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Problem. Show that there does not exists a, b, c Q ( 7) such that

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 1.

Solution. I will use a result that says that a stufe of a number ﬁeld is either 1, 2, 4, or (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0 022314X7290039X). If the stufe is 4 or , then we are done. So, I will show that the stufe is not 1 or 2. Obviously, it is not 1. Then, I will show that there does not exists x, y Q ( 7) such that

x 2 + y 2 = 1 · · · (1).

Suppose there exists x and

for a, b, c, d Q . Then (1) becomes

y that satisﬁes (1). Then, by letting x = a + b 7, y = c + d 7

(a 2 7b 2 + c 2 7d 2 ) + 2(ab + cd) 7 = 1.

which is equivalent to solving a 2 7b 2 + c 2 7d 2 = 1 and ab + cd = 0. We will focus our attention on solving a 2 7b 2 + c 2 7d 2 = 1 · · · (2).

For all g = a, b, c, d, let us examine g = g g 2 , where g Z and (g 1 ,g 2 ) = 1. Then (2) becomes:

1

a a 2 2 7

1

c 2 2 7 2 2 + c

b

1

b

1

d

d

1

2 2

= 1 · · · (2)

There are 3 possibilities of g 1 and g 2 , which is:

(i) g 1 is odd (o) and g 2 is even (e).

(ii) g 1 and g 2 are odd.

(iii) g 1 is even and g 2 is odd.

Case 1: There exists at least one of {a, b, c, d} that are in form (i). Then we multiply both sides in (2)’ by l 2 = (lcm (a 2 ,b 2 ,c 2 ,d 2 )) 2 , which gives us

la 1

a

2

2 7 lb 1

b

2

2 + lc 1

c

2

2 7 ld 1

d

2

2

= l 2

and also the fact that each lg 1 is an integer. We also know that l must be an even integer. At least one of them must be odd, because if all of them are even integers, then l/2 is also a common multiples of a 2 ,b 2 ,c 2 , and d 2 , which contradicts the fact that l is the least common multiple of a 2 ,b 2 ,c 2 , and d 2 . Consider the equation in mod 8, then it becomes

g

2

la 1 2 + lb 1 2 + lc 1 2 + ld 1

a

2

b

2

c

2

d

2

2

≡ − l 2

mod 8.

We know that at least of lg 1 /g 2 must be

odd, w.l.o.g g = a . Then, (la 1 /a 2 ) 2 1 mod 8, while for other instances of g = b, c, d,

Because l is even, then l 2 0 or 4 mod 8.

(lg 1 /g 2 ) 2 0, 1, 4 mod 8. It is easy to see from exhausting all the possibilities that all of lg 1 /g 2 must be odd, and l 2 4 mod 8. This implies that all of g 1 /g 2 are in form (i); if any of those are in another form, then lg 1 /g 2 must be even for some g = a, b, c, d, and also because l 2 4 mod 8, this means that the highest power of 2 that divides l must be 2 1 , which implies l/2 is odd. Multiplying both sides of (1) by l 2 /4, we have:

lx 2 + ly

2

2

2 = l 4 · · · (3)

2

where lx, ly are in the form p + q 7 where p, q Z and p q 1 mod 2. Let’s consider this new equation in mod 8. First, it is possible to consider lx/2 and ly/2 as a residue

mod 8,

which gives us x 7 mod 8, but this is simply all the odd integers. And also, because p , q and 7 are all odds, then p + q 7 is even in Z/8Z , which gives us the fact that p + q 7

in Z/8Z , because 7 mod 8 means we are looking for a solution of x 2 ≡ − 7

k mod 8 for some integer k in Z/8Z .

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Then, we can consider lx/2, ly/2 Z/8Z . Then, for any k Z/8Z , k 2 0, 1, 4 mod 8, which gives us the fact that k + k 0, 1, 2, 4, 5 mod 8 for k 1 ,k 2 Z/8Z . But, for the right hand side of equation (3), because l/2 is odd, then (l/2) 2 1 mod 8, or l 2 /4 7 mod 8, which is a contradiction. Hence, we conclude that ther e is no solution in this ﬁrst case.

2

1

2

2

Case 2: {a, b, c, d} are not in the form (i).