sa n d r a a n g e l o
rawing from photographs has its advantages and disadvantages. Deciding whether to draw from life or from photographic reference should be a matter of choosing the practical path. Drawing from life will allow an artist to see a fuller value range than what can be observed in a photograph, while drawing from a photograph of a child, say, rather than asking the child to pose, can make a difficult task much more manageable. A lot of artists concentrate on the eyes when starting a portrait. Some concern themselves with the general shape of the head, while others may find that likeness resides in the mouth. But many beginners are filled with trepidation at tackling the most changeable, finely detailed, and idiosyncratic feature of a person: the hair. Shiny, silky, smooth, frizzy, wavy, kinky. A persons hair is as individual as his or her facial features. Both the style and texture speak volumes about someones age, personality, social status, and history. But many artists overlook that important aspect of a sitters appearance and individuality in recording what I call a personality portrait.
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part 2:

They scribble lines, rub tones, and fill in shapes after theyve completed the face, hoping no one will notice that the hair looks more like a floppy hat pulled tightly over the head.

wont damage the paper surface or leave ugly marks. I use a kneaded eraser for lifting graphite from paper, to soften an edge, or to lighten a value. As the name implies, a kneaded eraser can be pulled apart and pushed back together like bread

Have the right tools for the Job


You could use a tablespoon to measure a teaspoon full of liquid, but why risk pouring too much or too little? Its always better to choose the right tool for the job at hand. Thats as true in drawing as it is in cooking. I recommend buying at least six graphite pencils, ranging in degrees of softness from an HB to a 9B, as well as an F. My favorite brands are European, because they yield a much wider range of values. Yes, you could use the yellow No. 2 pencil in your desk drawer, but you will struggle to get the deep, rich darks and the soft, light tones that are easy to create with artists pencils. Artists erasers are also a must because, unlike the pink eraser at the end of a writing pencil, they

For this demonstration, I took a black-and-white photo of the model and made a contour drawing of the major shapes within the hair on a sheet of two-ply, plate-finish paper.

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Learn how to draw peopLe:

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the compLeted drawing:

rachael
2002, graphite, 11 x 812. Collection the artist. Working from hard to soft graphite pencils, I drew the lines of the hair in varying lengths. Following the three-dimensional form of the head, I worked up to a rich, dark tone near the forehead and around the bun.

dough to clean graphite from the eraser. I also use a hand-held, battery-operated eraser for establishing sharp edges or for removing lines completely. The surface I prefer is a plate-finish, 100% cotton, pure-white drawing paper sold in 11-x-14 spiral-bound pads. I also have one pad with thin, one-ply paper that I take along when traveling or sitting in a doctors office, and another pad that contains a heavier, two-ply paper for studio work. If my drawings are going to be handled by a lot of people, I spray them with a light mist of Krylon workable fixative. If they are going to a framer immediately, to be placed under glass, I dont need to give them that protective coating.

where Do I Begin?
I encourage beginners to learn by copying Old Master drawings, then progress to working from large photographic references. The two advantages of copying Old Masters are that its easier to render from drawings, because you can see how materials were used, and because you will always learn more from copying a great drawing than from duplicating an average drawing. Its important to work from a large reference, be it an Old Master drawing, a family photograph, or a magazine illustration. Source material has to be large enough for you to see subtleties in tonesparticularly in depicting hair. Fashion magazines often have large faces that are excellent references. Stay away from family snapshots where
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faces are smaller than a thumbtack; the face in your reference needs to be at least 5 x 7 for you to gather enough information for a drawing. With computers and laser copies readily available, its quite easy to enlarge photos. Just make sure your enlargement retains adequate resolution. To save time when drawing a grid over the black-and-white enlargement of a drawing or photo, my students use the

Discover Art grid kit; the grid lines are on an acetate sheet that is placed over the reference. A sheet with grids (dark lines that show through drawing paper) is placed under the drawing surface. The sheets come with 12, 34, and 1 grids. The more detail in your drawing, the smaller your grid should be. If you cant get the grid kit, you can simply use a ruler to mark 12 intervals along the edges of your photocopy,
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

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and draw grid lines connecting the marks. Draw a proportional grid on a clean sheet of drawing paper, using a light graphite pencil to keep your lines faint. Now you are ready to create a contour-line drawing that will serve as a map for your shading. Draw the outlines of the major shapes within the Old Master drawing or other reference by recording how those outlines move from one part of the grid to another. For example, you might observe that the outline of the mouth begins at the bottom of one square and goes diagonally over to the next square, then the line moves down to the edge of the third square. Draw that outline crossing the same set of squares in the grid on your drawing paper. Also observe the width and height of the hair in relation to the face. If you are struggling with accuracy, consider turning your reference and
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above Left and right:

I practiced drawing strands of hair, making sure they varied in weight and length. The circled areas show how unnatural the hair looks if the lines end abruptly or if all lines end in the same place.
right:

This demonstration shows how to draw hair with an awareness that the lines flow over and around a threedimensional form, and how the position of the light source (at upper left) affects the placement of light and dark lines.

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Left

Dianne
2000, graphite, 9 x 9. Collection the artist.
beLow

Just for your amusement, Ive shown how unnatural hair looks when its drawn as a clump of lines that surround the shape of the head.

drawing paper upside down. Or place a piece of paper (with a 12 window in it) over your reference, blocking everything except the information contained within a 12 square. That will force you to see abstract line and shape relationships instead of working from preconceived notions about how the subject should look. Once your line drawing is accurate, you are ready to start filling in the contours with lines characteristic of human hair. It may seem that using a grid is a cheaters way of drawing, but its actuLEarn How to Draw PEoPLE

ally a process artists have relied on for centuries. Its a simple way of transferring the major lines of a drawing and, at the same time, either reducing or enlarging the image. Furthermore, a grid helps us understand that drawing and painting depend on seeing the abstract relationship of shapes, lines, and values. Once you accept that premise and stop being intimidated by the magnificence of Raphaels Madonna or the intricacies of Aunt Gertrudes lace blouse, youll be able to draw anything accuratelyincluding hair.

How Can I Make It Look real?


I recommend that beginners build up layers of graphite from the lightest to the darkest values, because students seem to have more confidence in
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above Left

above right

Jenni
by James Wallace, 2003, graphite, 10 x 8. Wallace observed his daughter, Jenni, lost in thought while sitting on the patio of their home. He quickly grabbed a camera and took candid shots, one of which captured her pensive expression. Once back in his studio, Wallace used a sanford design ebony graphite pencil to makea quick gesture drawing to place the head in the middle of a piece of strathmore Bristol board. he then developed the drawing being careful not to smudge the graphite on the white board.

anka
by Gordon MacDonald, 2003, graphite, 10 x 8. Collection the artist. take 20 or 30 photographs of a person from different angles so you can get a sense of the sculptural form of the head and the subtle differences in facial expressions, advises Gordon MacDonald, a finalist in Drawing magazines 2004 Drawing Competition. Just one view of the head is limiting, and I need to have enough information to distort things for the sake of capturing a total likeness. A good portrait has three main ingredients: the personality of the sitter, the likeness of the facial features, and the design of the image on paper or canvas.

progressing toward the intense darks rather than away from them. Following that idea, you should start drawing the lightest highlights and work toward the dark twists and folds in the subjects hair. Use your graphite pencils in numerical sequence, increasing the amount of pressure you apply to them as you build tone. Always place a dark value at the hair roots, to prevent hair from looking like its a wig that landed on the models head. Dark roots anchor hair to the head. The lines of your drawing should flow with the three-dimensional form. That is, have them move as if they were actually strands of hair undulating on your paper over the surface of your models head. Dont draw each line exactly the same length; let some stop short and others flow beyond the outlines you made over your grid. No matter how much mousse or hair spray is applied to a head of hair, a few strands will always stray from the pack. Painters talk about establishing lost and found edges with the movement of their brushes; the same idea applies to handling a drawing pencil. For example, the edge between a persons face and hair is usually a hard
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Learn how to draw peopLe:

40 expert tips on how to draw a person

above

shades of Gray
by Carrie Ballantyne, 2002, colored pencil, 15 x 12. Private collection.
right

Hannah
by Carrie Ballantyne, 2003, charcoal, 15 x 11. Private collection. This charcoal portrait was done after the coloredpencil piece because Ballantyne wanted to tackle the challenge of charcoal, and because she wanted to execute a more accurate depiction of her daughter she wasnt satisifed with certain parts of her coloredpencil portrait. The process for both drawings began with many photographs, which she developed in black and white to allow her to gauge each one without being unduly influenced by color. Ballantyne was featured in the premiere issue of Drawing magazine, in 2003.

one, because there is a shadow cast by the overhanging hair, whereas the crown of the head often fades into the background and becomes a softer, lost edge. There is also a lost-and-found character to individual lines when they begin as firm, dark marks and gradually soften and melt into white paper. The balance of hard and soft edges helps establish a realistic quality in a drawing.
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How Do You Get to Carnegie Hall?


Yes, practice is the only way to master any art form, be it music, dance, or fine and applied art. Its especially important in drawing, which builds confidence, facilitates the motor coordination between eyes and hands, and increases an understanding of how to depict specific subjects. Practice is also a way of being sure of what youre doing once youre in the middle of a drawing. If you arent quite sure how to draw the next section, practice on a separate piece of paper so you wont worry about ruining all the good work youve done. n
sadie
by Cindy Long, 2003, graphite on cold-pressed Bristol board, 1412 x 1112. Collection the artist. Long, who studied with Ballantyne, starts her process with a photo session, during which she attempts to capture the essence and personality of the subject, as well as begin the design and composition process. she then strives to transfer that glimpse of the inner person into her drawings. its important to capture more than just the likeness of the subject in a drawing, she explains. There is an emotion, an attitude, or a moment in time to portray as well.

about the artist


sandra angelo is a the author of a Home study Correspondence Coaching Program titled Turn Family Photos into Art: Faces 101, available at www.DrawFACEs101. com. A Fellowship Award recipient from rhode Island school of Design, Angelo has assembled a comprehensive, award-winning curriculum that includes 18 stepby-step DVDs and five companion books, as well as numerous coaching programs for beginning and intermediate students. View 18 of Angelos free online video lessons at: www.FrEE OnlineArTLessons. com. Email the artist at sandra@ DiscoverArTwith sAnDrA.com or call Discover Art at (888) 327-9278.

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Learn how to draw peopLe:

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Choosing & using Portrait Photo references


Before cameras, portrait patrons had the tedious task of sitting for their portrait for days or even months on end. Enter the camera, a fabulous tool for freezing action, glances, and subtleties. The digital age catapulted photo references to an even greater level of convenience for the portrait artist, because now:
n

mold, not unlike holding up a banal mirror in front of the sitter.

three ways to stimulate a Good shoot

reference images can be enlarged quickly and easily on a home printer. Values can be modified in imagemanipulation software such as Photoshop to explore details difficult to view from traditional prints. Even the photo shoot itself provides instant feedback. One can shoot and immediately check the LCD monitor on the back of the camera for any sign of double chins or dangling cellulite--and all but the finest photos can be deleted.

Before you begin your photo shoot, excite your imagination by looking at masterful portraits. Visit your local bookstore and sink into their comfy chairs with a stack of portrait books. wander through online galleries to stimulate your brain with provocative ideas that may inspire unusual costumes, backgrounds or even a unique location for the photo shoot. If you want to inject personality into a portrait, simply schedule an exciting event with the sitter and take your camera along. By catching them doing something they love, youll get candid references that reflect their character.

Yet even with modern inventions, artists need to avoid pitfalls that could otherwise force portraits into an uninspired
This is a great photo but it would be hard to draw because the faces are so small.

Photo references: three Common Mistakes


1. Mistake: Limited Value range
Light and dark values lend depth to art. For example, subtle shadows indicate underlying anatomical structures such as bones or muscles. If your photo doesnt show detail, you cant draw or paint it. subtleties are often what make or break a likeness.

top

solution: shoot with varied light.


a. shoot each picture with and without the flash. b. print several versions of your photo n a dark version to show detail in the light areas n a medium exposure photo to show midtones

This photo would be much easier to draw because the face is large. This first picture was taken without the flash.
middLe

This second shot was taken with the flash.


bottom

This third frame was modified in Photoshop. It was lightened significantly so that the details in the dark areas would show up.

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Learn how to draw peopLe:

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Choosing & using Portrait Photo references, ContInuED


n

a lightened photo to reveal information in dark zones c. adjust bad photos with photoshop or another image-manipulation software program.

2. Mistake: Dont try for a Perfect Photo


A fine art photo should have flawless composition, lighting, and color. By contrast, a good reference simply needs to offer the artist details about the sitter, his or her environment and costume.

solution: use the Camera as a sketching tool


a. shoot close-ups for detail. b. shoot wide shots for background info. c. Use the same lighting for all shots so that background pictures match the portrait photos and shadows remain consistent.

but sometimes there is a special, albeit very poor quality, photo from your past that really captures someones personality. Perhaps the child has grown or the person has passed away so the photo cant be restaged. But photos of family and friends are generally 4-x-6 at the largest. Thus, their faces might be the size of a thumbtack in the photo. Its impossible to draw a face when you cant see details, so be realistic--not all memory photos are suitable for drawing. Like most folks, even if you discriminate, youll likely come up with more good photos than you can draw in your lifetime. Be selective and choose only photos that lend themselves to creating dynamic portraits.

solution: Classify personal photos in three categories.


1. Photos that trigger memories and help tell your story: Leave those in your scrapbook. 2. Photos that are suitable for framing: You want to keep some memories at

3. Mistake: working with album Photos Can Be tricky


A good photo equals a good drawing,

the front of your mind. Frame these and display them at work and home. 3. Photos that make good drawing references. Photos in this group have the following traits: n The ability to enlarge the photo so you can see detail. n A wide range of values that offer critical drawing information. n A memory that is worth the time and effort it will take to preserve it as a piece of art. Once youve selected a photo remember you are not a slave to the reference. eliminate anything that is not necessary for the story. Before you even begin the portrait, create thumbnail sketches that explore various compositions. avoid the temptation to create portraits that look like run of the mill mug shots. Ask yourself, how can I intrigue a viewer to linger and get acquainted with this sitter? remember, portraits tell a small piece of someones story, like a window that opens into a part of their world.

beLow Left and right

ZZZZZ
by sandra Angelo, 2003, 11x14. I cropped out all extraneous information and drew only what was needed to tell the story.

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