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In earlier lectures….

Find the response of an LTI system by expressing the

excitation as a linear combination of impulses and expressing the response as a linear combination of

impulse responses.

We called that technique convolution.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Sinusoidal Signal

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Representing Real Signals using Complex Phasors

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Advantages

1. Simplifies mathematical derivations and

analyses.

2. Addition of signals is easy

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series/Transform

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Time property of signal and its

Fourier representations

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series

• Fourier Series is an alternate method of signal

representation. • Signal is represented as a function of frequency.

• Every Periodic Signal (real world signal) can

be

coefficients.

expressed

in

terms of its Fourier

• If the Fourier coefficients are known it is

possible to synthesize the periodic signal

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Periodic Signal

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series representation

Trigonometric Form

Exponential Form

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Trigonometric Form

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Compact Trigonometric Form

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Example

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Example 2

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Exponential Form

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Example

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Periodic symmetries & Fourier

coefficients

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier coefficients

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Line Spectrum

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

2-Sided Line Spectrum

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Power Spectrum of a periodic

signal

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Bandwidth of the signal

• It is the difference between the highest and lowest

frequencies of the spectral component of a signal.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Determination of fundamental

frequency and period

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Summary o Fourier Series

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier Transform

Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial

domain to the frequency domain. If the signal is aperiodic signal, Fourier Transform is used.

An aperiodic function is a function that never repeats itself

Never Repeating itself is equivalent to Repeating at Infinity.

=> Aperiodic Function spans a Continuum of Frequencies of

the Fourier Series Envelope

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Why is FT Useful?

Easier to remove undesirable frequencies.

Faster perform certain operations in the frequency domain

than in the spatial domain.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

In Fourier series,

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Examples

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Dirichlet’s conditions

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier Transform of basic

functions

Impulse function

----- Fourier Transform

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Inverse Fourier Transform

The Fourier transform and its inverse are referred

to as a Fourier transform pair

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Inverse Fourier tranform of

Impulse function

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Response of the system

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Properties of Fourier Transform

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

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