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Physics Equation List :Form 5

Wave

Oscillation

f

=

1

T

Displacement-Time Graph

 f = frequency (Hz or s -1 ) T = Period (s) Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from a Displacement-Time Graph

Wave

v = f λ

Displacement-Distance Graph

 v = velocity (ms -1 ) f = frequency (Hz or s -1 ) λ = wavelength (m) λ = Wavelength

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Interference

ONE-SCHOOL.NET Summary

λ=

ax

D

λ = Wavelength

a = Distance between the two wave sources

x = Distance between two successive anti-node lines or node lines D = Distance from the wave sources to the plane where x is measured. Sum of charge

Electricity

Q = ne

Current

Q = Charge

n

e

= number of charge particles

= charge of 1 particle

I =

Q

t

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 Q = Charge I = Current t = time

2

Potential Difference

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 W V = potential difference, (V or JC -1 ) (J) (C) V = W = energy Q Q = charge Ohm’s Law and Resistance V = IR V = potential difference, (V or JC -1 ) (A or Cs -1 ) (Ω) I = Current R = Resistance

Resistance  111 1 R ( ) − R = R + R = ++ 1 2 RRR 123

Current

 Series Circuit Parallel Circuit  The current flow into a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the current in each branches of the circuit. The current flow into a resistor = the current flow inside the resistor = the current flows out from the resistor I A = I B = I C I = I 1 + I 2 Example In a series circuit, the current at any points of the circuit is the same. If the resistance of the 2 resistors is the same, current will be divided equally to both of the resistor. http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html

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Potential and Potential Difference

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 Series Circuit Parallel Circuit  The sum of the potential difference across individual resistor in between 2 points in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the two point. V = V 1 + V 2 The potential difference across all the resistor in a parallel circuit is the same. Example Example V = V 1 = V 2 Potential Difference and Electromotive Force If we assume that there is no internal resistance in the cell, the potential difference across the cell is equal to the e.m.f. of the cell.

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Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance

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E = IR(

+ r)

or

E = V + Ir

 E = Electromotive Force (V) r = internal resistance (Ω) V = potential difference, (V or JC -1 ) I = Current (A or Cs -1 ) R = Resistance (Ω)

2 methods to find the internal resistance and electromotive force

a. Open Circuit – Close Circuit method

 Open Circuit Close Circuit  In open circuit ( when the switch is off), the voltmeter shows the reading of the e.m.f. In close circuit ( when the switch is on), the voltmeter shows the reading of the potential difference across the cell. • With the presence of internal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is always less than the e.m.f

b. Linear Graph method Electrical Energy

From the equation,

E = V + Ir

Therefore

V = -rI + E

= -internal resistance

Y intercept of the graph, c

= electromotive force

E = QV

E = Electrical Energy

 Q = charge V = potential difference

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(J) (C) (V or JC -1 )

Electrical Power

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P

=

W

t

P = IV

P = I

2

R

P =

V

2

R

 P = Power (W or Js -1 ) W = Work done/Energy change t = Time (J) (s) I = Current (A) V = Potential difference (V) R = Resistance (Ω)

Efficiency

Electrical efficiency =

output power

input power

Electromagnetism

Root mean Square Value

× 100% http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html

V

rms

= V
p
2

V rms = root mean square voltage V p = peak voltage

I

rms

= I
p
2

I rms = root mean square current I p = peak current

6

(V)

(V)

(A)

(A)

Transformer

Input And Output Of A Transformer

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V

s

V

p

=

N

s

N

p

Power In A Transformer

 V p = input (primary) potential difference (V) V s = output (secondary) potential difference N p = number of turns in primary coil (V)

N s = number of turns in secondary coil

Ideal Transformer

V

p

× I

p

= V

s

× I

Non-ideal transformer

 V p = input (primary) potential difference (V) V s = output (secondary) potential difference (V) s I p = input (primary) current (A) I s = output (secondary) current (A)

Efficiency =

V I

s

s

V

p

I

p

×100%

Power Transmission

2Steps to find the energy/power loss in the cable

a. Find the current in the cable by the equation P=IV

b. Find the Power lost in the cable by the equation P=I 2 R.

Electronic

Energy change of electron in an electron gun

 Kinetic energy = electrical potential gain energy 1
2
mv
= eV
2
2
eV
v =
m

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 v = speed of electron V = potential difference across the electron gun e = charge of 1 electron m = mass of 1 electron

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(m s-1 )

(V)

(C)

(kg)

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

ONE-SCHOOL.NET Transistor - Potential Divider

Vertical scale = Y-gain control

Horizontal scale = Time base

Period = Time for 1 complete Oscillation

Frequency,

f =

1

T http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html

Potential difference across resistor R 1

=

R

1

+

R 1 R

2

× V

Potential difference across resistor R 2

R

2

=

R

1

8

+

R

2

× V

Alpha decay

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 A X A Z − 4 − 2 Y + 4 2 He Z ⎯⎯→ Beta decay A X A 0 Z ⎯⎯→ Z + 1 Y + − 1 e 1 1 0 Gamma emission 0 n → + 1 p − 1 e A X A X +γ Z ⎯⎯→ Z

Half-life

 A = nucleon number Z = proton number

N = (

1

2

)

n N

0

N = Amount of radioisotope particles after nth half life.

N 0 = Initial amount of radioisotope particles.

n = number of half life

Nuclear Energy - Einstein Formula

E = mc

2 m = mass change c = speed of light E = energy changed

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(kg) (m s -1 ) (J)