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WORD Laconic using only a few words to say something Throng a large group of people in one place, a crowd willing to do dangerous things or to go to dangerous places; brave; courageous to go someone who you do not know and threaten them Unwilling to talk about what you feel or what you know; silent MEANING EXAMPLE His laconic manner concealed an immense energy in the mastery of techniques. She got lost in a throng. WORD FAMILY laconically (adv) EXAMPLE -Give me, said the man laconically.

throng (v)

Tourists thronged the bars and restaurants.


The intrepid explorers had successfully conquered the Everest. He was accosted by a throng and had to give them all his money. Shes strangely reticent about her son.

trepidation (n)

With some trepidation, I opened the door.


reticent (adj)

-reticence (n)

The desire for information and the general reticence to fulfill that need has made a freedom of information act absolutely essential.


Word furtive (adj)

Meaning Behaving as if you want to keep something secret; stealthy

Example There was something furtive about his actions.

WORD FAMILY -furtively (adv) -furtiveness (n)

felon (n)

Plethora (n)

Someone who is guilty of a serious cri me SYN: criminal A very large number of something, usually more than you need.

Oakdale Prison holds over 600 dangerous felons.

-felony (n) (a serious crime such as murder)

EXAMPLE -She opened the door and looked furtively down the hall. -Competition in exploration often develops an atmosphere of suspicion and furtiveness which is highly unfavorable to coperative efforts. -Fewer than 25 percent of the people arrested on felony charges are convicted.

Last year, my sister was had no job offers. Recently, she has had a plethora of interviews and I believe that she'll be working soon. The bodies of the hapless victims of the murderer are nowhere to be found The customer sent a irate letter to the manager Adverb: haplessly Noun: haplessness The man tried doing his job haplessly. Haplessness is not to be blame for ones failure. He irately stormed out of the room. A fast lane life often brings about irateness.


Unlucky, unfortunate


1. Angry, enraged. 2.Arising or characterized by anger.

Adverb: irately, non-irately Noun: Irateness Adjective: non-irate

Word Pretext Meaning 1. Something that is put forward to conceal a true purpose or object; excuse 2.the misleading appearance or behavior assumed with this intention make by art or skill and labor; construct 2. to make by assembling parts or sections. devise or invent fake; forge skillful, especially in the way you use words and arguments SYN skilled : Example 1. The leaders used the insults as a pretext to declare war. 2. His many lavish compliments were a pretext for subtle mockery. 1. The finest craftspeople fabricated this clock. 2. The storyteller fabricated the story to attract more townspeople. 1. Hes an adroit negotiator. 2. Self-defeating organizations are nothing if not adroit at minimizing the costs of their destructive or ineffectual actions. Adjective: Fabricative, Unfabricated, Well-fabricated Quasifabricated Noun: Fabricator 1. The felons false testimony was wellfabricated. 2. The fabricator assembled the components with such haste that can only be described as outstanding 1. Mary, in spite of herself, blushed, but without confusion, and Tom adroitly led the conversation other where. 2. There is a certain adroitness about the world that sometimes seems missing from American policy. He shrugged his shoulders in ungracious Word Form/ phrase Example



adroitly adverb adroitness noun [uncountable ]


to make movements with your arms and

Jane gesticulated wildly and

gesticulation noun [uncountable

hands, usually while speaking, because you are excited, angry, or cannot think of the right words to use SYN gesture

shouted Stop! Stop!

and countable ]

acquiescence, while our visitor in hurried words and with much excitable gesticulation poured forth his story. 1. Governments from across the world have called for greater vigilance against Internet-based crime. 2. There is a need for constant vigilance to protect vulnerable people.

vigilant adjective . REGISTER In everyday English, people usually use the expression watch out rather than be vigilant : We were told to watch out for anything suspicious.

giving careful attention to what is happening, so that you will notice any danger or illegal activity :

Please remain vigilant at all times and report anything suspicious.

vigilantly adverb vigilance noun [uncountable ]


WORD avid adjective [only before noun]

MEANING doing something as much as possible SYN keen : written used when you want to emphasize that someone does something a lot or

EXAMPLE avid golfer 2. She was an avid reader all her life. 3. Ive become an avid collector of his work. 4. Henry is an avid fan of the

WORD FAMILY avidly adv

EXAMPLE We avidly waited news of him.

is very interested in something

sport. 5. As a schoolboy he had an avid interest in birds. 1. She cajoled him into (talk him into) lending her his iPhone. 2. We cajoled them out of (dissuade from) leaving to early.

Cajole (v)

to persuade somebody to do something (that they may not want to) by talking pleasantly or making false promises

Rudimentary (adj)

Most basic (matters, ideas)

1.Your knowledge of mathematics is only rudimentary 2.Not highly or fully developed 3.Single-cell animal is a rudimentary form of life.

Rudiments (n)

We need to know about the rudiments of windsurfing .

Nuance (n)

slight difference in meaning, sound, attitude that is not obvious

This machine can show every nuances of expression on your face

Nuanced (adj)

. They had a skillful and nuanced performanc e.


to strengthen, to improve, to intensify

A special alcoholic drink is believed to enhance the kings ability to have children.

Enhancement (n) Enhancer (n) -enhancing (suffix)

Music is a mood enhancer. They were caught using performance -enhancing drugs.