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Oil & Gas Glossary

Abandonment / Decommissioning / Process of dismantling wellhead, production and transportation facilities and restoration of depleted producing areas in accordance with licence requirements and /or legislation. Abandonment Allowance (AA) A 100% allowance for expenditure incurred in respect of abandoning a field. AAIB Air Accidents Investigation Branch, in UK. ABS American Bureau of Shipping Any event which results in injury, and / or damage, and / or loss.


Acoustic log Record of time taken by a sound wave to travel over a certain distance through geological formations. Acid stimulation Form of hydrochloric acid is pumped down well hole to enlarge pore space in oil bearing rocks to increase flow and recovery. ACOP Approved Code of Practice

ACQ Annual Contract Quantity AD Anaerobic Digestion Automatically Deployed Emergency Location Transponder


Aero-magnetic surveys Magnetometers, towed by aircraft, help to detect magnetic anomalies or to distinguish geologic features that might appear similar from seismic data alone.
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AFDS Automatic Flotation Deployment System AFE Authorisation for Expenditure

Air Emissions Waste gases, vapours and small particles released into air. Air gun Air gun array is most common technique used for seismic surveying offshore. Compressed air is released from a chamber to produce shock waves in earth.

Air injection An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into hydrocarbon formation to increase reservoir pressure. ALARP Alkylation As Low As Reasonably Practicable Refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (reverse of cracking). Development plan approval to develop and produce from a commercial field. Annulus [] Space between drill-string and earthen wall of well bore, or between production tubing and casing. Fold in layered rocks originating below surface in form of an elongated dome. Application Outside Great Britain Order Appraisal drilling Drilling to determine physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a reservoir, together with properties of oil or gas. Appraisal expenditure 2
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Annex B



Costs incurred in survey, exploitation and appraisal of licence areas not yet under development or in production. Appraisal well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling programme. APRT AQFD Aquifer Advanced Petroleum Revenue Tax Air Quality Framework Directive

Underground zone of permeable rock saturated with water under pressure. Aromatics Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. ARPAS Automatic Radar Plotting Aids

Artificial lift Any techniques, other than natural drives, for bringing oil to surface. ASB Accounting Standards Board

Associated Gas Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, either dissolved in oil or found as a cap of free gas above oil in reservoir. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

Atmospheric pressure Weight of atmosphere on surface of Earth. At sea level approx. 1.013 bars.

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Bar Barge

One bar = 100 kPa Non-self-propelled marine vessel used as cargo tankers, as equipment and supply carriers, crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling, and as submarine pipe-laying vessels. 7.3 bbls = One tonne: 6.29 bbls = One cubic metre: One bbl = 159 litres approx.

Barrel (bbl)

BAT Best Available Technology BATNEEC bcf bcm Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost

Billion Cubic Feet (One bcf = 0.176 Mboe) Billion Cubic Metres (One bcm = 0.83 MToe) An aromatic hydrocarbon present to a minor degree in most crude oils. (Products manufactured from benzene include styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.)


BHP Bottom Hole Pressure BLEVE Block UKCS acreage one thirtieth of a quadrant (approx. 200 - 250 sq. kms). Generally defined in terms of latitude and longitude, at one-degree intervals. Blow-down Condensate and gas produced simultaneously from outset of production. Blow-out Preventers (BOPs)
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Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion

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High-pressure wellhead (top of casing) valves designed to shut-off flow of hydrocarbons to prevent blowouts (accidental escapes of oil or gas from a well). BNOC boe / bopd British National Oil Corporation set up 1976 abolished 1985. / Bbls of oil equivalent / Bbls of oil per day

Bottom-hole assembly Components, together as a group, that make up lower end of drillstring (drill bit, drill collars, drill pipe and ancillary equipment). Bottom Out To reach objective depth in drilling a well. BPEO Brent blend Best Practical Environmental Practices International marker for crude oil pricing based on a blend of North Sea crudes.

BRIGHTEYE [] Regular UKCS exercise to test search and rescue capability. HKCS BRINDEX [] Association of British Independent Oil Exploration Companies

British Thermal Unit (BTU) One BTU or Btu = 1.05506 kJ = 0.293 watt-hour BROA [] British Rig Owners Association

Butane (C4H10) Either of two saturated hydrocarbons, or alkanes, with chemical formula. In both compounds carbon atoms are joined in an open chain.

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Certifying Authority

CAA Civil Aviation Authority, in UK Calorific equivalents One cubic foot of gas = 1000 BTUs = 1055.06 kJ Approx. one million tonnes of oil = 40 x 1012 BTUs = 40,400 MJ Candela SI unit of light intensity defined as 1/60 of the light radiated from a sq. cm of a blackbody, a perfect radiator that absorbs no light, held at the temperature of freezing platinum.

CAP Civil Aviation Publications Capex Capillaries Capital Expenditure Minute spaces, cracks or pores in rock through which hydrocarbon fluids move in response to natural forces. Tightly closing a well so that hydrocarbons cannot escape. Atomic number is 6; element is in group 14 (or IVa) of periodic table. Carbon content of a hydrocarbon determines, to a degree, hydrocarbon's burning characteristics and qualities.

Capping Carbon

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Colourless, odourless, and slightly acid-tasting gas, sometimes-called carbonic acid gas, molecule of which consists of one atom of carbon joined to two atoms of oxygen. Carbon dioxide in atmosphere tends to prevent escape of outgoing long-wave radiation from Earth to outer space; as more heat is produced and less escapes, temperature of Earth increases. Most important man-made greenhouse gas in UK accounting for 81% of direct global warming potential from national greenhouse emissions in 1990. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Chemical compound of carbon and oxygen.
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Carboniferous Period of geological time about 400 - 300 million years ago. Cardigan Bay () Semicircular inlet of Saint George's Channel in Irish Sea, western Wales. Bay is about 105 km long and about 56 km wide. Casing Steel lining used to exclude unwanted fluids; control well pressures; support sides of well bore. Casing Seat - lowest point at which casing is set. Casing head - top of casing set in well; part of casing that protrudes above surface and to which control valves and flow pipes are attached.

Casing perforation Holes made in liner of a finished well to allow hydrocarbons to flow into production tube. Cathodic protection Method used to minimise rate of electrochemical corrosion of structures, for example, installations offshore, pipelines and storage tanks. CATS CBA CCAB CD Central Area Transmission System (UKCS) / Cost Benefit Analysis / Assessment Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies Consultation Document

CDP common depth point CE EU Mark of Conformity Pumped into space between casing and well bore wall in order to hold casing in place. 7
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CEN European Standards Organisation Central North Sea (CNS) Oil and gas-condensate bearing province (Latitudes 55 degrees - 59 degrees). Methane (CH4) Also marsh gas, gas composed of carbon and hydrogen, first member of paraffin or alkane series of hydrocarbons. Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global warming effects) of UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. Oil and gas production accounted for 2% of national emissions in 1990. CHARM Chemical Hazard And Risk Management

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Synthetic chemical that is odourless, non-toxic, non-flammable, and chemically inert. Released into atmosphere, chlorine-containing chemicals rise and are broken down by sunlight, whereupon chlorine reacts with and destroys ozone molecules. Choke Device to restrict rate of flow during testing of an exploratory discovery. Christmas tree Branching series of pipes, gauges and valves on top end of each production well to control flow of oil or gas. CIMAH Circulation Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (Regulations) Techniques for bringing cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface by continuously pumping drilling mud down through drill-string and up annulus during rotary drilling. Closed In Tubing Heat and Power Closed-in 8
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Descriptive of a well that is capable of producing, but is not currently producing. Coal During Carboniferous period much of world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps. This vegetation died and became submerged under water. As decomposition took place, vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms, leaving a peat deposit with a high percentage of carbon. As time passed, layers of sand and mud settled from water over some of peat deposits. Pressure of these overlying layers, as well as movements of earth's crust and sometimes volcanic heat, acted to compress and harden deposits, thus producing coal. Coiled tubing Used to carry production equipment to bottom of well. Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) Generation of electrical power by a combination of a gas-turbine cycle and a steam-turbine cycle. CHP (Combined Heat and Power) Combination of heat and power generation in same plant. Method reduces overall consumption of fuel by exploiting otherwise wasted heat from conventional electricity generation. Commercial field Field judged to be capable of producing sufficient net income to be worth developing. Commingling Producing oil and gas from two or more reservoirs at different depths, or where product of two or more fields is transported via a common pipeline. Compensator Keeps drill-sting stationary while semi-submersible and derrick move. Competence Ability to perform particular job in compliance with performance standards. CONCAWE The Oil Companies European Organisation for Environmental and Health Protection, based in the Hague. 9
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Condensate Conductor

Liquid mixture of pentane and higher hydrocarbons. Wide-diameter pipe from drilling platform to sea-bed to guide drilling and contain drilling fluid.

Consortium A group of unrelated companies acting together in a specific venture (Licence application). Continental Shelf Edge of a continent which lies under seas less than 200 metres deep. Continental Shelf Act Passed by UK Parliament in 1964 Continental Shelf Convention Ratified by 22 States and became International Law in 1964. Conveying & Treating (C&T) [] Services provided by a field to other fields in vicinity. COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (Regulations)

CPG Clean Power Generation Crane Barge Vessel capable of lifting heavy equipment onto / off offshore installations. Cretaceous Period of geological time about 144 - 65 million years ago.

CRINE Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era CRISTAL [] Contracts Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution 10
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Cross Field Allowance (CFA) An element (up to 10%) of immediate relief for qualifying field development costs where a participator on a new taxable development has, or expects to have, PRT profits in another taxable field. CSON [ ] Continental Shelf Operations Notice CSS Co-ordinated Surface Search CSWIP CT Certification Scheme for Welding Inspection Personnel

Corporation Tax Standard unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic metres).

Cubic foot

Cubic metre SI unit used to measure quantity of gas at atmospheric pressure (One cubic metre = 35.31 cubic feet)

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Risk of injury

Dangerous occurrence Readily identifiable event with potential to cause an accident or disease to persons at work and public or of significant actual of potential material damage. DCQ Daily Contracted Quantity Deep-Water Discovery An offshore discovery located in at least 200 metres of water. Delineation well Drilled at a distance from a discovery well to determine physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a new oil or gas field. Deviated well Development Horizontal well drilled at an angle (over 80 degrees) to vertical. Phase on which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells.

Development well A production well drilled with intent of producing oil or gas from a proven field. Devonian Discount rate Period of geological time about 400 - 300 million years ago. Used to convert future income / expenditure to its present day value.

Discovery well An exploratory well that finds hydrocarbons. Dogleg Downhole [] Deliberate of accidental sharp bend in a well. A term to describe tools, equipment and instruments used in well bore.
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Downstream Relates to oil and gas refining, marketing and distribution activities. (see also Upstream.) Downtime Offshore operations discontinued due to adverse weather or other factors.

DPD Dangerous Preparations Directive Drill bit Located at end of drill-string cutting head is generally designed with three cone-shaped wheels tipped with hardened teeth. Drill bits used for extra-hard rock are studded with thousands of tiny industrial diamonds. Heavy pipe-sections that put weight on drill bit.

Drill collars

Drill cuttings Lifted continually to surface during drilling by a circulating-fluid system driven by a pump. To facilitate removal of cuttings, mud is constantly circulated down through drill pipe, out through nozzles in drill bit, and then up to surface through space between drill pipe and well bore through earth (diameter of bit is somewhat greater than that of pipe). Drill Ship Free floating mobile drilling platform used in very deep waters. Positioned by dynamic positioning.

Drilling Mud / Fluid Mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate drill bit and to counter act natural pressure in formation. Drilling mud provides circulation, flushing rock cuttings from bottom of well bore to surface. Drill-string Dry gas Series of connected 9 metre length drill pipes (joints). Or Lean gas is natural gas composed mainly of methane. 13
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Dry Hole

Unsuccessful well, drilled without finding commercial quantities of hydrocarbons


Diving Support Vessel

Dual Completion A well completed to produce from two separate reservoirs. Dead Weight (dwt) Difference between loaded and unloaded weights of a ship.

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E&A Exploration and Appraisal E&P Exploration and Production Council of EU-15 Economy and Finance Ministers


Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) Signed by 45 governments and EU in Lisbon, Portugal on 17 December 1994 EER Evacuation, Escape and Rescue EERTAG ELSBM [] Evacuation, Escape and Rescue Technical Advisory Group [] Exposed location single buoy mooring (ELSBM)

English Channel (EC) Narrow sea separating France and UK. It is 180 km wide in west where it meets Atlantic Ocean and narrows to 34 km at Strait of Dover in east at its junction with the North Sea. Enhanced reach Deviated wells (over 65 degrees) from vertical and reach out horizontally more than twice vertical depth. Environment External surroundings and conditions in which a company or an individual operates or which may effect, including living systems therein. Environmental controls Put in place to meet or exceed legal requirements and to minimise impact on environment. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Part of project management concerned with identifying through a formal written technical evaluation likely impact (positive and

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negative) of a proposed development or activity on natural and manmade environment. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) A process that examines environmental factors and activities or processes that industry uses. EOR Enhanced Oil Recovery EPA EQO ER ESA ESD ESDV Esters Compounds formed by combination of acids and alcohols. ETAP Eastern Trough Area Project (UKCS) Ethanol Ethene Chemical formed by fermentation or synthesis. Or Ethylene simplest member of class of aliphatic organic compounds called alkenes, which contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Ethylene is a colourless, slightly sweet-smelling gas of formula H2C=CH2. It is slightly soluble in water and is produced in commercial amounts by cracking and fractional distillation of petroleum and from natural gas 16
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Environmental Protection Act (1990) Environmental Quality Objectives Emergency Response Environmentally Sensitive Area Emergency Shut Down Emergency Shut Down Valve

Exploration Search for hydrocarbons by Geological and Geophysical (G&G) surveys that may be followed by exploration drilling. Exploration expenditure All costs, including premium payments, associated with acquisition of new acreage, drilling of exploratory wells and other costs incurred in evaluating commercial viability of geological entities. Exploration well [] Drilling to determine whether hydrocarbons are present. Exposure Measurement of time during which subject is at risk from a hazard.

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FAME Farm-in

Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Transfer of part of an oil or gas interest in consideration for an agreement by transferee(s) to meet certain expenditure that would otherwise have to be undertaken by licensee(s).


Financial Accounting Standards Board

Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) Number of fatalities per 100 million man hours worked Fatality Death due to work related injury / illness.

Fatality Rate (FR) Number of fatalities per 1000 employees. Fault A line of fracture along which one body of rock or section of Earth's crust has been displaced relative to another. FDF Finance Directors' Forum, in UK

FDR Flight Data Recording FEA Fire and Explosion Analysis

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) US government agency responsible for regulating gas industry. FEHM FFE Fire and Explosion Hazard Management Fire Fighting Equipment

Field Geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies.

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Fishing Retrieving objects from bolehole. FLAGS Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System (UKCS) Flaring and venting Flaring is burning of hydrocarbon gases for commercial or technical reasons. Venting is release of gases to atmosphere. Flare Stack Steel structure on an offshore installation or at a processing facility from which gas is flared. Lowest temperature at which vapour above a flammable liquid can be ignited

Flash Point

Flotel Floating accommodation for offshore personnel. FOB Free on board. FOOCG Fisheries and Offshore Oil Consultative Group, in UK. Formation Pressure Water underlying gas and oil in formation. FPSO FPV Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel Floating Production Vessel

Framework Convention on Climate Change UK signed Framework convention at Rio in 1992 and, along with other developed countries, agreed to return its emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2000 - a necessary first step FRC Fast Rescue Craft 19
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[] Financial Reporting Statements Formal Safety Assessment Floating Storage Unit

Fugitive emissions Emissions which escape from an enclosed system. GAAP GAGE Gas Cap Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment In field containing both gas and oil, some gas will often collect at top of reservoir in a single deposit.

Gas/Condensate field / Reservoir containing both natural gas and oil, with greater proportion of gas. Condensate appears when gas in drawn from well, and its temperature and pressure change sufficiently for some of it to became liquid petroleum. Gas Detector Instrument to detect presence of various gases. Gas Field Field containing natural gas, but no oil.

Gas gathering system Central collection point for offshore gas fields. Production is then piped to central processing system onshore. Gas Injection (GI) Associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure. In this way rate of production of crude oil also can be increased. Gas lift 20
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Gas from same or nearby field is mixed with oil in tubing to lessen weight of liquid column. Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) Volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced. Gasoline Mixture of lighter liquid hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Produced by fractional distillation of petroleum; by condensation or adsorption from natural gas; by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions; by hydrogenation of producer gas or coal; or by polymerisation of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight.

Gas Processing [] Separation of oil and gas, and removal of impurities and NGLs from natural gas. Gas Treatment Removal of impurities, condensate, hydrogen sulphide and NGLs from natural gas. Generic Hazard Hazard which may be generally present throughout an operation or industry, but which may have widely different levels of risk, depending on specific site characteristics. Geology Field of science concerned with origin of planet Earth, its history, its shape, materials forming it, and processes that are acting and have acted on it. Branch of science that applies physical principles to study of planet earth. Thousand megawatts One million joules = 278 kWh General Oil Pollution 21
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Gigawatt Gigajoule GOP


Global Positioning System

Gravity Structures Either concrete or hybrid (concrete base and steel legs and superstructure) structures that due to weight rest on seabed or piled into it. Gravity surveys Measure density variations in local rock masses. Surveys are based on use of a gravimeter down bore holes. Greenhouse Gases Gases that alter thermal properties of atmosphere (for example, water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs, halons and ozone). GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic

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Halogenated carbon compounds used in fire extinguishing equipment and contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. Being phased out under Montreal Protocol. Object, physical effect, or a condition with potential to harm persons, property or environment. Hazard Identification Hazard and Operability Long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Petroleum liquid found in small amounts in condensates.


HAZID HAZOP Heavy oil Hexane

Horizontal Drilling Technique for cutting a bore hole in geological strata in a horizontal, rather than normal vertical, direction. (see also Horizontal well) Horizontal well Used when reservoir permeability is low or hydrocarbons are being produced from vertical fractures in rock. HSC / HSE HSWA HT / HP HUC HUET HUMS / Health and Safety Commission/ Health and Safety Executive Health & Safety At Work Act / High Temperature / High Pressure Hook-up and Commissioning [ ] Helicopter Underwater Escape Training
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Helicopter and Usage Monitoring System Hydrocarbons Family of organic compounds, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (for example, coal, crude oil and natural gas)

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IACS International Association of Classification Societies IAGC International Association of Geophysical Contractors IEA (International Energy Agency) Established in 1974 to monitor world energy situation. IGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Igneous rocks ILO IMCO IMO Formed from solidification of molten magma.

International Labour Organisation Inter-governmental Marine Consultative Organisation International Maritime Organisation

Impermeable Fluids cannot flow through rocks (clays, cemented sandstone or salt) where cracks and pore spaces are very small or are blocked by mineral growth. Incident An unplanned event or chain of events which has or could have caused injury or illness and / or damage or loss to environment, third parties or assets. Inter-governmental Negotiating Committee Physical harm or damage to a person resulting from traumatic contact between body of person and an outside agency, or from exposure to environmental factors. Injury Frequency (IF) Number of injuries per million man hours worked.
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INC Injury

Injury Rate (IR) Number of injuries per one hundred employees. Injury Severity Rate (ISR) Number of days lost per one million man hours worked. IOOG Irish Offshore Operators Group IPC Integrated Pollution Control

IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Irish Sea (IS) Arm of Atlantic Ocean, between Ireland on west and UK on east, and covering an area of about 103,600 sq. km. Sea is connected to Atlantic by North Channel, on north-west, and by Saint George's Channel, on south. ISO IUOOC Inter-Union Offshore Oil Committee, in UK International Standards Association

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Jacket [] Supporting (concrete base or steel legs) structure for an offshore installation. Jack-up Rig [] Mobile drilling platform with retractable legs used in shallow waters less than 100 metres deep. JAPEC Joint Association for Petroleum Exploration Courses (UK) JNNC Joint Nature Conservation Committee

Joint Operating Agreement (JOA) [] Legal authority between Operator, who acts on behalf of a consortium, and other licensees which sets out terms and conditions for managing each Licence. Joint Venture (JV) A consortium of companies, usually with one member acting as Operator. share costs, revenues, assets and liabilities in proportion to their equity interest in Licence / Field. Joule (j) Derived SI unit of work or energy. Gigajoule = One million joules = 278 kWh. Period of geological time about 213 - 144 million years ago


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Back pressure in well from invading oil / gas / water.

Killing a well Filling well bore with drilling mud of suitable density to stop flow of oil / gas. Kilogram (kg) SI unit of mass. One thousand grams.

Kilopascal (kPa) Defined as pressure of 0.0102 kg / sq. cm Kilowatt (kW) One kW = 1000 watts Kilowatt-hour (kWh) One kWh = 3.6 MJ = 3,412 BTU = 860 kcal = 0.0949 cubic metres of gas)

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Lay barge LCM Licence

Vessel specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines. Lost Circulation Material Right to explore for and exploit hydrocarbon reserves within a defined area.

Licence Rounds: Round 1 Award date 1964, 348 Blocks in SNS and CNS Round 2 Award date 1965, 127 Blocks in SNS, IS and EC. Round 3 Award date 1970, 106 Blocks in SNS, NNS and IS. Round 4 Award date 1971/72, 282 Blocks in SNS, NNS and West of Shetlands (WoS). Round 5 Award date 1977/78, 44 Blocks in SNS, NNS, IS. SW Approaches, W. Scotland. Round 6 Award date 1978/79/80, 42 Blocks in SNS, NNS, IS, SW Approaches, W.Shetlands, Cardigan Bay, Bristol Channel. Round 7 Award date 1980/81, 90 Blocks in SNS, NNS, EC, SW Approaches, W.Shetlands. Round 8 Award date 1983, 70 Blocks in SNS, NNS, IS, W.Shetlands, E.Shetlands, Bristol Channel. Round 9 Award date 1985, 93 Blocks in SNS, NNS, IS, EC, SW Approaches, W.Shetlands, W.Scotland.

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Round 10 Award date 1987, 51 Blocks in SNS, NNS,W.Shetlands. Round 11 Award date 1989, 109 Blocks in SNS, NNS, CNS, IS, Manx Basin, EC, Cardigan Bay, Shetland Area. Round 12 Award date 1991, 74 Blocks in SNS, NNS, CNS, IS, Manx Basin, EC, MF. Round 13 Award date 1991, 66 Blocks in North, East & West Shetlands Areas. Round 14 (Phases I & II) Award date 1993, 104 Blocks in SNS, NNS, CNS, IS, EC, Cardigan Bay. Round 14 (Phases III) Award date 1993, 6 Blocks in SW Approaches. Round 15 Award date 1994, 29 Blocks in SNS, CNS. Round 16 Award date 1995, 79 Blocks in SNS, NNS, CNS, WoS, EC, Cardigan Bay, IS. Round 17 Award date 1997, 114 Blocks in SNS, NNS, Rockall Trough, WoS. Round 18 Award date 1998, 78 Blocks in SNS, CNS, NNS. (DTI press release P/98/969: 1 December 1998 at Licensee(s) Companies that Government believes are capable of satisfying various conditions of a Licence. Light oil Shorter chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms. 30
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Unloading cargo from large marine tankers into smaller tankers that can enter shallow-water ports. [ ] Small diameter casing extending into producing layer from just inside bottom of final string of casing cemented in a well.


Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Gas, mainly methane, liquefied under pressure and low temperature. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pressure or refrigeration liquefies lighter hydrocarbons, such as propane, butane, pentane, and mixtures of these gases. LNG Carrier Tanker, with insulated pressure tanks, designed to carry refrigerated LNG shipments. Lincolnshire Offshore Gas Gathering System (UKCS) Lost Time Injury (LTI) [] Any work related injury or illness which prevents that person from doing any work day after accident. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIF) [] Number of LTIs recorded for a group of workers, per million hours worked by that group. LSA LSA LWD Life Saving Appliances Low Specific Activity (Radioactive Scale) logging-while-drilling


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m Thousands MAFF Magma MAIB Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in UK Molten material that makes up Earth's crust. Marine Accident Investigation Branch, in UK.

Marginal Field A field that may not produce enough net income to make it worth developing at a given time; should technical or economic conditions change, such a field may become commercial. Marine Riser Pipe connecting offshore installation to a subsea wellhead or pipeline for drilling or production purposes. [] Marine Pollution Convention


Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Issued by manufacturer of chemical substances that sets out hazards likely to be encountered by those who come into contact with substance. Mature When source rock starts to generate hydrocarbons. mcf Thousands of Cubic Feet (of Gas)

Measured Depth Depth of well measured along well bore. MEDEVAC Evacuation for medical reasons from work location to a hospital. Megawatt MW = one million watts

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Strong-smelling compounds of carbon, hydrogen and sulphur found in oil and gas. Added to natural gas for safety reasons. Methane (CH4) Also marsh gas, gas composed of carbon and hydrogen, first member of paraffin or alkane series of hydrocarbons. Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global warming effects) of UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. Oil and gas production accounted for 2% of national emissions in 1990. Mineral Extraction Allowance (MEA) [] Expenditure on mineral exploration and access and certain costs in acquiring mineral assets may be relieved by way of MEA. Miocene Fourth division of Tertiary period spanning a time interval from 26 to 12 million years ago. Millions

mm / M

mmbbls / mmboe / Million barrels / Million barrels of oil equivalent mmscf / mmscfd / Millions of Standard Cubic Feet (of Gas) / Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per Day (of Gas) MOB MOD MOD MODU Man Over Board Ministry of Defence, in UK. Money of the day Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit

Modular formation dynamics tester Measures fluid pressures and collects small samples in a well. Module 33
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Self-contained box or package built with a specific purpose (for example, well head, oil and gas separation, gas compression, platform power generation, mud, storage, diesel, filter and exhaust) located on production installations. Mboe / MToe / Million bbls of oil equivalent / Million tonnes of oil equivalent Moray Firth (MF) Inlet of North Sea, northeast Scotland. Bay, which is 121 km wide, lies between Duncansby Head and Kinnairds Head. MPCU MtC MtCH4 MtCO2 Marine Pollution Control Unit, in UK. Million tonne of carbon Million tonnes of methane Million tonnes of carbon dioxide

Multilateral well More than one horizontal section drilled in one well. Used to maximise number of wells that can be drilled from small installations. MWD monitoring-while-drilling

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Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Nitrous Oxide contributed 5% of direct global warming potential from UK national greenhouse gas emissions in 1990. Natural Gas Gas, occurring naturally, often found in association with oil. Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas. NAVAIDS NDT Navigation Aids non-destructive testing

Near miss / accident / Any event which had potential to cause injury and/or damage and or/loss, but which was avoided by circumstances. Net present value (NPV) Discounted value of future cashflow. NGOs NFFO NIFO NLGP Northern Leg Gas Pipeline NMO Normal Move Out NMVOC NNAI Not Normally Attended Installation non-OEM
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Non Government Organisations [ ] National Federation of Fishermen's Organisations [] Norwegian Industry Association for Offshore Companies

Non Methane Volatile Organic Substances

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non-Original Equipment Manufacturer NOROX North Sea Offshore Exercise North Sea (NS) Arm of Atlantic Ocean, between eastern coast of UK and continental Europe. Strait of Dover, with English Channel, forms southern link with Atlantic. Greatest width is about 645 km, its greatest length about 965 km, and its area about 575,000 sq. km. Northern North Sea (NNS) Oil and gas-condensate bearing province (Latitudes 59 degrees - 62 degrees). NOX NPD NSOC-D Nitrogen Oxides Norwegian Petroleum Directorate [] North Sea Operators Committee of Denmark

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OBM Oil Based Mud OCA Offshore Contractors Association, in UK OCNS Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme ODP Odorant Ozone Depletion Potential Substance (for example mercaptan) added to odourless natural gas or NGLs to enable detection. Office of Gas Supply, UK gas industry regulator OGDs OGRO Oil and Gas Royalties Office, in UK OIAC OIAC OIFA Oil Oil Allowance A gross production relief that reduces effective PRT rate, but cannot be used to create a tax loss. Oil in Place (OIP) Estimation of real amount of oil in a reservoir. Higher value than recoverable reserves of reservoir.
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Ofgas other Government Departments

[] Oil Industry Accounting Committee, in UK [] Oil Industry Advisory Committee to HSC (formed in 1977), in UK [] Oil Industry Finance Association, in UK Mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights.

Oil Taxation Act [] Came into force in 1975, introducing PRT. OIM Offshore Installation Manager OIR Olefins [] Offshore Incident Reporting Basic chemicals made from oil or natural gas liquids feed stocks; commonly used to manufacture plastics and gasoline. Examples are ethylene and propylene. Third division of Tertiary period spanning an interval from about 40 to 25 million years ago. Operations Notice OPA Oil and Pipelines Agency, in UK OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (formed in 1960) Operator [] Company which operates a Licence, either on its own behalf, or, if a member of a consortium, on behalf of Licensees. Takes primary responsibility for day-to-day operations for an activity (exploration, development or production). Operating Expenditure [] Offshore Pollution Liability Association, in UK Offshore Safety Division, HSE, in UK OTO Oil Taxation Office, in UK 38
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OVA Ozone

Organic Vapour Analyser Allotropic form of oxygen having three atoms in each molecule, formula O3. Ozone formed in atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and organic gases emitted by automobiles and industrial sources.

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[] Public Address Pipelines And Risers Loss of Containment


Stratum of rock in which hydrocarbons are found. Potentially Commercial Polychlorinated biphenyls Petroleum Exploration and Development Licence. New single licence came into effect in 1995 (Seventh Round) for onshore UK Licensing. Programmable Electronic System Cracks and pore spaces between the rock particles (such as porous sandstone or fractured limestone) are interconnected and are large enough to permit fluid movement. Period of geological time about 285 - 248 million years ago.

PES Permeable


Permit-to-Work (PTW) Formal written system used to control certain types of work which are identified as (potentially) hazardous. Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) Equipment / clothing which offers protection against risks to health and safety. Petroleum Generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, NGLs, natural gas and their products.

Petroleum products
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Gasoline, kerosene, heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, petroleum jelly, and paraffin consist principally of mixtures of paraffin hydrocarbons, which range from lighter liquid members to solid members. Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) Applies to UK oil production and associated profits of licensees. Only to fields where Annex B consent was first given before 18 March 1993. PFBC PFDs Pig Device for cleaning a pipeline or separating two liquids being moved down pipeline. (Intelligent pig - fitted with sensors to check for corrosion or defects in pipelines.) Piling Long steel piles driven into the seabed to anchor fixed offshore structures solidly in place. A pipe through which natural gas, crude oil or petroleum products are pumped between two points, either onshore or offshore. Periods of incapacity for work Plate Tectonics Earth's solid crust is broken up into about a dozen semi-rigid plates, boundaries of which are zones of tectonic activity. Plateau Level of peak oil or gas field production; it is always followed by declining level of production. Fixed structure resting on seabed or piled into it. Group of fields with similar trap structures / reservoir rock. 41
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Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Process flow diagrams



Platform Play

Pleistocene Pliocene

Division of Quaternary period, also known as Ice Age. Fifth and most recent division of Tertiary period on geologic time scale from about 12 million to 2 million years ago. Process whereby a well that is no longer needed is filled with concrete and abandoned. (see PA). Personnel On Board


POB [] POBM Pseudo Oil Based Mud PON [] Petroleum Operations Notice ppb / ppm parts per billion / parts per million Precambrian Rocks older than 600 million years. Earliest division of time for which rock strata are recognised.

Preventative maintenance Maintenance carried out prior to unit or system failure. Produced Water Brines naturally present or injected into reservoir to enhance production. Produced along side oil production. Production Drilling [] Drilling of wells in order to bring a field into production. Production Installation [ ] An installation from which development wells are drilled and that carries all associated processing plants and other equipment needed to maintain a field in production. Production String 42
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Tubing or piping in a production well through which oil or gas flows from reservoir to wellhead. Propane (C3H8) Colourless, odourless gas of alkane series of hydrocarbons. It occurs in crude oil, in natural gas, and as a by-product of petroleum refining. psi / Pounds per sq inch / One psi = 6.89 kPa

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Quality Assurance Quality Control

QMS Quality Management System QRA Quantified Risk Assessment QSN [] Quality System Notice Quadrant UKCS acreage one degree by one degree. 30 Blocks to Quadrant. Quaternary Period of geological time about 1.64 million years ago.

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Reasonably Practicable Risk reduced to levels such that further risk reduction measures would be so disproportionate to probability and consequence that it would be objectively unreasonable to implement them. Recovery Factor Ratio of recoverable oil and / or gas to estimated oil and / or gas in place in reservoir. Determined by a various factors such as reservoir dimensions, pressure, nature of hydrocarbons, and development plan. (see also Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Recovery.) Redetermination Retroactive adjustment to relative percentage interests of joint venturers in a field. Research expenditure allowance (R&D) [] Relief makes allowable against a participator's liability for any field, R&D costs that do not became allowable in a particular field within three years of being incurred. Reserves: Possible Reserves at present cannot be regarded as "probable". Reserves: Probable Reserves not yet "proven", but are estimated to have a better than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible. Reserves: Proven Reserves which on available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible. Reservoir Subsurface, porous, permeable rock formation in which hydrocarbons are present.

Reservoir drive [] Powered by difference in pressures within reservoir and well. Reservoir engineering model Used to predict reservoir behaviour during production to enable selection of most efficient method of recovery. Revenue expenses
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General and administrative (G&A) costs of a revenue nature and intangible development drilling costs are usually deducted in full as incurred. RIDDOR Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations Measure of likelihood of occurrence of an undesirable event and of potentially adverse consequences. Risk Assessment Careful consideration by competent persons of hazards associated with a task. Potential effect of each hazard, how serve it might be and likelihood of it occurring, should be considered to determine effort required to make site as safe as reasonably practicable. Risk Management System that eliminates or mitigates threat from hazards. Rotary Drilling Being coupled to rotating table on derrick floor rotates drill-string. Rotary Table / Drilling Table / Turning device on derrick floor in which drill-string is held and rotated. Round trip Complete process of pulling out and running in drill-string.


ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle Royalty payments As part of some early UKCS licence round conditions there was an obligation to pay a royalty on "value of the petroleum" which is deductible in computing PRT and CT

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Staff Accounting Bulletin Search and Rescue Search and Rescue Beacon Equipment


Satellite Installation An offshore structure that depends on another installation for materials or services. SBM Single buoy mooring SBV Vessel Standing by

Scientific research allowances (SRA) [] Whether of a capital nature or otherwise (costs of exploration work) qualifies for full write-off as incurred. SD Significant Discovery Rocks (salt, clays or cemented sandstone) in right shapes and relative positions to form traps. SEC US Securities Exchange Commission

Seal or Cap

Sedimentary rock Formed by consolidation of deposits formed by settlement of sand, silt, and other materials. Seismic surveys Measurements of seismic-wave travel. Seismic exploration is divided into refraction and reflection surveys, depending on whether the predominant portion of the seismic waves' travel is horizontal or vertical. Refraction seismic surveys are used in exploration. Seismic reflection surveys detect boundaries between different kinds of
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rocks; this detection assists in mapping of geologic structures. (See also 3D- Seismic.) Semi-submersible Rig Mobile drilling platform with floats or pontoons submerged to give stability while operating. Used in deeper waters down to 360 metres or more. Kept in position by anchors or dynamic positioning. Shale shaker Drilling mud passed over to sieve out cuttings. SI Statutory Instrume Sidetrack Drilling A remedial operation that results in creation of a new section of well bore for purpose of detouring around "junk", redrilling a lost hole or straightening crooked holes. SI unit Self-consistent system of measurement units based on the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system. Adopted for international use under Le Systme International d'Units, now employed for all scientific and most technical purposes.

SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises SMS Safety Management Systems SN Safety Notice

Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Gases made from coals and other hydrocarbon-containing substances. SO2 Sulphur Dioxide Safety Of Life At Sea 48
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Statements of Recommended Practice Source rocks Rocks containing sufficient organic substances to generate hydrocarbons. Southern North Sea (SNS) Gas bearing province (Latitudes 52 degrees - 62 degrees). SOX Sulphur Oxides

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Acts as a precursor in formation of sulphate aerosols which, unlike greenhouse gases, have a net negative radiative forcing effect and tend to cool Earth's surface. Sour gas Spar A SBM which includes oil storage capacity. SPM Single point mooring Natural gas containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide.

Spot market International market in which oil or oil products are traded for immediate delivery at current (spot) price. Spud Commencement of drilling operations. Square kilometres (Sq. kms / Km2) 1000 metres x 1000 metres, One Km2 (100 hectares) = 0.3861 sq. miles SS SSAPs Subsea Statements of Standard Accounting Practice

SSIS Subsea Isolation System 49

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SSIV Subsea Isolation Valve SSSI Site of Special Scientific Interest SST Subsea Developments

Stratigraphic traps Originate where suitable combination of rock types is deposited in a particular environment. Structural traps Formed by Earth movements that fold rocks into suitable shapes or juxtapose reservoir and sealing rocks along faults. Traps may also form when rocks are domed over rising salt masses. STT Stratigraphic Test Refers to rock formations lying beneath long, horizontal layers of salt. These rock formations may contain hydrocarbons.


Subsea manifolds Allows wells to be put on production without need to build a platform to operate and maintain wells. Sub-sea wellhead A wellhead installed on the sea floor and controlled remotely from a platform, a floating production facility or land. Substructure Support form of an offshore installation on which derrick, engines, helicopter pad, cranes, etc. are installed.

Suspended discovery An oil or gas field identified by a discovery well but not being produced or developed SWOPS Single Well Oil Production System 50
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Tariff Payments made by fields to other fields that provide transportation and / or processing of production. Tariff Receipt Allowance (TRA) Participators in owner field share an allowance equivalent to 250,000 tonnes of throughput per chargeable period for each taxable user field. tcf Trillion (a million million) Cubic Feet (of Gas) Trans European Energy Networks Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft


Tension Leg Platform A floating offshore structure held in position by a number of tension-maintaining cables anchored to seabed. Cables dampen wave action to keep platform stationary. Terminal Onshore transit installation that receives oil or gas from offshore production facilities via pipeline and / or tankers. Plant and equipment designed to receive and process crude oil or gas to remove water and impurities.

Tertiary Recovery Recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir by sophisticated methods, for example, heating reservoir or enlarging pore spaces using chemicals. (see also Primary and Secondary Recovery) Three-dimensional Seismic / 3-D Seismic Three-dimensional images created by bouncing sound waves off underground rock formations; used to determine best places to drill for hydrocarbons. Toe Tonnes of oil equivalent Metric tonne = 1000 kilograms
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Tonne (t)

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Top drive

Powerful electric motor that rotates whole drill-string from top down. [] Top of an installation positioned on jacket.


Total Depth (TD) Descriptive of a well reaching intended depth. Trap Geological structure in which hydrocarbons build up to from an oil or gas field. Triassic Period of geological time about 248 - 213 million years ago.

Tripping in / out / Re-insertion of drill-string / Withdrawing drill-string

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Ultra large crude carrier. Oil tanker over 300,000 tonnes dwt. [] UK Oil Industry Taxation Committee [] UK Offshore Operators Association [] United Kingdom Onshore Operators Group United Kingdom Petroleum Industry Association


United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) NNS, MF, CNS, SNS, West of Shetlands (WoS), EC, IS, West of Britain (WoB). Other offshore areas (South West Approaches, Bristol Channel, Cardigan Bay, Rockall, Liverpool Bay, Manx Basin, Celtic Sea). Unitisation [] When licensees of oil and/or gas reserves pool their individual interests in return for an interest in overall unit, which is then operated by a single company on behalf of group. Occurs where a field lies under different licences with differing equity interests. Oil and gas exploration, production and transportation activities up to refining. (see also Downstream)


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Value Added Tax (VAT) Introduced at 8% on UK domestic fuel and power in April 1994. Viscosity Extent to which a fluid resists a tendency to flow; normally falls as temperature rises. Very large crude carrier. Oil tanker over 200,000 tonnes dwt.


VOC Volatile Organic Compounds

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Water Injection (WI) Water is pumped into alternate wells in a field. Pressure in reservoir as a whole can be maintained or increased and production can be maintained or increased. Watt (W) WBM 1 / Power which in one second gives rise to energy of one joule (j). Water Based Mud

Weather Window Part of year (summer months) for operations which cannot be carried out at other times due to adverse sea or wind states. Well A hole bored or drilled into Earth for purpose of obtaining water, oil or gas, or other natural resources. Well bore Hole in rock made by drill bit.

Well completion Process by which a finished well is either sealed off or prepared for production by fitting a wellhead. Well Jacket A protective structure built around an offshore well to keep vessels or floating debris from damaging wellhead. Control equipment fitted to top of a well casing, incorporating outlets, valves, blowout preventers, etc.


Well Nomenclature Appraisal (APP), Exploration (EXP), Junked & Abandoned (JA), Plugged & Abandoned (PA), Re-entry (RE), Development (DEV), Deviated (DEVW), Gas Injection (GI), Water Injection (WI). Wet Gas () Natural gas having significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbons in gasoline range.
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Exploration well drilled in an unproven area. (Term wildcatter comes from West Texas, where in early 1920s drilling crews encountered many wildcats as they cleared locations for exploratory wells. Shot wildcats were hung on oil derricks, and wells became known as wildcat wells.) Wireline Wire or cable used for downhole operations, for example lowering instruments into a well. Re-entry into a completed field well for modification or repair. Restoring well productivity by cleaning out accumulations of sand, silt or other substances that clog production tubing.


WOW [] Waiting on Weather

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