ONESCHOOL.NET
Physics Equation List :Form 5
Wave
Oscillation
f
=
1
T
DisplacementTime Graph
f = frequency 
(Hz or s ^{}^{1} ) 

T 
= Period 
(s) 
• Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from a DisplacementTime Graph
Wave
v = f λ
DisplacementDistance Graph
v 
= velocity 
(ms ^{}^{1} ) 
f 
= frequency 
(Hz or s ^{}^{1} ) 
λ = wavelength 
(m) 
λ = Wavelength
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^{1}
Interference
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Summary
λ=
ax
D
λ = Wavelength
a = Distance between the two wave sources
x = Distance between two successive antinode lines or node lines D = Distance from the wave sources to the plane where x is measured.
Sum of charge
Electricity
Q = ne
Current
Q = Charge
n
e
= number of charge particles
= charge of 1 particle
I =
Q
t
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Q 
= Charge 
I 
= Current 
t 
= time 
^{2}
Potential Difference
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W 
V 
= potential difference, 
(V or JC ^{}^{1} ) (J) (C) 

V = 
W = energy 

Q 
Q 
= charge 

Ohm’s Law and Resistance 

V = IR 
V 
= potential difference, 
(V or JC ^{}^{1} ) (A or Cs ^{}^{1} ) (Ω) 

I = Current 

R 
= Resistance 
Resistance



111 
1 

R 
( 
) 
− 

R = R 
+ R 
= 
++ 

1 
2 
RRR 123 
Current
Series Circuit 
Parallel Circuit 

The current flow into a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the current in each branches of the circuit. 
The current flow into a resistor = the current flow inside the resistor = the current flows out from the resistor I _{A} = I _{B} = I _{C} 


I = I _{1} + I _{2} 
Example 



In a series circuit, the current at any points of the circuit is the same. 
If the resistance of the 2 resistors is the same, current will be divided equally to both of the resistor. 
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^{3}
Potential and Potential Difference
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Series Circuit 
Parallel Circuit 


The sum of the potential difference across individual resistor in between 2 points in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the two point. 

V = V _{1} + V _{2} 
The potential difference across all the resistor in a parallel circuit is the same. 
Example 


Example V = V _{1} = V _{2} 

Potential Difference and Electromotive Force
If we assume that there is no internal resistance in the cell, the potential difference across the cell is equal to the e.m.f. of the cell.
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^{4}
Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance
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E = IR(
+ r)
_{o}_{r}
_{E} _{=} _{V} _{+} _{I}_{r}
E 
= Electromotive Force 
(V) 
r 
= internal resistance 
(Ω) 
V 
= potential difference, 
(V or JC ^{}^{1} ) 
I 
= Current 
(A or Cs ^{}^{1} ) 
R 
= Resistance 
(Ω) 
2 methods to find the internal resistance and electromotive force
a. Open Circuit – Close Circuit method
Open Circuit 
Close Circuit 




In open circuit ( when the switch is off), the voltmeter shows the reading of the e.m.f. 
In close circuit ( when the switch is on), the voltmeter shows the reading of the potential difference across the cell. 

• 
With the presence of internal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is always less than the e.m.f 
b. Linear Graph method
Electrical Energy
From the equation,
E = V + Ir
Therefore
V = rI + E
Gradient od the grapf, m
= internal resistance
Y intercept of the graph, c
= electromotive force
_{E} _{=} _{Q}_{V}
E = Electrical Energy
Q 
= charge 
V 
= potential difference 
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^{5}
(J) (C) (V or JC ^{}^{1} )
Electrical Power
ONESCHOOL.NET
P
=
W
t
P = IV
P = I
2
R
P =
V
2
R
P 
= Power 
(W or Js ^{}^{1} ) 
W = Work done/Energy change 

t = Time 
(J) (s) 

I = Current 
(A) 

V 
= Potential difference 
(V) 
R 
= Resistance 
(Ω) 
Efficiency
Electrical efficiency =
output power
input power
Electromagnetism
Root mean Square Value
× 100%
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V
rms
=
V _{r}_{m}_{s} = root mean square voltage V _{p} = peak voltage
I
rms
=
I _{r}_{m}_{s} = root mean square current I _{p} = peak current
^{6}
(V)
(V)
(A)
(A)
Transformer
Input And Output Of A Transformer
ONESCHOOL.NET
V
s
V
p
=
N
s
N
p
Power In A Transformer
V _{p} = input (primary) potential difference 
(V) 
V _{s} = output (secondary) potential difference N _{p} = number of turns in primary coil 
(V) 
N _{s} = number of turns in secondary coil
Ideal Transformer
V
p
× I
p
= V
s
× I
Nonideal transformer
V _{p} = input (primary) potential difference 
(V) 

V _{s} = output (secondary) potential difference 
(V) 

s 
I _{p} = input (primary) current 
(A) 
I _{s} = output (secondary) current 
(A) 
Efficiency =
V I
s
s
V
p
I
p
×100%
Power Transmission
2Steps to find the energy/power loss in the cable
a. Find the current in the cable by the equation _{P}_{=}_{I}_{V}
b. Find the Power lost in the cable by the equation P=I ^{2} R.
Electronic
Energy change of electron in an electron gun
Kinetic energy 
= electrical potential 
gain 
energy 
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v 
= speed of electron 
V 
= potential difference across the electron gun 
e 
= charge of 1 electron 
m 
= mass of 1 electron 
^{7}
(m ^{s}^{}^{1} )
(V)
(C)
(kg)
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
ONESCHOOL.NET
Transistor  Potential Divider
Vertical scale = Ygain control
Horizontal scale = Time base
Period = Time for 1 complete Oscillation
Frequency,
f =
1
T
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Potential difference across resistor R _{1}
=
R
1
+
R 1 R
2
× V
Potential difference across resistor R _{2}
R
2
=
R
1
^{8}
+
R
2
× V
Alpha decay
Radioactivity
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A 
X 
A Z − 4 − 2 
Y 
+ 
4 2 He 

Z 
⎯⎯→ 

Beta decay 

A 
X 
A 
0 

Z 
⎯⎯→ 
Z + 1 Y 
+ 
− 
1 
e 

1 
1 
0 

Gamma emission 
0 
n → + 1 p − 1 e 

A 
X 
A 
X +γ 

Z 
⎯⎯→ Z 
Halflife
A 
= nucleon number 
Z 
= proton number 
N = (
1
2
)
n N
0
N = Amount of radioisotope particles after nth half life.
N _{0} = Initial amount of radioisotope particles.
n = number of half life
Nuclear Energy  Einstein Formula
E = mc
2 m = mass change c = speed of light E = energy changed
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^{9}
(kg) (m s ^{}^{1} ) (J)
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