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Stephen Autar

Algebra 2/Trigonometry Celia Cruz Spring 2010

Autar 2 Introduction Mathematics is a vast field of study. In fact, the term 'mathematics' is more of an umbrella term than an actual term itself, for there are many types of maths that fall under the category of Mathematics. My Mathematics Performance Based Assessment Task (PBAT) is comprised of three Areas of Mathematics: Geometry, Algebra, and Trigonometry. Geometry is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, dealing with the shapes of objects, the properties of space surrounding objects, and the relationships of space between objects. The name “geometry” comes from Greek, meaning “Earth measurement.” Uses of mathematics in the real world Professions involving the use of geometry, algebra and trigonometry mathematics may seem hard to think of, but there are many jobs people would not associate with such mathematics, of which these types of mathematics are an integral part. Geometry is an area of Mathematics which is found in many professions. I suppose one major profession which employs geometry regularly would be carpentry. Carpenters use measurements to build and construct. The area of an enclosed space, the perimeter of a construct, the length of a plank of wood, the diameter of a window. All examples of how geometry is a huge part of carpentry. Those who work with computer graphics employ geometry regularly, as well: the way an image or graphic is seen and portrayed when viewed from different angles. Algebra is an Area of Mathematics which is not thought to be useful in the real world. However, astronauts are people who use algebra in their profession. The science of

Autar 3 spaceships, and navigating that equipment requires math. Algebra is used to calculate the speed, velocity, distance and to measure the safety of the astronauts in the space shuttle. Trigonometry is the study of triangles, and it can be reasoned that any professional field in which triangles play a part use trigonometry to get things done. Farming is one such professions. When farmers need to build animal pens, buildings or fields in which to plant their crops, they use trigonometry to do so. Using angle measurements, they set the boundaries of their projects and thereby make sure there are no complications with future projects. Crime scene investigators also use trigonometry: in determining the trajectory of a projectile--such as a bullet or an arrow--crime scene investigators use trigonometry to determine from where the projectile came, employing the trigonometric ratios and angle measurements. Astronomy is a field in which trigonometry plays a huge role. It is used to find the distance of planets from one another, and from one planet to the Sun, as well as the distance of the stars in the galaxy. Astronomers use trigonometry in finding the distance of stars from the Earth. The Earth orbits around the Sun once a year, so in six-month intervals the Earth looks at the same stars from the vertices of a triangle. Observing how far these stars move against the background, astronomers calculate the angle measurement of the triangle, and then using that and the length of the base, they find the distance of the star from the Earth--the height of the triangle. The three Areas of Mathematics I have highlighted in my PBAT are quite commonly found in the real world. Some careers depend almost entirely on Geometry, Algebra, and Trigonometry. Classroom-based tasks Trigonometry PBAT Task #1: Solving a Right Triangle

Autar 4 Trigonometry PBAT Task #2: Using the Angle of Elevation to find the measure of a side of a right triangle. Trigonometry PBAT Task #5: The Skateboarding Triangle PBAT Task #3: A Dissection Proof of the Pythagorean theorem by Geometric Method PBAT Task #2: Garfield’s Proof of the Pythagorean theorem

Autar 5 Trigonometry PBAT Task #1 The problem in this PBAT was to solve two right triangles. To solve a triangle means to find the measurements of all six components of the triangle: the three angle measurements and the three side measurements. The two right triangles I was asked to solve were: C II 13 b I labeled them ‘I’ and ‘II’ to make it easer to distinguish to which triangle I am referring in my Explanation. Explanation I started with triangle ‘I’. We only have one side measure and two angle measurements. The easiest thing to do would be to find the final angle measurement. I subtracted 24 degrees from 90 degrees to get 66 degrees as the measurement of ∠B . The reason this works is because the sum of the angle measures in any triangle is equal to 180◦. Since this is a right triangle we already have an angle that measures 90◦, which is half of 180◦. So, the sum of the two non-right angles must be complementary—they must sum up to 90◦. Now that I have all the angle measurements, I am going to fid the measurements of the missing side lengths. To do this I will have to employ SOHCAHTOA. SOHCAHTOA is mnemonic device to help remember the three trigonometric ratios: sine, cosine, and a B V

12 5 A I

Autar 6 tangent. I chose ∠A as my reference angle and decided to use sine, to find the measure of the hypotenuse. Sine is the ‘SOH’ in SOHCAHTOA and means

sin θ =

O opposite = . H hypotenuse

Where θ = 24, O = 5 and H = c, I have my question:

sin 24 =

To solve, I did the following:

5 c

5 sin 24

sin 24 =

5 c

c=

Then I used my scientific calculator, model TI-84 Plus, and hit the following keys:

and I got 12.29296668, which I rounded off to 12.3. I now have two of the three side lengths. To find the last one I could use SOHCAHTOA, again, or employ the Pythagorean theorem. I decided to use the Pythagorean theorem and then check my work with SOHCAHTOA. My equation is:

12.3 − 52 = b

Then I used my scientific calculator, model TI-84 Plus, and hit the following keys:

2

and I got 11.23788236, which I rounded to 11.24.

Autar 7 Now, I’m going to use SOHCAHTOA to check my answer. I decided to use the cosine trigonometric ratio and ∠A as my reference angle. Cosine is the ‘CAH’ in SOHCAHTOA and means

cos θ =

A adjacent = . H hypotenuse

Where θ = 24, A = b and H = 12.3, I have my equation:

cos θ =

b . 12.3

To solve, I did the following algebraic processes:

cos θ b = 1 12.3

b = 12.3(cos 24) .

Then I used my TI-84 Plus scientific calculator and hit the following keys:

and got 11.23660913, which I rounded to 11.34. That matches the answer I got with the Pythagorean theorem, so my answer checks out and is therefore correct. The solved triangle ‘I’ is: B 12.3 66◦ 5 I C 11.24 24◦ A

Autar 8 Now it’s time to solve triangle ‘II.’ It has two side length measurements—a leg and the hypotenuse—and the only angle measurement is the right angle. I will find the missing side length measure, first. I decided to employ the Pythagorean theorem to do this one; I cannot use SOHCAHTOA because the only angle measurement I have is the right angle and that cannot be used. My equation is

13 − 12 2 = b .

Using my TI-84 Plus scientific calculator, I hit the keys

2

and I got 5. Now that I have all three side length measurements, it is time to use SOHCAHTOA to find the angle measurements. I will find the measurement of ∠A , first. I will use SOH, or sine, to find it. My equation is

5 sin A = . 13

Since I do not have an angle measurement to plug in for A, I have to use the inverse of sine. My new equation is

5 sin . 13

−1

Using my TI-84 Plus scientific calculator, I hit the keys

Autar 9 and I got 22.61986495, which I rounded to 22.62◦. To find the missing angle measurement I will simply subtract 22.62 from 90, employing the same logic I did in the beginning of my Write Up. I subtract and get 67.38◦. Now that I have all three angle measurement I will check and see if my measurement for CB is correct. I will use the tangent trigonometric ratio and ∠B as my reference angle. Tangent is ‘TOA’ in SOHCAHTOA and stands for

tan θ =

O opposite = . A adjacent

Where θ = 67.38, O = 12 and A = a, I have my equation:

tan 67.38 =

To solve I do the following process

12 a

tan 67.38 =

12 a

a=

12 tan 67.38

and using my TI-84 Plus scientific calculator I hit the keys

and I got 5.000033196, which I rounded to 5. This matches my original answer, so because it checks out, my solution is correct. The solved triangle ‘II’ is: 12 A 22.62◦ 13 II 67.38◦ C 5 B V

Autar 10 Extension I would like to challenge the reader of my PBAT paper to solve the following right triangle: B 12.3 5 I C 11.24 Evaluation I feel like this PBAT was not challenging at all. My firm grasp and understanding of SOHCAHTOA really made it very simple to figure out. However, I do feel as though this task was made to develop a better understanding of what it means to solve a triangle, and it definitely succeeded at that. While I do not feel this is a skill I will need in the real world, I am sure a time may come where I am proved wrong. To solve both of the right triangles I had to employ some of the information I learned in Geometry: the sum of the angle measurements in any triangle equals 180◦. Having the diagrams there to label also helped a lot since I need to label diagrams in order to organize my thinking when solving any problem. Trigonometry PBAT Task #2 The problem given in this PBAT was to find the measure of the hypotenuse of a right triangle, when only given the angle of elevation and the measure of the side opposite from the angle. The situation is an airplane is seen flying at an altitude of 14,000 feet from an angle of elevation of 15°. The task is to find the line-of-sight distance from the angle of 24◦ A

Autar 11 elevation to the airplane. The angle of elevation is the angle formed when the object is higher than the observer’s eye-level. The diagram of the triangle is

14,0000 feet

line-of-sight distance

15° The altitude of 14,000 feet is leg a of the right triangle. The line-of-sight distance is the hypotenuse. Leg b’s measurement is unimportant because that is not part of what is asked in the problem. The angle opposite leg a is the angle of elevation, measured at 15°. To figure out this problem, I first had to decide which trigonometric ratio from SOHCAHTOA to use. The problem asks for the measure of the hypotenuse. I already have the measure of the side opposite the angle of elevation, which is my reference angle. The two sides involved are opposite (O) and hypotenuse (H). The trigonometric ratio that involves O and H is SOH, which represents sine and means

sin θ =

O opposite = . H hypotenuse

Where θ = 15, O = 14,000 and H =c I have my equation

sin 15 =

14000 c

Autar 12 To solve for c I did the following

sin 15 =

14000 c

c=

14000 sin 15

Using my TI-84 Plus scientific calculator, I hit the following keys

and I got 54091.84627, which I rounded to 54091.85. That is my answer. To check my answer I decided to use another trigonometric ratio to find the measure of the hypotenuse and then see if that answer matches my original answer. I decided to use the other-non right angle as the reference angle, this time around. In order to find the measure of that angle, I subtracted the measure of the angle of elevation from 90°. 90 – 15 = 75, so 75° is the measure of that angle. The reason this works is because the sum of a triangles angle measurements must be equal to 180°. Since this is a right angle one of the angles measure 90°, so the sum of the other two angles must equal 90°, since 180° - 90° = 90°. Now that I have the measure of the reference angle I needed to decide which trigonometric ratio to use. I had the altitude and hypotenuse, sides a and c. Side a is adjacent to the reference angle, so I decided to use the ratio that involves adjacent (A) and hypotenuse (H). That such ratio is the ‘CAH’ or cosine of SOHCAHTOA, and it means

cos θ =

A adjacent = H hypotenuse

Where θ = 75, A = 14,000 and H = c, I have my equation

cos 75 =

14000 c

Autar 13 To solve, I did the following

cos 75 =

14000 c

c=

14000 cos 75

and using my TI-84 scientific calculator, I hit the following keys

and got 54091.84627, which I rounded to 54091.85. That matches my original answer, thereby proving my solution is correct. Extension I would like to challenge the reader of my PBAT paper to solve a problem similar to the one posed in this task: A helicopter is hovering at an altitude of 17,000 feet and spots a skyscraper at an angle of depression of 20°. How far away is it, by line-of-sight distance? Evaluation I thought this PBAT task was the simplest and easiest of all the ones I saw. When I read it, I knew right away I would be using SOHCAHTOA. The only thing I had trouble with was the angle of elevation; I always get confused when trying to figure out where the angle of elevation and angle of depression go. When it came to actually doing the problem and figuring it out, I was still surprised by how easy it was. SOHCAHTOA makes finding unreal measurements easy. Knowing the trigonometric ratios is very useful, I think, and the mnemonic device ‘SOHCAHTOA’ makes it so simple. The diagram also helped because I am a visual learner and I like to label things, to organize my thinking. Having a diagram to label really helped a lot. I really think the problem and its application of math in a real-

Autar 14 world situation was very worthwhile; there may come a time when a similar problem comes up in real life. Trigonometry PBAT Task #5 This PBAT problem consisted of multiple problems based upon information given. We are told that Herman has built a ramp in his driveway that measures a maximum height of 3 feet and a horizontal distance of six feet. There are five questions that pertain to Herman’s ramp, which is a right triangle. Herman’s ramp is:

3 feet

6 feet The first problem asked to simply label the diagram with the information given: the maximum height and the horizontal length of the ramp. I have already done as such in the diagram above. The second problem asks to find the skateboarding surface of Herman’s ramp. Basically, it’s asking for the measure of the unknown side: the hypotenuse. To find the hypotenuse we can use the Pythagorean theorem, using a for the height, b for the horizontal length and c for the hypotenuse. So my equation is this:

32 + 6 2 = c 2 .

Using my scientific calculation, model TI-84 Plus, I hit the keys

Autar 15

and I got 6.708203932 as my answer for the hypotenuse. The problem did not specify to round the answer, but I rounded to the nearest hundredth and I got 6.71 feet. The next problem asked to find the angle of inclination of the ramp. At first I was confused by what the question was asking because I was unfamiliar with the term ‘angle of inclination,’ but I realized it was just another way of saying ‘angle of elevation.’ To figure out this problem I knew I had to use one of the trigonometric ratios. I decided to use legs a and b, since they had measurements with whole numbers. Leg a is opposite the angle of elevation, which was also adjacent to leg b. The ratio which involved Adjacent and Opposite is tangent:

tan θ =

O opposite = A adjacent

.

Where θ is equal to x, O = 3 and A = 6, I have my equation

tan θ =

3 . 6

To solve, I used my scientific calculator and hit the following keys:

and got 26.56505118, which I rounded off to 26.57°, which is my answer. Question 4 was a bit more complex than the others. Using Supposition, it asked would the skateboarding surface increase or decrease if the angle of inclination were increased by 5°, and the height of the ramp stayed at 3 feet. To solve this one I first found out what the new angle measure would be by simply adding 5 to 26.57, and I got 31.57°.

Autar 16 Then I employed sine to help find the new measure of the hypotenuse. I chose sine because it is the simplest ratio: opposite over hypotenuse. My equation was

sin 31.57 =

I did the following

3 C

.

sin 31.57 =

3 C

C=

3 sin 31.57

and then used my scientific calculator, hitting the following keys

to get 5.730222599, which I rounded off to 5.73 feet. I looked back at the original hypotenuse measure, which is 6.71 feet, and I see that the measure has increased by approximately 1 foot, which is my answer. The next question was comprised of three parts. We are told that Herman’s father suggests that Herman either decrease the height of the ramp by one foot or increase the horizontal distance by two feet. Part a asks to find the new angle of inclination for the two new ramps. I first worked on the ramp with the increased horizontal distance, Ramp I. As I did with the original ramp, I used the tangent trigonometric ratio to find the measure of the angle of inclination. My equation was

tan θ =

Using my scientific calculator, I hit the keys

3 . 8

Autar 17

and I got 20.55604522, which I rounded off to 20.56°. Next up, I worked on the ramp with the decreased height, Ramp II. Again, I used tangent to find the angle of elevation. My equation was

tan θ =

2 . 6

Using my scientific calculator, I hit the following keys

and I got 18.43494882, which I rounded off to 18.43°. Comparing Ramp I’s angle of inclination measure of 20.56° to Ramp II’s 18.43°, it is clear that Ramp I has the smallest angle of inclination of the two, which is my answer. Part b asked to find the new skateboarding surface of each of the new ramps and then determine which has the least change in length from Herman’s original ramp. I first determined the new length for Ramp I. I decided to use the Pythagorean theorem. My equation was

32 + 82 = c 2 .

Using my scientific calculator, I hit the keys

and got 8.5440037145, which I rounded off to 8.54 feet. To check my work I used SOHCAHTOA. Using the angle of inclination as the reference angle, I decided to use sin to find the measure of the hypotenuse. My equation was

Autar 18

sin 20.56 =

and then I did the following

3 C

sin 20.56 =

3 C

C=

3 . sin 20.56

Using my scientific calculator I hit the keys

and I got 8.542431413, which I rounded off to 8.54 feet, which matches the answer I got with the Pythagorean theorem. My answer checks out so it must be right. Next is Ramp II, with the decreased height. I used the Pythagorean theorem to find the measure of the hypotenuse for this ramp, as well. My equation was

22 + 62 = c 2 .

Using my scientific calculator I hit the keys

and got 6.32455532, which I rounded off to 6.32 feet. To check my work I again employed sine of SOHCAHTOA. My equation was

sin 18.43 =

2 C

and using my scientific calculator I hit the following keys

Autar 19 and I got 6.32619458, which rounded 6.33 feet. It was close enough to answer I got with the Pythagorean theorem, so I concede my answer was right. Now that I had the new hypotenuse measure I compared them to the original ramp’s hypotenuse measure of 6.71 feet, which is what the question asked. Ramp II’s new hypotenuse measure had the least change compared to the original ramp’s; Ramp II’s was only approximately .4 feet less than the original ramp’s. Part c asked which ramp I thought Herman would prefer to build, and why. Reviewing the two new ramps and comparing them to the original ramp, I determined Herman would prefer to build Ramp II, the one with the decreased height. My reasoning was that he would prefer to only have to cut off a foot from the height and .4 feet from the skateboarding surface than to add on extra feet to the ramp. It is much easier and simpler to take off length than to add on. Evaluation I think this PBAT task was quite easy. It called for a good understanding of right triangles and SOHCAHTOA, both of which I think I have. I needed to know geometry in order to use the Pythagorean theorem, but that’s the only other area of math the problem called for. I think it was a rather straightforward PBAT and none of the components were too confusing or difficult. It was clever how the problem integrated trigonometry into a real-life problem. It is quite possible a situation like Herman’s might happen in real life, and knowing trigonometry makes it very easy to figure out. PBAT Task #3: A Dissection Proof of the Pythagorean theorem The problem in this PBAT was to prove the Pythagorean theorem, using two quadrilateral figures with figures inside of each. The Pythagorean theorem explains that the

Autar 20 sum of the two legs of a right triangle, squared, is equal to the measure of the hypotenuse of the right triangle, squared. It is expressed as a2 + b2 = c2, with with ‘a’ and ‘b’ representing the measures of the legs, and ‘c’ representing the hypotenuse. The two figures are:

figure a

figure b

The first thing to do is prove the quadrilaterals in Fig.a are squares by showing that all their angles are right angles. I know from what was given that the triangles in Fig. b are all right triangles, so they all have right angles. I labeled them all, I to IV, to make it easier to distinguish between them. Triangle I’s right angle is formed by perpendicular lines a and b, and b is one of the sides of the larger quadrilateral within figure a. Since side a on that side of figure a extends down and becomes side b, it is safe to assume b is also a straight line, like a, since only straight line can form perpendicular lines. It is then safe to assume that the top-left angle of the large quadrilateral within figure a is supplementary with the right angle in triangle I, since they both lie on the same straight line, which is a straight angle. Supplementary angles sum up to be the measure of a straight angle: 180°. Since the

Autar 21 right angle in triangle I is a right angle, it measures 90°. That means the top-left angle of the larger quadrilateral in figure a—which I will refer to as b2 from now on, since that is its area, using the formula area = length x width—is also 90° and thereby also a right angle. Since the bottom side of b2 is opposite and equivalent to the topside, which we determined was perpendicular to the height of triangle I, and therefore a straight line—is also a straight line. Since it intersects side b on the left side, which I already concluded was a straight line; they are perpendicular, because when straight lines meet they form perpendicular lines. The side on the right of b2 is equivalent to b and is opposite the left side b, and they both form perpendicular lines with the top and bottom sides of b2. This means that all four sides of b2 are straight lines, and therefore every angle is formed by perpendicular lines, making them right angles. This reasoning makes b2 a rectangle, not a square. The fact that all four sides have the same measurement makes it a square. The next quadrilateral I am going to try and prove is a square is figure a, itself. I look at the sides and see the measurement of each side is the same: a + b. This means figure a is a regular polygon, and therefore all of its angle measurements have to be equal, as well. Figure a is a quadrilateral, so the sum of its angle measures has to be 360°. If I divide this measure by the number of angles in figure a, I will have the measure of each angle. I do this and I get 90° for the measure of each angle. 90° measures to be a right angle, meaning all the angles in figure a are right angles, thereby making it a square: a rectangle with four right angles and four equal side measures. The final quadrilateral in figure a is the small one within figure a, in the top-right corner. Its sides measure a, so its area is equal to a2. Since we determined figure a is a square, it can be reasoned that the ‘a + b’ parts of each of its sides are straight lines,

Autar 22 separate and together. Because of this, ‘a’ is a straight line and this quadrilateral—a2—has four straight lines that intersect, or perpendicular lines. The perpendicular lines form right angles for each of a2’s four angles. All of this makes a2 a square: it has four right angles and four equal sides. The next step is to prove the middle figure in figure b is a square by showing all of its angles are right angles. Looking at the middle figure, I see that all of its side measures are ‘c’. Employing the reasoning used in proving the squares in figure a, I can say this figure is a regular polygon. It is also a quadrilateral so, like figure a, each of its four angles must equal 90°, summing up to 360°, and making each a right angle. Because of it has four right angles and four equal sides, this figure in the middle of figure b is also a square. Now it is time to prove the Pythagorean theorem— a 2 + b 2 = c 2 —by using the area of both figures. I have to first find the area of both figures, then set them equal to one another, and solve. Figure a consists of two square and four right triangles. I know the area of the two squares: a2 and b2. All four right triangles within figure a have the same dimensions: a base that measures ‘b’ and a height that measures ‘a.’ That is equal to four

1 1 1 1 1 ab ’s, or ab + ab + ab + ab . I add the measures of the two squares, to get the area 2 2 2 2 2 of figure a, and end up with

1 1 1 1 ab + ab + ab + ab + a 2 + b 2 . 2 2 2 2

I simplify this and am left with

a 2 + 2ab + b 2

Autar 23 as the equation for the area of figure a. To check my answer, I will employ the formula area = length × width . The length of figure a is a+b, and the width is b+a. I put these together and get (a+b)(b+a), a binomial. I simplify that and am left with

a 2 + 2ab + b 2

which is the same as my original answer. Figure b consists of four right triangles and a square. The four triangles in figure b have the same dimensions as the four right triangles in figure a, so the sum of their areas

1 1 1 1 sum up to ab + ab + ab + ab , as well. The area of the square is c2. The equation for 2 2 2 2 the area of figure b is

1 1 1 1 ab + ab + ab + ab + c 2 2 2 2 2

which I simplify to

a 2 + 2ab + c 2 .

I set the two equations equal and am left with

a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = a 2 + 2ab + c 2 .

I subtract the 2ab on the left from the 2ab on the right and am left with the Pythagorean theorem:

a2 + b2 = c2

The Pythagorean theorem has been proved and my PBAT is solved. PBAT Task #2: Garfield’s Proof of the Pythagorean theorem

Autar 24 The problem in this PBAT was how to prove the Pythagorean theorem by employing the logic that the area of a trapezoid is equal to the sum of the area of 3 right triangles. The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the squared measure of the legs of a right triangle is equal to the squared measure of the hypotenuse. It is expressed as a2 + b2 = c2, with ‘a’ and ‘b’ being the two perpendicular legs and ‘c’ being the hypotenuse. The trapezoid is

The first thing to do is to figure out if this figure is really a trapezoid. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly on pair of parallel lines as sides. Parallel lines are straight lines that never intersect. For them to never intersect, parallel lines run in the same direction. I chose sides AC and DE to be the possible parallel lines in this figure because the other two opposite sides would surely intersect if lengthened, for AB is on a slant. Since there are no angle measurements I could not employ the rules of parallel lines when cut by a transversal —line AD . So, I decided to take another approach. I looked at CE and saw both ends of the line intersected with the possible parallel lines to create perpendicular lines that form the right angles in ∆ACB and ∆BED . Only straight lines can form perpendicular lines and thereby right angles, meaning AC , CE and DE are straight lines. Since AC and DE are opposite one another they must be parallel, for when two lines are perpendicular to a line

Autar 25 those two lines are parallel. Since those lines are parallel, figure ACED is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel lines, or a trapezoid. Now that I have been proven figure ACED is a trapezoid, it is time to solve the problem. I will first label the triangles within the trapezoid: I, II, and III. I then decided to find the area of each triangle using the formula area = ½ base x height, or ½bh. I started with ∆ACB , or I. With ‘a’ as its height and ‘b’ as its base, its area is ½ba. ∆ABD , or II, is next. Both of its legs are equal to ‘c,’ so its area is ½c(c), or ½c2. ∆BED , triangle III, has the same dimensions as triangle I, so its area is the same: ½ba. Now that I have the area of the three right triangles it is time to figure out the area of the trapezoid, using the formula area = ½(b1 + b2)h. Where ‘b1’ and ‘b2’ are the parallel lines and ‘h’ is the height of the trapezoid. Trapezoid ACED’s parallel lines of ‘b’ and ‘a’ and it has a height of ‘a+b.’ Trapezoid ACED has an area of

1 (b + a)( a + b) . 2

The next step is in the PBAT problem itself: “the area of the trapezoid ACED is equal to the sum of the areas of the right triangles ACB, ABD and BED.” I have to set the measurements I found equal to one another. My equation is

1 1 1 1 (b + a )( a + b) = ba + ba + c 2 . 2 2 2 2

I have a binomial in the left side of the equation so I must solve it. Using the FOIL method I get ba + b2 + a2 + ab, which simplifies to 2ab + b2 + a2, since ba and ab are the same. My equation now reads

Autar 26

1 1 1 1 (2ab + b 2 + a 2 ) = ba + ba + c 2 . 2 2 2 2

On the right side of the equation I have two ½ba’s which become ba or ab, since two halves equal a whole. My equation is

1 1 (2ab + b 2 + a 2 ) = ab + c 2 . 2 2

Finally, I distribute the ½ within the parentheses on the left side to get

1 1 1 (ab + b 2 + a 2 = ab + c 2 2 2 2

which is my final equation. I subtract the ‘ab’ on the left side from the ‘ab’ on the right and am left with

1 2 1 2 1 b + a = + c2 . 2 2 2

I see all three terms have ‘½’ in front of them, so I multiply both sides by 2 to get rid of the ½’s, and am left with

b 2 + a 2 = +c 2

which the Commutative Property says is equal to

a 2 + b 2 = +c 2

which is the Pythagorean theorem. I have proved the Pythagorean theorem via Garfield’s Method. My PBAT is solved. This was a very complex PBAT; at first glance there were so many components and I was flustered and completely overwhelmed. Upon rereading the problem, however, and

Autar 27 looking at the diagram it became a much easier problem. I had to call upon my Geometry skills: proving parallel lines, properties of a trapezoid, and properties of perpendicular lines. My algebra skills also helped by bringing up the properties of real numbers, of which the commutative property is one. When I first read this PBAT task, I thought it was a ludicrous task; of course the sum of the areas of the right triangles would be equal to the area of the trapezoid: the right triangles make up the trapezoid, so of course their areas would sum up to be equal to the trapezoid’s area. Essentially the three right triangles are the same as the trapezoid. Essential Questions A. Why is it necessary for a high school student to learn the Areas of Mathematics that you selected? It is important for high school students to learn geometry, algebra, and trigonometry because they help to enrich the students’ lives. Knowing these areas of mathematics adds on to their learning, making them more well-rounded and well-educated students. Also, as discussed in Part II, there are professions which rely heavily on these areas of mathematics and a student may be interested in one of those fields of study. These areas of mathematics can also be found in real-life situations, geometry can be used to find measurements of space and objects which can be found in real life, algebra can be used to solve problems with missing information, trigonometry can be used to find the height of a structure or building without having to actually measure it. B. How is mathematics useful in modeling real-life situations? Mathematics is useful in modeling real-life situations because it makes difficult problems easy to handle and solve. For example, if someone would like to measure the

Autar 28 height of the Empire State Building, he or she could simply employ trigonometry instead of having to literally measure the height of the Empire State Building. He or she could use a clinometer to measure the angles of elevation and depression, and then measure the distance he or she is standing away from the building. That measure would be the measure of the base of the right triangle, which would be the side adjacent to the angle of elevation. The height of the building would be opposite the angle of elevation. Using the tangent ratio, the person would be able to find the height of the Empire State Building. Reflections The three Habits of Mind I believe I incorporated in this PBAT are Relevance, Evidence, and Supposition. In Parts II and IV of my PBAT paper I discussed how these Areas of Mathematics are useful and how they can be found in the real world, showing the Relevance of learning these Areas of Mathematics. In Part III, I explained my every step in solving all of my Classroom-Based Tasks in the Write-Ups, thereby employing Evidence. Supposition was incorporated in my Write-Ups, as well. In the Extension part of the Trigonometry tasks I changed the problems, supposing what the answer of a similar problem would be.

Autar 29 Works Cited Masters, Karen. "Curious About Astronomy: How is astronomy impacted by trigonometry?" Curious About Astronomy? Ask An Astronomer. The Curious Team, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php? number=475>. Matthews, Joanna. "The Way Trigonometry is used in Astronomy." 15 July 2003. UNC Charlotte Center for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. Web. 12 Apr. 2010 Calder, Vince, et al. Careers and Trigonometry. Argonne National Library, May 2006. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/gen01/gen01213.htm>. Doctor Eric. Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math. The Math Forum, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/53934.html>. Joyce, David E. "What Is Trigonometry." Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Clark University. N.p., 1997. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/trig/ what.html>. Joyce, David E. "Measurement of Angles." Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Clark University. N.p., 1997. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/trig/angle.html>. Wijaya, Chandra. "The Difference Between Trigonometry and Geometry - by Chandra Wijaya - Helium." Helium. Helium, Inc., 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://www.helium.com/items/ 1482518-difference-between-trigonometry-andgeometry>. Doctor Sarah. "Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math." Math Forum. The Math Forum, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010. <http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/54697.html>. "geometry." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010 <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9126112>. "trigonometry." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010 <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9108709>. "algebra." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2010 <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9111000>.

Autar 30 Stewart, Robert L. "Astronaut When Will I Use Math?" When Will I Use Math? BYU Mathematics Department, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <http://www.whenwilliusemath.com/careers/astronaut>. Doctor Ian. "Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math." Math Forum. The Math Forum, 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/61611.html>.

Proving right triangles using geometry, trigonometry algebra and the Pyhagorean theorem. Note: calculations not included; they were written by hand in the original.

Proving right triangles using geometry, trigonometry algebra and the Pyhagorean theorem. Note: calculations not included; they were written by hand in the original.

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