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Vocational Training Report On

Process of thermal power


generation in power plants

Submitted By:-

Gaurav Rajoria
B.Tech(2008-12)
National Institute Of Technology

Raipur (C.G)

DECLARATION

IGAURAV RAJORIA, a student of B.TECH V Semester in the year 2010-11 hereby declare that, I have undergone training at Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board , Raipur (C.G.). This report is an original work carried out by me and the report has not been submitted to any other University for the award of any degree or diploma.

Date .. Place :- Bilaspur(C.G.) Sem 2008-12

GAURAV RAJORIA B.TECH V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success of any project depends upon the sincere effort, willingness to enlist help and guidance from the resource persons. I was extremely fortunate to many eminent personalities in successfully completing this important study of THERMAL POWER GENERATION in CHHATTISGARH STATE ELECTRICITY BOARD (C.G.). It is my profound privilege to express my gratitude to Director NIT Raipur, H.O.D Electonics & Telecom Dept. and Shri Sameer Bajpayee (Head, T.P.O) who provided me this opportunity to conduct this Report.

I am also thankful to all technical executives of C.S.E.B who provided me necessary information and Guidance for completing the report.

GAURAV RAJORIA

B.Tech Vth Sem

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Serial no.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Contents
Objectives of Study Introduction (CSEB) Future Projects Introduction to thermal power plants Basic diagram of a thermal power plant Parts of a thermal power plant Deacription of rankine cycle
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8 9

Conclusion Bibliography

1. Objectives Of Study -

The following are the objectives of the study:-

To gather knowledge about CSEB and its potential in power generation. To gather the knowledge about installed capacity of different units and future projects proposed by CSEB.

To study process of thermal power generation.


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To study the functioning of thermal power plant and its components. To study the basic thermodynamic cycle involved in process of thermal power generation.

To understand the practical implication of the theoretical knowledge about implementation of concepts of electronics in process of thermal power generation.

2. Introduction (CSEB)
The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board has been reorganized into following five companies in accordance with the provisions contained in the Electricity Act 2003 by the Govt. of Chhattisgarh vide Notification dated 19.12.2008. Chhattisgarh State Power Holding Company Limited Chhattisgarh State Power Generation Company Limited Chhattisgarh State Power Transmission Company Limited Chhattisgarh State Power Distribution Company Limited Chhattisgarh State Power Trading Company Limited Unit wise Installed Capacity, Date of Commissioning & Date of Commercial Generation
S.No. Unit No. Installed Capacity (MW) Date of Date of Commissio Commer ning cial Generati on

Thermal Power Stations (1786 MW) Korba East Thermal Power Station (440 MW) I II Power House No. II III IV Total I Power House No. III II Total 50 50 50 50 200 120 120 240 5-Sep1966 16-May1967 23-Mar1968 31-Oct1968 27-Apr1976 5-Apr1981

Korba East, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Thermal Power Station (500 MW) 30-Mar- 27-JunI 250 2007 2008 II 250 11-Dec- 30-Nov7

2007 Total 3 500

2008

Korba West, HasdeoThermal Power Station (840 MW) I II III 210 210 210 21-Jun1983 31-Mar1984 26-Mar1985 13-Mar1986

IV 210 Total 840 Hydel Power Stations (138.70 MW) Mini-Mata Hasdeo Bango Hydel Power Station (120 MW) I II III Total 40 40 40 120

21-Mar1994 21-Nov1994 11-Jan1995

Gangrel Hydel Power Station (10 MW) I II III IV Total 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 10 2-Apr- 28-Jul2004 2004 29-Jun- 4-Aug2004 2004 17-Oct- 3-May2004 2005 5-Nov- 23-May2004 2005

Sikasar Hydel Power Station (7 MW) I II Total 3.5 3.5 7 3-Sep2006 3-Sep2006

Korba West Mini/ Micro Hydel Power Station (1.7 MW) I 0.85

12-Jan2003 8

II 0.85 Total 1.7 Other Power Stations (6 MW) Bhoramdev Co-Gen, Kawardha (6 MW) I Total Grand Total (Thermal + Hydel) 6 6 1924.7

29-May2009

4-Aug2009

10-Aug2006

MW

THERMAL GENERATION DATA UPTO JULY-2009


POWER PARTICULAR HOUSE/ STATI S ON

UNIT

YEARLY YEARLY JULY JULY.-08 UPTO UPTO .-09 JULY.-08 JULY.-09

1
Target Gen PUF

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MU MU % % MU % No. MU % No. MU % MU % Kg/kwh ml/kwh %

4
954 1064.86 80.98% 88.67% 13.56 1.02% 5 32.22 2.43% 16 104.28 7.87% 109.40 8.26% 0.783 1.819 8.91%

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4105 4189.99 80.39% 86.87% 151.29 2.90% 42 74.65 1.43% 77 458.25 8.79% 337.67 6.48% 0.791 1.429 9.05%

Availability Forced outages (Tube Leakage)

CSPGCL

Forced outages Planned outages Partial losses Sp. Coal Cons. Sp. Oil Cons. Aux. Cons.

4074 975 4219.04 944.68 71.33 89.30% % 80.64 88.84% % 208.97 34.62 4.01% 2.61% 37 9 132.12 19.50 2.54% 1.47% 78 28 240.31 202.23 15.27 4.61% % 411.40 123.29 7.89% 9.31% 0.790 0.819 1.598 2.734 9.02% 9.46%

3.Future Projects
Matnar Hydel Project (3x20 MW) District Bastar (C.G.) Matnar Hydel Project is located on river Indravati about 40 Km away from District headquarter Jagdalpur. The estimated cost of the project is 292.22 Crores. Technoeconomic clearance to the project has been accorded by Central Electricity Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi in August 2004. The project is scheduled to be completed in the 11th five year plan (2007-2012). The project will generate 177.18 Million units of energy per year. The tenders will be invited after getting clearance from MOEF.

Bodhghat Hydel Project (4x125 MW) District Dantewara Bodhghat Hydel Project is located on river Indravati near village Barsoor, about 100 Km from Jagdalpur. The project was earlier cleared by Planning Commission in 1979. However, subsequently on enactment of Forest Conservation Act 1980, the Ministry of Environment & Forest conveyed its inability for diversion of required 5704 hectares forest land. As a result all project activities were stopped. After formation of the State of Chhattisgarh fresh efforts have been made by Govt. of Chhattisgarh & CSEB to revive the project. The Ministry of Environment and Forest in February 2004 has accorded In Principle Clearance for diversion of required forest land for the project. Efforts are being made to revive the techno-economic clearance from Central Electricity Authority and clearance from Ministry of Environment Forest. The Detailed Project Report is being updated for submission to CEA. The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 2350 Crores (at January 2004 Price level). The Project will generate 1152 Million units of energy per year.

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4. Introduction To Thermal Power Plants


A thermal power plant is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator . After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy.

Overview Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric, and waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam, in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning coal are often referred to collectively as fossil-fuel power plants. Commercial electric utility power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Electric power plants typically use three-phase or individual-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current (AC) electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz (hertz, which is an AC sine wave per second) depending on its location in the world. In some industrial, large institutional facilities, or other populated areas, there are combined heat and power (CHP) plants, often called cogeneration plants, which produce both power and heat for facility or district heating or industrial applications. AC electrical power can be stepped up to very high voltages for long distance transmission with minimal loss of power. Steam and hot water lose energy when piped over substantial distance, so carrying heat energy by steam or hot water is often only worthwhile within a local area or facility, such as steam distribution for a ship or industrial facility or hot water distribution in a local municipality.

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History

Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in 1882, also used reciprocating steam engines. As generator sizes increased, eventually turbines took over.

Efficiency

Power is energy per unit time. The power output or capacity of an electric plant can be expressed in units of megawatts electric (MWe). The electric efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered as saleable energy (in MWe) produced at the plant busbars as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48% efficient. This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics (See: Carnot cycle). The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This waste heatcan go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called cogeneration. An important class of thermal power station are associated with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products. Since the efficiency of the plant is fundamentally limited by the ratio of the absolute temperatures of the steam at turbine input and output, efficiency improvements require use of higher temperature, and therefore higher pressure, steam..

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5.Basic Diagram Of A Thermal Power Plant

6. Parts Of A Thermal Power Plant


1. Cooling tower 2. Cooling water pump 3. transmission line (3-phase) 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 6. Low pressure steam turbine 7. Condensate pump 8. Surface condenser 9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 10. Steam Control valve 19. Superheater 11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater 13. Feedwater heater 22. Combustion air intake 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economiser 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater 16. Coal pulverizer 25. Precipitator 17. Boiler steam drum 26. Induced draught (draft) fan 18. Bottom ash hopper 27. Flue gas stack

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Coal Handling Plant (CHP):-

Extent of work: - In brief we can say that receipt of coal from coal mines, weighing of coal, crushing it to required size and transferring the quanta of coal to various coal mill bunkers. This is the responsibility and duty of the CHP and its staff. Receipt of Coal:Normally Thermal Power Station receives the coal by three modes of transportation. 1. By Railway (80-90% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way) 2. By Road ( if required 5-10% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way ) 3. By Arial ropeways Arial ropeway is available only to the power stations which are near the coal mines Cost of coal transportation by road is much higher than that for rail transport hence most of the coal requirement of the power stations is fulfilled by railway transport. Major auxiliaries of CHP:1. Wagon Tipplers 2. Vibrating Feeders 3. Conveyor Belts 4. Coal Crushers 5. Trippers 6. Electromagnetic Separators. 7. Dust extraction systems 8. Gas Extractor. 1.Wagon Tipplers:These are the giant machines having gear boxes and motor assembly and are used to unload the coal wagons into coal hoppers in very less time (e.g. 20 wagons/hr. or more). 2.Vibrating Feeders:These are electromagnetic vibrating feeders or sometimes in the form of dragging chains which are provided below the coal hoppers. This equipment is used for controlled removal of coal from coal hoppers. 3.Conveyers:-

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A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries. Many kinds of conveying systems are available, and are used according to the various needs of different industries.

4.Coal Crushers:We receive the coal in the form of odd shaped lumps. These lumps are to be crushed to required size. These lumps are crushed by coal crushers. 5.Trippers:These are the motorized or manually operated machines and are used for feeding the coal to different coal bunkers as per their requirement. 6.Electromagnetic Separators:Electromagnets are used for removing of Iron and magnetic impurities from the coal. 7.Dust Extraction System:This system is provided in CHP for suppression of coal dust in coal handling plant. 8.Gas Extractors:Gas extractors are provided at the bunker level to remove all types of poisonous and non poisonous gases from the working area. Operational Cycles:1. Normal Bunkering cycle. 2. Stacking cycle. 3. Reclaiming Cycle. 1.Normal Bunkering Cycle:Shifting of coal received from coal wagons directly to coal bunkers is normal bunkering cycle. 2.Stacking Cycle:When there is no coal requirement at coal bunkers even then CHP has to unload the received coal which is stacked at open ground called yard. This is stacking cycle. 3.Reclaiming Cycle:As and when coal wagons are not available the requirement of coal bunkers is fulfilled from the stacked coal this is reclaiming cycle.

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Weighing of Coal:Weighing of coal is carried out at wagon tippler. Weight of loaded wagon is taken; after unloading the coal, weight of empty wagon is taken the difference of the two will give the weight of the coal (normally 55-60 metric ton of coal come in each wagon). Payment of Coal:Payment of coal is made to the coalmines as per the weighing of coal carried out at their premises. However, if any dispute arises regarding weighing of coal same is to be settled by the committee of both the parties. Stone shells:Sometimes stone shells are received along with coal same has to be removed from the coal before bunkering and is done sometimes manually or by different type of machines. If quantum of stone shells is beyond minimum limit the cost of the coal is recovered from the coal mines against the quantity of stone shells received from them. Chemical Analysis of Coal:Sample of coal is randomly collected from each rake by concerned CSEB staff and detailed chemical analysis, calculation of calorific value is carried out and is confirmed whether it is as per agreement with the coal mines or not. Transformers A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic fieldthrough the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP, or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. 16

In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process.

Steam generator
In fossil-fueled power plants, steam generator refers to a furnace that burns the fossil fuel to boil water to generate steam. In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems, which of course is used to generate steam. In a nuclear reactor called a boiling water reactor (BWR), water is boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no units called steam generators. In some industrial settings, there can also be steam-producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial process. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. A fossil fuel steam generator includes an economizer, a steam drum, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator orbaghouse) and the flue gas stack.

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Redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers.

Boiler furnace and steam drum


Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the downcomers to the lower inlet waterwall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the waterwalls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear waterwalls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the waterwalls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the waterwalls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. The steam drum has internal devices that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils.

Superheater
Fossil fuel power plants can have a superheater and/or reheater section in the steam generating furnace. Nuclear-powered steam plants do not have such sections but produce steam at essentially saturated conditions. In a fossil fuel plant, after the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the steam drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into tubes inside an area of the furnace known as the superheater, which has an elaborate set up of tubing where the steam vapor picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside the tubing and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves before the high pressure turbine.

Reheater
Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the reheater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines. This is what is called as thermal power.

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Fuel preparation system


In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100 C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.

Air path
External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening

Auxiliary systems
Fly ash collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. Bottom ash collection and disposal At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.asa Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blowdown and leakages have to be made up to maintain a desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water 19

system. Impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium andmagnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water, and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion, and mixed bed exchangers. Any ions in the final water from this process consist essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which recombine to form pure water. Very pure DM water becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by an air ejector attached to the condenser. Steam turbine-driven electric generator The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimise the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. Barring gear Barring gear (or "turning gear") is the mechanism provided to rotate the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed after unit stoppages. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the steam inlet valve is closed), the turbine coasts down towards standstill. When it stops completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. This is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore could warp or bend by millionths of inches. This small shaft deflection, only detectable by eccentricity meters, would be enough to cause damaging vibrations to the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. The shaft is therefore automatically turned at low speed (about one percent rated speed) by the barring gear until it has cooled sufficiently to permit a complete stop. 20

Condenser

The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent 21

diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectorsor rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean.

FLUE GAS STACK


Flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other fuel is combusted in an industrial furnace, apower plant's steam-generating boiler, or other large combustion device. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater area and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policy and environmental regulation. When the flue gases are exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces, or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants, hotels, or other public buildings and small commercial enterprises, their flue gas stacks are referred to as chimneys.

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Feedwater heater

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A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the surface condenser removes thelatent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content (joules or Btu) in the steam is referred to as enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves thethermodynamic efficiency of the system.[9] This reduces plant operating 24

costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle.

Superheater
As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapor picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine.

Deaerator

Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator (with vertical, domed aeration section and horizontal water storage section A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the metal.Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from 25

the boiler feedwater. A deaerator typically includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank. There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. If operated properly, most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm/L).[10][12]

Auxiliary systems
Oil system An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. Generator heat dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduceswindage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxidebefore filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV and water is conductive, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used.

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Generator high voltage system The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 115 kV to 520 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid.

Other systems

Monitoring and alarm system Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.

Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.

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7. Description Of Rankine Cycle


The Rankine cycle is a cycle which converts heat into work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world,[1] including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath. Description

Physical layout of the four main devices used in the Rankine cycle A Rankine cycle describes a model of steam operated heat engine most commonly found in power generation plants. Common heat sources for power plants using the Rankine cycle are the combustion of coal, natural gas and oil, andnuclear fission. The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle as, when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. The main difference is 28

that heat addition and rejection are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle. A pump is used to pressurize liquid instead of gas. This requires a very small fraction of the energy compared to compressing a gas in a compressor (as in the Carnot cycle). The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30C. This gives a theoreticalCarnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle incombined cycle gas turbine power stations. The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used constantly. The water vapor with entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling systems (not from the closed loop Rankine power cycle) and represents the waste heat that could not be converted to useful work. Note that cooling towers operate using the latent heat of vaporization of the cooling fluid. The white billowing clouds that form in cooling tower operation are the result of water droplets which are entrained in the cooling tower airflow; they are not, as commonly thought, steam. While many substances could be used in the Rankine cycle, water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties, such as nontoxic and unreactive chemistry, abundance, and low cost, as well as its thermodynamic properties. One of the principal advantages the Rankine cycle holds over others is that during the compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump, the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. By condensing the fluid to liquid, the work required by the pump consumes only 1% to 3% of the turbine power and contributes to a much higher efficiency for a real cycle. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature. Gas turbines, for instance, have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500C. Nonetheless, the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched.

Processes of the Rankine cycle

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Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of 0.06bar and 50bar

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, these states are identified by number in diagram to the right. Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid. In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 30

would be represented by vertical lines on the T-S diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine,[1] which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.

Real Rankine cycle (non-ideal)

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Rankine cycle with superheat In a real Rankine cycle, the compression by the pump and the expansion in the turbine are not isentropic. In other words, these processes are non-reversible and entropy is increased during the two processes. This somewhat increases the power required by the pump and decreases the power generated by the turbine. In particular the efficiency of the steam turbine will be limited by water droplet formation. As the water condenses, water droplets hit the turbine blades at high speed causing pitting and erosion, gradually decreasing the life of turbine blades and efficiency of the turbine. The easiest way to overcome this problem is by superheating the steam. On the Ts diagram above, state 3 is above a two phase region of steam and water so after expansion the steam will be very wet. By superheating, state 3 will move to the right of the diagram and hence produce a dryer steam after expansion.

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8. Conclusion-

In todays world scenario in which india is in a developing stage proper, and efficient use of fossil fuels becomes very important for its growth.What else than a thermal power plant can be a better option for providing electricity in india.For efficient working of these power plants, expert technicians are required who could control its functoning. This was main objective of my training, for gathering knowledge about generation of thermal power in thermal power plants and be a part of it. From my training experiences I have concluded that CSEB has been producing electical energy in best and proper manner by adopting the necessary concepts of thermal power generation. The data gathered about thermal power generation by CSEB in the past shows that it had been providing the results in the past and had played a major contribution in development of Chhattisgarh.

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9. BIBLIOGRAPHY -

1. RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering Modern Power Station Practice

2.CSEB DOCUMENTS: Thermal generation data 2009 Published by CSEB CSPGCLs unit wise installed capacity data 3.WEBSITES:

1. www.cseb.gov.in

2. library.thinkquest.org 3. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal Power Plant 4. Search engines: Google & Bing

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