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Sailesh.

K ED07B015

STUDY OF VENTILATED BRAKE DISCS FOR COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

Introduction

Madras Engineering Industries Limited (MEIL)


Major

global source for Slack adjusters ( Drum brakes )

Recent focus of research & development has expanded to disc brakes


Late

2010

Introduction to disc brakes

The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. To stop the wheel, the braking pads are forced by pressurised air against the disc on both sides. Friction causes the disc and wheel to slow or stop.

The Global trendCommercial Vehicles


Front

Europe
Disc

Asia
Disc/Drum

America
Disc/Drum

Rear

Disc/Drum

Drum

Drum

Issues with disc brakes

Brake fade

Build-up of heat

80% of the heat generated is consumed by the rotor(blue) and 20% by the brake pads(pink)

Thermal management is the key issue !

Objective

To assess the potential of different brake disc designs to improve heat dissipation.
Radial

vane brake disc

The brake discs have cooling passages (vanes) cast into them to help reduce operating temperatures.

Radial vane brake disc

Time plan (Jan-July 2011)


Jan & Feb 2011 Brake Discs Working principles Patent Survey

March July 2011 Test Rig Development & Results Design and installation of the test rig. Testing radial vane disc & interpretation of values June & July 2011 Development of computational model.

Study on Brake Discs for CVs Test Rig Development & Results

Development of a Computational model.

Patent survey

Patent survey
Year

of patent Description & Diagram Prior Art

Study on Brake Discs for CVs Test Rig Development & Results

Development of a Computational model.

The test rig Functional Requirements

Understanding Functional Requirements Rotating the disc Braking the disc Temperature measurement Inputs & Outputs to System (Black Box)

The test rig Schematic

The test rig- Picture

The test rig Pros and Cons

Pros
Braking

system. Economical Works at varying rpm, pressures.

Cons
Still

air testing, no ram air. Cannot produce temperatures in real- time magnitudes.

The test rig Method of testing


Test Conditions Variables Angular velocity of disc Brake pressure Measuring Locations Effective radius, ie ( r1+r2)/2 Required Parameter Limiting Temperature

Number of braking cycles.(n) (Braking cycle= Disc from rest to required rpm + braking back to rest.)

References for above method of testing : Air jet Cooling of Brake Discs by O.F.P.Lyons, D.B.Murray and A.A.Torrance, Dept. of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2, IRELAND. Aerodynamic Cooling of Automotive Disc Brakes by Arthur Stephens , RMIT University.

Test Rig - Results


Number of cycles (n) 10 10 10 10
140 120 100 80 60 1250 rpm , 0.1 bar 1250 rpm , 1 bar 1750 rpm , 0.1 bar 1750 rpm , 1 bar

rpm

Brake pressure 0.1 bar 1 bar 0.1 bar 1 bar

Temperature after 10 cycles 123 130 110 114

1750 1750 1250 1250

40
20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Inferences

Increase in angular velocity and pressure values increase temperature. Temperature increase reduces as we go forward cycle to cycle.

Study on Brake Discs for CVs Test Rig Development & Results

Development of a Computational model.

A computational approach

3 dimensional heat conduction and convection Can the temperature increase in one braking cycle be predicted?

A computational approach

CFD analysis.

Transient analysis over one braking stop. Fluid enclosure Rotational symmetric sector

Software Used : Ansys CFX References : Ansys Workshop Manual , Transient Brake Rotor. Numerical Analysis of Brake Disc considering cooling, Pevec, M.; Lerher, T.; Potr, I. & Vraneevi, D. , ADVANCED ENGINEERING, 4(2010)1, ISSN 1846-5900. Analysis of air flow and heat dissipation from a high performance passenger car front brake rotor, Palmer, Edward, Mishra, Rakesh and Fieldhouse, John D, University of Huddersfield repository.

Mesh & Material

Ansys ICEM CFD


Tetrahedral

meshing Element sizing

Material
Gray

Cast Iron

Boundary Conditions Sample input


Starting angular velocity 1750 rpm Brake Input Pressure 0.1 bar

Boundary conditions

Software Used : Ansys CFX References : Ansys Workshop Manual , Transient Brake Rotor. Numerical Analysis of Brake Disc considering cooling, Pevec, M.; Lerher, T.; Potr, I. & Vraneevi, D. , ADVANCED ENGINEERING, 4(2010)1, ISSN 1846-5900. Analysis of air flow and heat dissipation from a high performance passenger car front brake rotor, Palmer, Edward, Mishra, Rakesh and Fieldhouse, John D, University of Huddersfield repository.

Results
1 braking cycle 0.1 bar, 1250 rpm 0.1 bar, 1750 rpm CFD analysis Experimental results 66 83 69 77

Next Steps

Extensive tests under different conditions. Split vane design. CFD approach for the new design.

Acknowledgements

Mr. Jayaraj. D (Project Mentor) , General Manager Projects. Mr. Sathya Narayanan CV( Co-Mentor) , Senior Manager Projects. Prof. Shankar Ram C.S (Project Guide) , Assistant Professor, Dept of Engineering Design, IIT Madras Prof. S.P Venkateshan, Head of Mechanical Engineering Department , IIT Madras Prof. Arul Prakash , Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras.

Thank You