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In earlier lectures….

Find the response of an LTI system by expressing the

excitation as a linear combination of impulses and expressing the response as a linear combination of

impulse responses.

We called that technique convolution.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Sinusoidal Signal

Sinusoidal Signal BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Representing Real Signals using Complex Phasors

Representing Real Signals using Complex Phasors BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Advantages 1. Simplifies mathematical derivations and analyses. 2. Addition of signals is easy BITS Pilani,

Advantages

1. Simplifies mathematical derivations and

analyses.

2. Addition of signals is easy

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series/Transform

Fourier series/Transform BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Time property of signal and its

Fourier representations

Time property of signal and its Fourier representations BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series

Fourier Series is an alternate method of signal

representation. Signal is represented as a function of frequency.

Every Periodic Signal (real world signal) can

be

coefficients.

expressed

in

terms of its Fourier

If the Fourier coefficients are known it is

possible to synthesize the periodic signal

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Periodic Signal

Periodic Signal BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier series representation

Trigonometric Form

Exponential Form

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Trigonometric Form

Trigonometric Form BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Compact Trigonometric Form

Compact Trigonometric Form BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Example

Example BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Example BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Example 2

Example 2 BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Exponential Form

Exponential Form BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Example

Example BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Periodic symmetries & Fourier

coefficients

Periodic symmetries & Fourier coefficients BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier coefficients

Fourier coefficients BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Line Spectrum

Line Spectrum BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

2-Sided Line Spectrum

2-Sided Line Spectrum BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Power Spectrum of a periodic

signal

Power Spectrum of a periodic signal BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Bandwidth of the signal

It is the difference between the highest and lowest

frequencies of the spectral component of a signal.

between the highest and lowest frequencies of the spectral component of a signal. BITS Pilani, K

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Determination of fundamental

frequency and period

Determination of fundamental frequency and period BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Summary o Fourier Series

Summary o Fourier Series BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier Transform

Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial

domain to the frequency domain. If the signal is aperiodic signal, Fourier Transform is used.

An aperiodic function is a function that never repeats itself

Never Repeating itself is equivalent to Repeating at Infinity.

=> Aperiodic Function spans a Continuum of Frequencies of

the Fourier Series Envelope

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Why is FT Useful?

Easier to remove undesirable frequencies.

Faster perform certain operations in the frequency domain

than in the spatial domain.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

In Fourier series,

In Fourier series, BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
In Fourier series, BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Examples

Examples BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Dirichlet’s conditions

Dirichlet’s conditions BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fourier Transform of basic

functions

Fourier Transform of basic functions Impulse function ----- Fourier Transform BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa

Impulse function

Fourier Transform of basic functions Impulse function ----- Fourier Transform BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa

----- Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform of basic functions Impulse function ----- Fourier Transform BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Inverse Fourier Transform

Inverse Fourier Transform The Fourier transform and its inverse are referred to as a Fourier transform

The Fourier transform and its inverse are referred

to as a Fourier transform pair

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Inverse Fourier tranform of

Impulse function

Inverse Fourier tranform of Impulse function BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Response of the system

Response of the system BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Properties of Fourier Transform

Properties of Fourier Transform BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus