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Acacia

Acacia

Acacia Acacia greggii Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida
Acacia
Acacia greggii
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Plantae
Division:
Magnoliophyta
Class:
Magnoliopsida
Order:
Fabales
Family:
Fabaceae
Subfamily:
Mimosoideae
Tribe:
Acacieae
Genus:
Acacia
Miller
Species
About 1,300; see List of Acacia species

Acacia (pronounced /əˈkeɪʃə/)is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first de- scribed in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus in 1773. The plants tend to be thorny and pod-bearing. The name derives from ακις (akis) which is Greek for a sharp point, due to the thorns in the type-species Acacia nilotica ("Nile Acacia") from Egypt. [1] Acacias are also known as thorntrees or wattles, including the yellow-fever acacia and umbrella acacias. There are roughly 1300 species of Acacia worldwide, about 960 of them native to Aus- tralia, with the remainder spread around the

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tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Europe, Africa, south- ern Asia, and the Americas.

Classification

Europe , Africa , south- ern Asia , and the Americas . Classification Acacia berlandieri Acacia
Europe , Africa , south- ern Asia , and the Americas . Classification Acacia berlandieri Acacia

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The genus Acacia is apparently not mono- phyletic. This discovery has led to the break- ing up of Acacia into five new genera as dis- cussed in list of Acacia species.In common parlance the term "acacia" is occasionally misapplied to species of the genus Robinia, which also belongs in the pea family. Robinia pseudoacacia, an American species locally known as Black locust, is sometimes called "false acacia" in cultivation in the United Kingdom.

Geography

in cultivation in the United Kingdom . Geography Acacia smallii The southernmost species in the genus

The southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), Acacia longi- folia (Coast Wattle or Sydney Golden Wattle), Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle), and Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood), reaching 43°30’ S in Tasmania, Australia, while Acacia caven (Espinillo Negro) reaches nearly as far south in northeastern Chubut Province of Argen- tina. Australian species are usually called wattles, while African and American species tend to be known as acacias. Acacia albida, Acacia tortilis and Acacia ir- aqensis can be found growing wild in the Sinai desert and the Jordan valley. It is found in the savanna vegetation of the tropical con- tinental climate.

Description

The leaves of acacias are compound pinnate in general. In some species, however, more especially in the Australian and Pacific is- lands species, the leaflets are suppressed,

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Acacia

is- lands species, the leaflets are suppressed, 2 Acacia Acacia retinodes Acacia dealbata and the leaf-stalks
the leaflets are suppressed, 2 Acacia Acacia retinodes Acacia dealbata and the leaf-stalks ( petioles )

and the leaf-stalks (petioles) become vertic- ally flattened, and serve the purpose of leaves. These are known as phyllodes. The vertical orientation of the phyllodes protects them from intense sunlight, as with their edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light so fully as horizontally placed leaves. A few species (such as Acacia glauc- optera) lack leaves or phyllodes altogether, but possess instead cladodes, modified leaf- like photosynthetic stems functioning as leaves. The small flowers have five very small petals, almost hidden by the long stamens, and are arranged in dense globular or cyl- indrical clusters; they are yellow or cream- colored in most species, whitish in some, even purple (Acacia purpureapetala) or red (Acacia leprosa Scarlet Blaze). Acacia flowers can be distinguished from those of a large re- lated genus, Albizia, by their stamens which are not joined at the base. Also, unlike indi- vidual Mimosa flowers, those of Acacia have more than 10 stamens. [2] .

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The plants often bear spines, especially those species growing in arid regions. These sometimes represent branches which have become short, hard and pungent, or some- times leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is the Kangaroo-thorn of Australia and Acacia erio- loba is the Camelthorn of Africa.

Symbiosis

Acacia erio- loba is the Camelthorn of Africa. Symbiosis Acacia collinsii Thorns In the Central American

Acacia collinsii Thorns

In the Central American Acacia sphaeroceph- ala, Acacia cornigera, and Acacia collinsii (collectively known as the bullthorn acacias), the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which feed on a secre- tion of sap on the leaf-stalk and small, lipid- rich food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets called Beltian bodies; in return they add pro- tection to the plant against herbivores. [3] Some species of ants will also fight off com- peting plants around the acacia, cutting off the offending plant’s leaves with their jaws and ultimately killing it, while other ant spe- cies will do nothing to benefit their host. Similar mutualisms occur on Acacia trees in Africa. The Acacias provide nectar in ex- trafloral nectaries for their symbiotic ants. The ants protect the plant by attacking large mammalian herbivores and stem-boring beetles that damage the plant.

Pests

In Australia, Acacia species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus including A. lig- niveren. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down. Other Lepidop- tera larvae which have been recorded feed- ing on Acacia include Brown-tail, Endoclita

Acacia

ing on Acacia include Brown-tail , Endoclita Acacia Acacia tree near the end of its range

Acacia tree near the end of its range in the Negev Desert of southern Israel.

malabaricus and Turnip Moth. The leaf-min- ing larvae of some bucculatricid moths also feed on Acacia: Bucculatrix agilis feeds ex- clusively on Acacia horrida and Bucculatrix flexuosa feeds exclusively on Acacia nilotica. Acacias contain a number of organic com- pounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals. [4]

Uses

Food uses

Acacia seeds are often used for food and a variety of other products. In Burma, Laos and Thailand, the feathery shoots of Acacia pennata (common name cha- om, ???? and su pout ywet in Burmese) are used in soups, curries, omelettes, and stir- fries. Honey made by bees using the acacia flower as forage is considered a delicacy, ap- preciated for its mild flowery taste, soft run- ning texture and glass-like appearance. Aca- cia honey is one of the few honeys which does not crystallize. [5] In Mexico the seeds are known as Guajes:

Guajes or huajes are the flat, green pods of an acacia tree. The pods are sometimes light green or deep red in color—both taste the same. Guaje seeds are about the size of a small lima bean and are eaten raw with guacamole, sometimes cooked and made into a sauce. They can also be made into fritters. The ground seeds are used to impart a slightly garlicy flavor to a mole called guax- mole (huaxmole). The dried seeds may be toasted and salted and eaten as a snack re- ferred to as "cacalas". Purchase whole long

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

pods fresh or dried at Mexican specialty markets.

Acacia is listed as an ingredient in Fresca,

Throttle Unleaded Energy Drink, Strawberry- Lemonade Powerade [6] as well as in Läkerol pastille candies, Altoids mints,Langer’s Pine- apple coconut Juice and Wrigley’s Eclipse chewing gum.

Gum

Various species of acacia yield gum. True gum arabic is the product of Acacia senegal, abundant in dry tropical West Africa from Senegal to northern Nigeria. Acacia arabica is the gum-Arabic tree of India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-Arabic.

India , but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-Arabic. Acacia covenyi Medicinal uses Many

Medicinal uses

Many Acacia species have important uses in traditional medicine. Most all of the uses have been shown to have a scientific basis, since chemical compounds found in the vari- ous species have medicinal effects. In Ay- urvedic medicine, Acacia nilotica is con- sidered a remedy that is helpful for treating premature ejaculation. A 19th century Ethiopian medical text describes a potion made from an Ethiopian species of Acacia (known as grar) mixed with the root of the

tacha, then boiled, as a cure for rabies. [7] An astringent medicine, called catechu or cutch,

is procured from several species, but more

especially from Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution

so as to get an extract. [8]

Dietary consumption

The most well known visitor to the Acacia is the known giraffe. Giraffes eat the most

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Acacia

famous in Africa, the Acacia Tree. The Acacia tree is famous for its marvelous leaves.

Ornamental uses

A few species are widely grown as ornament- als in gardens; the most popular perhaps is Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), with its at- tractive glaucous to silvery leaves and bright yellow flowers; it is erroneously known as "mimosa" in some areas where it is cultiv- ated, through confusion with the related genus Mimosa. Another ornamental acacia is Acacia xanthophloea (Fever Tree). Southern European florists use Acacia baileyana, Aca- cia dealbata, Acacia pycnantha and Acacia retinodes as cut flowers and the common name there for them is mimosa. [9] Ornamental species of acacia are also used by homeowners and landscape archi- tects for home security. The sharp thorns of some species deter unauthorized persons from entering private properties, and may prevent break-ins if planted under windows and near drainpipes. The aesthetic character- istics of acacia plants, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them a considerable alternative to artificial fences and walls.

Paints

The ancient Egyptians used Acacia in paints and stuff. [10]

Perfume

Egyptians used Acacia in paints and stuff. [10] Perfume Acacia farnesiana Acacia farnesiana is used in

Acacia farnesiana is used in the perfume in- dustry due to its strong fragrance. The use of Acacia as a fragrance dates back centuries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acacia

Tannin Content of Various Acacia Species

 

Bark

Dried Leaves

Seed Pods

Species

Tannins [%]

Tannins [%]

Tannins [%]

2-28% [13]

 

5-13% [13]

   

32% [14]

19.1% [15]

   

37-40% [15]

   
   

23% [15]

25-35% [13]

   

20% [14]

   

18-23%* [13]

   

18% [14]

   

30-45% [14]

15-16% [14]

 

21.5% [15]

   

In the Bible, burning of acacia wood as a form of incense is mentioned several times.

Symbolism and ritual

The Acacia is used as a symbol in Freema- sonry, to represent purity and endurance of the soul, and as funerary symbolism signify- ing resurrection and immortality. The tree gains its importance from the description of the burial of Hiram Abiff, the builder of King Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem. Several parts (mainly bark, root and resin) of Acacia are used to make incense for rituals. Acacia is used in incense mainly in In- dia, Nepal, Tibet and China. Smoke from Aca- cia bark is thought to keep demons and ghosts away and to put the gods in a good mood. Roots and resin from Acacia are com- bined with rhododendron, acorus, cytisus, salvia and some other components of in- cense. Both people and elephants like an al- coholic beverage made from acacia fruit. [11] According to Easton’s Bible Dictionary, the Acacia tree may be the “burning bush” (Exodus 3:2) which Moses encountered in the desert. [12] Also, when God gave Moses the in- structions for building the Tabernacle, he said to "make an ark of acacia wood" and "make a table of acacia wood" (Exodus 25:10 & 23, Revised Standard Version) In Russia, Italy and other countries it is customary to present women with yellow mimosas (among other flowers) on Interna- tional Women’s Day (March 8). These "mimo- sas" are actually from Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle).

Tannin

are actually from Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle). Tannin A bottle of tannic acid . The bark

A bottle of tannic acid.

The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export; import- ant species include Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), Acacia decurrens (Tan Wattle), Aca- cia dealbata (Silver Wattle) and Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle). *Inner bark

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Acacia

Approximate wood densities of various acacia species

 

Density

Heartwood

Sapwood

Density

Density

Species

[kg/m³]

[kg/m³]

[kg/m³]

1040

[17]

   

Acacia amythethophylla

 

1170

[18]

 

880

[19]

   

690-750 [19]

   
 

1230

[18]

 

Acacia galpinii

 

800

[18]

 

Acacia goetzii

   

1025

[18]

 

800

[18]

 

760

[19]

   

Acacia mellifera subsp. mellifera

 

1100

[18]

 

700

[19]

1170

[18]

 

827-945 [18]

   

800

[18]

1170

[18]

 
 

705

[18]

 
 

655

[18]

 

Black Wattle is grown in plantations in South Africa. Most Australian acacia species intro- duced to South Africa have become an enormous problem, due to their naturally ag- gressive propagation. The pods of Acacia nilotica (under the name of neb-neb), and of other African species are also rich in tannin and used by tanners.

Wood

species are also rich in tannin and used by tanners. Wood Acacia koa Wood Some Acacia

Some Acacia species are valuable as timber, such as Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood) from Australia, which attains a great size; its

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wood is used for furniture, and takes a high polish; and Acacia omalophylla (Myall Wood, also Australian), which yields a fragrant tim- ber used for ornaments. Acacia seyal is thought to be the Shittah-tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. According to the Book of Exodus, this was used in the con- struction of the Ark of the Covenant. Acacia koa from the Hawaiian Islands and Acacia heterophylla from Réunion island are both excellent timber trees. Depending on abund- ance and regional culture, some Acacia spe- cies (eg. Acacia fumosa), are traditionally used locally as firewoods. [16]

some Acacia spe- cies (eg. Acacia fumosa), are traditionally used locally as firewoods. [16] Acacia heterophylla

Acacia heterophylla Wood

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In Indonesia (mainly in Sumatra) and in Malaysia (mainly in Sarawak) plantations of Acacia mangium are being established to supply pulpwood to the paper industry.

Phytochemistry of Acacia

Alkaloids

to the paper industry. Phytochemistry of Acacia Alkaloids Egyptian goddess Isis As mentioned previously, Acacias

Egyptian goddess Isis

As mentioned previously, Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals. [4] Many of these compounds are psychoactive in humans. The alkaloids found in Acacias in- clude dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy- dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N- methyltryptamine (NMT). The plant leaves, stems and/or roots are sometimes made into a brew together with some MAOI-containing plant and consumed orally for healing, cere- monial or religious uses. Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with charac- teristics of the tree of life (see the article on the Myth of Osiris and Isis).

List of acacia species having little or no alkal- oids in the material sampled: [31]

0%

Alkaloids [%]

of

oids in the material sampled: [31] 0% Alkaloids [%] of C 0.02%, C Concentration 7 •

C

oids in the material sampled: [31] 0% Alkaloids [%] of C 0.02%, C Concentration 7 •

0.02%,

C

Concentration

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Acacia

Cyanogenic glycosides

Nineteen different species of Acacia in the Americas contain cyanogenic glycosides, which, if exposed to an enzyme which spe-

cifically splits glycosides, can release hydro- gen cyanide (HCN) in the acacia "leaves." [60] This sometimes results in the poisoning death of livestock. If fresh plant material spontaneously pro- duces 200 ppm or more HCN, then it is po- tentially toxic. This corresponds to about 7.5 μmol HCN per gram of fresh plant material. It turns out that, if acacia "leaves" lack the specific glycoside-splitting enzyme, then they may be less toxic than otherwise, even those containing significant quantities of cyanic glycosides. [31] Some Acacia species containing cyanogens:

Acacia cunninghamii

Acacia obtusifolia

Acacia sieberiana

Acacia sieberiana var. woodii [61]

Species

There are over 1,300 species of Acacia. See List of Acacia species for a more complete listing.

Famous acacia

Perhaps the most famous acacia is the Arbre du Ténéré in Niger. The reason for the tree’s fame is that it used to be the most isolated tree in the world, approximately 400 km from

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Acacia

Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive Alkaloids

Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf [20]

β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves [21]

Active principles in leaf [22]

Active principles in leaf [22]

Ash used in Pituri . [23] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.

Ash used in Pituri. [23] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass. [24] Not known if psychoactive per se.

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25] , NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm) [26]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25] , NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm) [26]

Tryptamine alkaloids. [27] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds. [28]

Tryptamine alkaloids. [27] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds. [28]

5-MeO-DMT in stem bark [29]

5-MeO-DMT in stem bark [29]

0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines , in the leaf, Tetrahydrohar-

0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydrohar-

man [22][30][31]

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Acacia

 

Psychoactive [32] Ash used in Pituri. [23]

DMT, amphetamines , mescaline , nicotine [33]
DMT [34] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

DMT [34] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

Tryptamines

Tryptamines

DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

DMT [35]

0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine [36][37][38]

Nicotine [39]

Nicotine [39]

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Acacia

DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.

DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem. [22] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide [40]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

Ash used in Pituri. [23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Psychoactive, [41] Tryptamines [11]

Psychoactive, [41] Tryptamines [11]

Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem [22] and seeds. [28] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds [28]

Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem [22] and seeds. [28] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds [28]

Psychoactive [32]

Psychoactive [32]

Psychoactive, [32] but less than 0.02% alkaloids [31]

Traces of 5-MeO-DMT [42] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower. [43] Eth- er extracts about 2-6% of

Traces of 5-MeO-DMT [42] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower. [43] Eth- er extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass. [24] Alkaloids are present in the bark [44] and leaves. [45] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree. [11]

Added to Pulque, but not known if psychoactive [41]

Tryptamine, phenethylamine, [46] in flowers [28] other tryptamines, [47] phen- ethylamines [48]

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Acacia

N-methyl-β-phenethylamine , [25] phenethylamine [4]

Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total [21]

Hordenine, 1.2% in bark [21]

Psychoactive [41]

Psychoactive [41]

Psychoactive [49]

Psychoactive [49]

DMT, NMT

Psychoactive

Psychoactive

Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive. [41]

1.5 [21] -1.88% [50] alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine. [21] 0.9% N-

methyl-2-

phenylethylamine found a different time. [21]

DMT, in the leaf [22]

Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive. [41]

0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers, [46] 0.2% DMT in

0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers, [46] 0.2% DMT in plant. [51] Histamine alkaloids. [31]

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Acacia

Acacia

longifolia

var. sophorae

Tryptamine in leaves, bark [28]

Tryptamine [28]

in leaves, bark [28] Acacia macradenia Tryptamine [28] Acacia maidenii 0.6% NMT and DMT in about

0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves [22]

a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves [22] Acacia mangium Psychoactive [41]

Psychoactive [41]

present in leaves [22] Acacia mangium Psychoactive [41] Acacia melanoxylon DMT, in the bark and leaf,

DMT, in the bark and leaf, [52] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids [31]

and leaf, [52] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids [31] Acacia mellifera DMT, in the leaf

DMT, in the leaf [22]

less than 0.02% total alkaloids [31] Acacia mellifera DMT, in the leaf [22] Acacia nilotica DMT,

DMT, in the leaf [22]

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Acacia

Acacia nilotica

Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf

subsp.

adstringens

Tryptamine, [47] DMT, NMT, other tryptamines, [53] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips. [54]

Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, [30][55] NMT

Psychoactive [32]

0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT [22]

0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT [22]

Tryptamine in the leaf, [22] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts

Tryptamine in the leaf, [22] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts [46]

DMT in leaf [22] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

DMT in leaf [22] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark

Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark [56]

 

Phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine [21][46]

Ash used in Pituri. [23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Ash used in Pituri, [41] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids. [31] Not known if

Ash used in Pituri, [41] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids. [31] Not known if psychoactive.

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Acacia

DMT, NMT, [57] nicotine, [11] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found [31]

DMT, NMT, [57] nicotine, [11] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found [31]

DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others [58]

DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others [58]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

Ash used in Pituri . [23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Ash used in Pituri. [23][41] Not known if psychoactive.

Psychoactive [41]

β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine [4] Amphetamines and mescaline also found. [11]

β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine [4] Amphetamines and mescaline also found. [11]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, [22] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant, [43] DMT

Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, [22] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant, [43] DMT in bark. [28]

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Acacia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Acacia Acacia seyal DMT, in the leaf. [22] Ether extracts about

DMT, in the leaf. [22] Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass. [24]

Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass. [24] Acacia sieberiana DMT, in the leaf

DMT, in the leaf [22]

leaf mass. [24] Acacia sieberiana DMT, in the leaf [22] Acacia simplex DMT and NMT, in

DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark,

MMT [22][59]

β-methyl-phenethylamine [25]

T [22][59] Acacia taxensis β-methyl-phenethylamine [25] Acacia tortilis DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines [53] Acacia

DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines [53]

Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem, [22] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids [31]

Tryptamines, [47] 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine [28]

any other tree. The tree was knocked down by a truck driver in 1973.

Identification gallery

Flowers

by a truck driver in 1973. Identification gallery Flowers Acacia confusa Acacia aneura Acacia catechu Acacia
in 1973. Identification gallery Flowers Acacia confusa Acacia aneura Acacia catechu Acacia baileyana Acacia
Identification gallery Flowers Acacia confusa Acacia aneura Acacia catechu Acacia baileyana Acacia berlandieri Acacia
gallery Flowers Acacia confusa Acacia aneura Acacia catechu Acacia baileyana Acacia berlandieri Acacia denticulosa
Acacia berlandieri
Acacia
berlandieri
Acacia baileyana Acacia berlandieri Acacia denticulosa Acacia con- stricta , Las Ve- gas, Nevada , USA
Acacia con- stricta , Las Ve- gas, Nevada , USA Acacia drummodii Acacia covenyi Acacia erio-
con- stricta , Las Ve- gas, Nevada , USA Acacia drummodii Acacia covenyi Acacia erio- loba
Las Ve- gas, Nevada , USA Acacia drummodii Acacia covenyi Acacia erio- loba Sossus- vlei ,

vlei,

Acacia covenyi Acacia erio- loba Sossus- vlei , Namibia Acacia dealbata Acacia fim- briata Aus- tralian
Acacia covenyi Acacia erio- loba Sossus- vlei , Namibia Acacia dealbata Acacia fim- briata Aus- tralian

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Acacia

Botanic Gardens, Canberra Acacia saligna Side, Turkey Acacia pen- nata at An- anthagiri Hills, in
Botanic
Gardens,
Canberra
Acacia
saligna
Side,
Turkey
Acacia pen-
nata at An-
anthagiri
Hills, in
Rangareddy
district of
Andhra
Pradesh,
India.
Acacia
collinsii
Bark
Acacia
heterophylla
collinsii Bark Acacia heterophylla Acacia erioloba Acacia heterophylla Acacia longifolia Acacia
Acacia heterophylla Acacia erioloba Acacia heterophylla Acacia longifolia Acacia melanoxylon Nazaré ,
Acacia erioloba Acacia heterophylla Acacia longifolia Acacia melanoxylon Nazaré , Portugal Acacia
Acacia melanoxylon Nazaré , Portugal Acacia pen- nata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District

nata in

forest, in

forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh , India Acacia ber- landieri Bark Acacia schinoides Acacia

Bark

of Andhra Pradesh , India Acacia ber- landieri Bark Acacia schinoides Acacia tetra- Australian
of Andhra Pradesh , India Acacia ber- landieri Bark Acacia schinoides Acacia tetra- Australian gonophylla

Australian

National

Botanic

Gardens

Victoria,

Australia

Bark

ic Gardens , Gardens Victoria, Australia Bark Acacia an- eura Bark Acacia auriculiformis Bark Acacia

eura Bark

Victoria, Australia Bark Acacia an- eura Bark Acacia auriculiformis Bark Acacia dealbata Acacia con- fusa

Bark

Bark Acacia an- eura Bark Acacia auriculiformis Bark Acacia dealbata Acacia con- fusa Bark, Hawaii, USA
an- eura Bark Acacia auriculiformis Bark Acacia dealbata Acacia con- fusa Bark, Hawaii, USA Acacia estrophiolata

fusa Bark,

Hawaii, USA

Bark

con- fusa Bark, Hawaii, USA Acacia estrophiolata Bark Acacia pennata Bark trunk in Talakona forest, in

Bark

trunk in

forest, in

of

Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh , India . Acacia decurrens Acacia greg- gii Bark 16

gii Bark

16

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tree

trict of Andhra Pradesh , India . Tree Acacia aneura Acacia dealbata Wood Acacia koa Acacia
of Andhra Pradesh , India . Tree Acacia aneura Acacia dealbata Wood Acacia koa Acacia berlandieri

Wood

Pradesh , India . Tree Acacia aneura Acacia dealbata Wood Acacia koa Acacia berlandieri Acacia heterophylla

koa

India . Tree Acacia aneura Acacia dealbata Wood Acacia koa Acacia berlandieri Acacia heterophylla Acacia confusa
aneura Acacia dealbata Wood Acacia koa Acacia berlandieri Acacia heterophylla Acacia confusa Acacia k o a
Wood Acacia koa Acacia berlandieri Acacia heterophylla Acacia confusa Acacia k o a A c a
koa Acacia berlandieri Acacia heterophylla Acacia confusa Acacia k o a A c a c i

koa

Acacia heterophylla Acacia confusa Acacia k o a A c a c i a constricta Acacia

Acacia

Acacia confusa Acacia k o a A c a c i a constricta Acacia leprosa Acacia
Acacia k o a A c a c i a constricta Acacia leprosa Acacia heterophylla Acacia
c a c i a constricta Acacia leprosa Acacia heterophylla Acacia schaffneri See also • List

See also

Notes

Acacia

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acacia

[26] English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190 [27] Maya Ethnobotanicals [28] ^ Acacia (Polish) [29] Lycaeum [30] ^ www.serendipity.com [31] ^ Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer [32] ^ www.bushfood.net [33] Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine [34] Sacred Elixirs [35] www.abc.net.au [36] Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies [37] Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens [38] Lycaeum [39] SBEPL [40] NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [41] ^ Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3855025703 at [2] [42] Lycaeum [43] ^ Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

General references

• Clement, B.A., Goff, C.M., Forbes, T.D.A. Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula, Phytochem. 1998, 49(5), 1377.

• Shulgin, Alexander and Ann, TiHKAL the Continuation. Transform Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9

External links

Wayne’s Word on "The Unforgettable Acacias"

Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

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