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First aid is the provision of limited care for an illness or injury, which is provided, usually by a lay person, to a sick

or injured patient until definitive medical treatment can be accessed, or until the illness or injury is dealt with (as not all illnesses or injuries will require a higher level of treatment). It generally consists of series of simple, sometimes life saving, medical techniques, that an individual, either with or without formal medical training, can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. First aid can also be performed on animals, although this article refers specifically to human first aid.

The 3 main aims of first aid, commonly referred to as the 3 Ps are:
y y y

Preserve life Prevent further injury Promote recovery

In addition, some trainers may also advocate a 4th P - Protect yourself, although this is not technically an aim of providing first aid, and some people would consider that it is adequately covered by Prevent further injury as this is to the casualty, yourself or others.

Key First Aid Skills

There are certain skills which can be regarded as core, regardless of where or how first aid is taught. First aiders are taught to focus on the "ABC"s of first aid before giving additional treatment:
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Airway Breathing Circulation

This means any first aider should first evaluate and attempt to treat problems with a casualty's airway. If the airway is open the first aider should then evaluate and attempt to treat problems with breathing followed by circulation (circulation of blood). Some instructors add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly Bleeds or Defibrillation. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. Once the ABCs are secured first aiders can begin more advanced treatments, if required. Some countries teach the same order of priority using the "3 Bs":
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Breathing Bleeding Bones

This means that any first aider should first seek to treat any problems with Breathing, before attempting to deal with a bleed or broken bone (which is not to say that they should not be considered at the time - such as in the case of a spinal injury, where a variation on the technique can be used to open the airway).

B. Some Idiomatic Expressions That Can Be Used In Maritime Service 1. get going start; go into action; make haste Example: Better get going if you dont want to miss the boat. 2. square peg in a round hole one unsuited for his occupation or environment Example: A sailor who spends more time on land than on the sea is like a square peg in a round hole. 3. make a living earn enough to live decently; sustain oneself economically Example: Being a high-ranking officer in the Navy gives one a huge responsibility but is also a good way to make a living. 4. over-all comprehensive Example: The captain has an over-all appraisal of the ships condition. 5. rain cats and dogs to rain heavily Example: Visibility is difficult when it rains cats and dogs. 6. bed of roses a condition of ease and luxury Example: Life in the marine service isnt like a bed of roses. 7. birds of a feather persons with the same characteristics and tendencies Example: My sisters and me are birds of a feather, we all like to prowl on the beach. 8. hold water be valid Example: What he explained about the incident all hold water. 9. get a raise obtain an increase in salary Example: The management promised that all of us will get a raise at the end of the year.

10. see one off - go to say goodbye to someone at an airport, a railway station, or at the wharf Example: He told me he will be late for the meeting because he has to see one off. 11. all set all ready Example: The family is all set for the much anticipated voyage to the Caribbean. 12. all ears very attentive Example: The seafarers were all ears to the Captain when he gave his final instructions before the voyage. 13. under lock and key locked safely; very secure Example: All the doors and port holes should be under lock and key before we embark on this voyage. 14. big shot an important person Example: We heard that a big shot is invited to grace the launching of the newest ship in the line. 15. come to terms to reach an agreement Example: The management and the striking crew finally came to terms and the ships voyage will resume in due time. 16. blacklist a list of people considered undesirable Example: The union leader and some of his members are in the blacklist of the management for leading the recently concluded strike. 17. break an opportunity to succeed Example: The rest of the striking crew was given a break by the management after they promised not to launch another strike in the future. 18. tread the middle aisle to get married Example: The captain of the ship will file a leave of absence after he treads the middle aisle this coming June.

19. knock off stop; leave work Example: The crew will knock off tonight for the Captains birthday party. 20. play favorites show partiality Example: It is unwise for a Ship Captain to play favorites in his crews rift.