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Introduction to C Language

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C Language Tutorial
Introduction to c First Program in c Constants & Variables in c Loops in c language Control Structure in c Functions in c Pointers in c Arrays in c Strings in C Language Structures & Unions in c File Handling in c Graphics in c

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Sunday, February 1, 2009

File Handling in c

A file is a collection of bytes stored on a secondary storage device, which is generally a disk of some kind. The collection of bytes may be interpreted, for example, as characetrs, words, lines, paragraphs and pages from a textual document; fields and records belonging to a database; or pixels from a graphical image. There are two kinds of files that programmers deal with text files and binary files. Text Files A text file can be a stream of characters that a computer can process sequentially. It is not only processed sequentially but only in forward direction. For this reason a text file is usually opened for only one kind of operation (reading, writing, or appending) at any given time. Binary Files A binary file is no different to a text file. It is a collection of bytes. In C Programming Language a byte and a character are equivalent. No special processing of the data occurs and each byte of data is transferred to or from the disk unprocessed. C Programming Language places no constructs on the file, and it may be read from, or written to, in any manner chosen by the programmer. Opening a file: The general format of the function used for opening a file is FILE *fp; fp=fopen(filename,mode); The first statement declares the variable fp as a pointer to the data type FILE. As stated earlier, File is a structure that is defined in the I/O Library. The second statement opens the file named filename and assigns an identifier to the FILE type pointer fp. fopen() contain the file name and mode (the purpose of opening the file). r is used to open the file for read only. w is used to open the file for writing only. a is used to open the file for appending data to it. Closing a File A file must be closed as soon as all operations on it have been completed. This would close the file associated with the file pointer. The input output library supports the function to close a file. Syntax to close file fclose(filepointer);

Example #include void main(void) { FILE *myfile; char c; myfile = fopen("firstfile.txt", "r"); if (myfile == NULL) printf("File doesn't exist\n"); else { do { c = getc(myfile); putchar(c); } while (c != EOF); } fclose(myfile); } File operation functions in C: Function Name fopen() fclose getc() putc() fprintf() fscanf() getw() putw() fseek() ftell() rewind() Operation Creates a new file. Opens an existing file. Closes a file which has been opened for use Reads a character from a file Writes a character to a file Writes a set of data values to a file Reads a set of data values from a file Reads a integer from a file Writes an integer to the file Sets the position to a desired point in the file Gives the current position in the file Sets the position to the beginning of the file

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Posted by Malik at 8:49 AM 4 Comments: sankar said...

Can u tell ,getting a line from another text file, plzzz send code to April 22, 2009 9:45 PM Anonymous said... I have one question. When we write code and execute it then where stored this file by default? May 28, 2011 4:48 AM Ali shah said... where code is placed in bin directory February 14, 2012 9:39 AM Ali shah said... plz upload a simple code to open a file in write mode February 14, 2012 9:41 AM Post a Comment

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#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main(void)

char buffer[5] = {0}; /* initialized to zeroes */ int i, rc; FILE *fp = fopen("myfile", "rb"); if (fp == NULL) { perror("Failed to open file \"myfile\""); return EXIT_FAILURE; } for (i = 0; (rc = getc(fp)) != EOF && i < 5; buffer[i++] = rc) { }

fclose(fp); if (i == 5) { puts("The bytes read were..."); printf("%x %x %x %x %x\n", buffer[0], buffer[1], buffer[2], buffer[3], buffer[4]); } else fputs("An error occurred while reading the file.\n", stderr); return EXIT_SUCCESS; }