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LABOURABSEENTISM

Introduction Absenteeismisaseriousworkplaceproblemandanexpensiveoccurrencefor bothemployersandemployeesseeminglyunpredictableinnature. Asatisfactorylevelofattendancebyemployeesatworkisnecessarytoallow theachievementofobjectivesandtargetsbyadepartment.Employee Absenteeismistheabsenceofanemployeefromwork.Itisamajorproblem facedbyalmostallemployersoftoday.Employeesareabsentfromworkandthus theworksuffers.Absenteeismofemployeesfromworkleadstobacklogs,pilingof workandthusworkdelay.Absenteeismisoftwotypes: A)Innocentabsenteeism Isoneinwhichtheemployeeisabsentfromworkdue to genuinecauseor reason.It ma y be due tohis illnessor personal familyproblemorany otherrealreason2. B)CulpableAbsenteeism I s o n e i n w h i c h a p e r s o n i s a b s e n t f r o m w o r k withoutanygenuine reasonorcause.Hemaybepretendingtobeillorjustwantedaholidayandstay athome. Manyemployeeswill,onoccasions,needafewdaysoffworkbecauseofillness, however,whenabsences become more frequentor long termand reacha n unacceptable level,action by managementisnecessary.

Absencefromworkcanbeexpensiveinbothmonetaryandhumanterms. Thecostsincurredwhenanemployeeisabsentfromworkmayinclude Replacingtheemployeeorrequiringotherstafftocovertheabsence; Inabilitytoprovideservices,orachievesectionanddepartmentalobjectives; Lowmoraleandgeneraldissatisfactionfromotherstaff,particularlyifthe absenceisperceivedasunwarranted DefinitionsofAbsenteeism 1) Absentsconstitutesasingledayofmissedwork. 2) Absenceoccurswheneverapersonchoosestoallocatetimetoactivities thatcompetewithscheduledwork. 3) Anindividuallackofphysicalpresenceatagivenlocationandtimewhen thereisasocialexpectationforhimorhertobethere. 4) AbsenteeismreferstoNonattendanceofemployeeforscheduledwork. 5) Absentisdefinedasfailureofanemployeetoreporttoworkwhenheor sheisscheduledtodoso. EffectsOfAbsenteeism Followingarethedrawbacksofexcessiveabsenteeism 1) ONINDUSTRY Absenteeisminindustrystopsmachines,disruptsprocesses,creates productionbottlenecks,hamperssmoothfloworcontinuityofwork, upsetsproductiontargets,resultinproduction losses, inc rea ses directoverhea dcosts , inc rea sew o rk load ofthe

inexperienced, less experiencedorsubstandardworkersassubstitutes,this inturncreatingproblemsofrecruitment,training,jobadjustments,moraleand attitudesoftheemployees. 2) ONWORKERS a) A b s e n t e e i s m r e d u c e s w o r k e r s e a r n i n g s a n d a d d s t o h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s , d e c r e a s e h i s purchasing power.Makes it difficultfor himtomeetnecessitiesoflife,leadingtopersonal problems,andinmanycaseslossofemploymentandresultantdisasterfor hisdependents. b) Itaffectsbothquantityandqualityofproduction.Ifmorenumber ofworkersareabsentthetotaloutputisaffected.Ifalternative arrangementismadebyemployingcasualworkersw ho do not possesadequate experience the quality of goods producedis affected. c) Itaffectstheefficiencyofworkers.Theworkerswhojoinsafteralong periodofabsencewouldnormallybemuchlessefficient. d) Itaffectsthedisciplineoftheworkersadversely.Theworkerwho isattendingtohisworkirregularlymaynotcaremuchaboutthediscipline. PeculiarFeaturesofabsenteeism Onthebasisofmicrostudiesundertakenindifferentpartsofthecountry,certain observationsmaybemade.

i)

Therateofabsenteeismisthelowestonpayday,itincreases considerablyonthedaysfollowingthepaymentsofwagesand bonus.

ii)

Absenteeism isgenerallyhighamongworkers below 15 yearsofage andthoseabove40.Theyoungeremployees arenotregularandpunctual,presumablybecauseofthe employmentofalargenumberofnewcomersamongtheyounger agegroups.Whiletheolderpeoplearenotabletowithstandthe strenuousnatureofthework.

iii)

Therateofabsenteeismvariesfromdepartmentto departmentwithinaunit.Asthesizeofthegroupincreases, therateofabsenteeismgoesup.Thisdifferenceintherate ofabsenteeismisbelievedtobeduetothepeculiarstyleand practicesofmanagement,thecompositionofthelabourforce andthecultureoftheorganization.

iv)

Thepercentageofabsenteeismisgenerallyhigherintheday shifts.

v)

The percentageofabsenteeism ismuch higher in coal mining industries than in organizedindustries.

vi) vii)

AbsenteeisminIndiaisseasonalincharacter. ItisthehighestduringMarchAprilmay,whenalandhasto bepreparedformonsoonsaving,andalsointheharvestseason, whentherategoesashighas40percent.

TYPEOFRESEARCH DESCRIPTIVERESEARCH Thestudyfollowsdescriptiveresearchmethod.Descriptivestudiesaimsat portrayingaccuratelythecharacteristicsofaparticulargroupor situation.Descriptiveresearchisconcernedwithdescribingthecharacteristicsof aparticularindividualoragroup.Heretheresearcherattemptstopresentthe existingfactsbycollectingdata. RESEARCHDESIGN Aresearchdesignisabasisofframework,whichprovidesguidelinesfortherest ofresearchprocess.Itisthemapofblueprintaccordingtowhich,theresearchis tobeconducted. Theresearchdesignspecifiesthemethodofstudy.Researchdesignisprepared afterformulatingtheresearchproblem. SOURCESOFDATA Dataaretherawmaterialsinwhichmarketingresearchworks.Thetaskofdata collectionbeginsafterresearchproblemhasbeendefinedand researchdesignchalkedout.Datacollectedareclassifiedintoprimarydataand secondarydata PRIMARYDATA Questionnaireswereusedforcollectingprimarydata.

SECONDARYDATA Secondarydatawerecollectedfromthecompanysannualpublications, memorandumsofsettlements,newspapers,journals,websites,andfromlibrary books. SAMPLINGMETHOD SamplingtechniqueusedinthisstudyisRandomsampling.Theselectedsample sizeis60. SAMPLESIZE Thesamplesizetakenforthisstudyis60. TOOLSFORANALYSIS Percentageanalysisisused QUESTIONNAIRE Q.1) Age Parameters No.ofRespondents Percentage 2030 3040 4050 Morethan50 Total 9 18 18 15 60 15 30 30 25 100

100 80 60 40 20 0 No.of Percentage Respondents 2030 3040 4050 Morethan50 Total

INFERENCE:Ithasbeeninferredthat30%oftheemployeeswhoparticipatedin thesurveyareofagegroupbetween3040,30%againcomeunderthecategory between4050agegroupandtherestofthembelongtomorethan50(25%)and20 30(15%)types. Q.2) Sex Parameters No.ofRespondents Percentage Male Female Total
100 80 60 40 20 0 No.of Respondents Percentage Male Female Total

42 18 60

70 30 100

INFERENCE:Ithasbeeninferredthat70%oftheemployeesparticipatedinthe surveyaremaleandtheremainingcomeunderthefemalecategory.

Q.3) MaritalStatus Parameters No.ofRespondents Percentage Single Married Divorced Separated Widow Total
100 80 60 40 20 0 No.of Respondents Percentage Single Married Divorced Separated Widow Total

9 42 3 0 6 60

15 70 5 0 10 100

INFERENCE:Ithasbeeninferredthat70%oftheemployeeswhoparticipatedin thesurveyaremarriedand15%ofrespondentsarebachelors.Restofthemare categorizedunderthecategoryofwidowanddivorcecases.

Q.4) Employeeabletocommunicatetheirfeelingsforothers Parameters No.ofRespondents Percentage Always Veryoften Often Rarely Never Total
100 80 60 40 20 0 No.of Respondents Percentage Always Veryoften Often Rarely Never Total

6 15 20 10 9 60

10 25 33.33 16.67 15 100

INFERENCE:Ithasbeeninferredthat33%ofemployeeshaveanopinionthat theycancommunicatetheirfeelingstoothersoften,25%feels itveryoften.Alsowecaninferthat17%oftheemployeesrateitasrarelyand 15%ofthemneverhadanysuchfeelings,but10%ofthemfeelalwaysfreeenoughto communicatewithothers. Q.5) Employeesforthright,frankandwillingnesstostandupforhisrights. Parameters No.ofRespondents Percentage Always Frequently

12 27

20 45

Occasionally Rarely Never Total


100 80 60 40 20 0 No.of Percentage Respondents

13 5 3 60

21.67 8.33 5 100

Always Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Total

FINDINGS Onanalysingtheresponseitisfoundthat,35%oftheemployeesaredissatisfied withtheirwork. 50%oftheemployeeshaveanopinionthatstressispartoftheirworklife. 43%agreeand27%stronglyagreethattheirworkisheavy.Fromthis,itcanbe interpretedthattheemployeesarehavingahecticworkschedule. Atotalof70%oftheemployeesfeellonelywhileworkingwithothers. 39%ofworkersfeelboredintheirroutinework. 42%donthavetimefortheirpersonalactivities. 40%oftheworkersarenotsatisfiedwiththewelfaremeasuresadoptedbythe company. Healthproblemsseemtobeoneofthecausesofabsenteeismforthework. Itisalsofoundthat35%oftheemployeesaresatisfiedwithworkingcondition.

Ithasbeenfoundthat40%oftherespondentshaveanopinionthatpoliticshave noimpactontheemployeeabsenteeism. 60%oftheemployeesfeelthattheircolleaguesdidnothelpthemincaseof personalproblems. CONCLUSION Toconclude,employeesdissatisfactiontowardsjob&welfaremeasures,hectic workschedule,stress,healthproblemsaresomeofthemajorcausesof absenteeism.Thiscanbereducedbythemanagementbyimplementing variousemployeesatisfactorychangesintheorganization.Peoplearethe majorassetsofanyorganizationandtakingcareoftheirwelfareandsatisfaction istheirdutyasawholeapartfromearningprofit.Asworkenvironmentis becomingmorechallengingandcomplex,themanagementmustalsosee throughitthat,itiscapableofmanagingandbringinginchangesatthesame pacesoastosurviveinthiscompetitivescenario.