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DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG 1. determine settlement of pile. Prediction
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION

PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
1. determine settlement of pile.
1. determine settlement of pile.

Prediction the settlement of pile folows the equivalent foundation method Equation:

S 1 = S i = Σ ( σ zi aver .h i ) / E i

(1)

In which

E i :Modulus

σ zi aver :Vertical pressure h i :Thickness soil layer

Due to the input data of pile is unknown, we assumped that settlement of pile is 0,0cm.

2. determine settlement of each soil layers.
2. determine settlement of each soil layers.

Calculation settlement of each cohesive soil layers using following equation:

s

s

=

=

H

H

⎡ ⎡ C

C

1

cr

cr

+ e

1 + e

o

o

lg lg

+

pp

pp ⎤ ⎤

o

o

+

p

p

o

o

Δ

Δ

( ( 2 ) )

2

s

s

=

=

H

H

lg

⎢ ⎥⎢

ep

ep

⎥⎢

lg

C

C

p

p

⎤⎡

⎤⎡

cr

cr

c

c

1

1

+

+

+

+

oo

oo

⎦⎣

⎦⎣

BH - no1

C

C

c

c

1

1

+

+

e

e

o

o

lg

lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

c

c

( ( 3 ) )

3

when

when

p

p

p

p

o

o

o

o

+

+

+

+

Δ pp

Δ pp

Δ pp>

Δ pp>

c

c

c

c

In which : C cr : Recompress index

C c :Compresstion index p c :Preconsolidation pressure p o :Effective overburden pressure

:Imposed pressure increase

Δ

Δ

p

p

3. Determine settlement
3. Determine settlement
 

Layer

Depth

Thickness

γ

       

No.

           

Layer

35% Layer

Settlement

Unequal

Symbol

Description

From

To

h (m)

(T/m 3 )

Settlement

Settlement

of pile

settlement

               

S (m)

S 1 (m)

ΔS

ΔS

(m)

1

   

0.0

-1.0

1.0

1.77

0.029

0.010

0.000

 

0.010

2

-1.0

-2.0

1.0

1.77

0.029

0.010

0.000

 

0.010

3

-2.0

-3.0

1.0

1.77

0.032

0.011

0.000

 

0.011

4

-3.0

-4.0

1.0

1.77

0.035

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

5

2

Clay verry soft

-4.0

-5.0

1.0

1.77

0.039

0.014

0.000

 

0.014

6

-5.0

-6.0

1.0

1.77

0.042

0.015

0.000

 

0.015

7

-6.0

-7.0

1.0

1.77

0.045

0.016

0.000

 

0.016

8

-7.0

-8.0

1.0

1.77

0.045

0.016

0.000

 

0.016

9

-8.0

-9.0

1.0

1.77

0.044

0.015

0.000

 

0.015

10

   

-9.0

-10.0

1.0

1.71

0.041

0.014

0.000

 

0.014

11

Clay , sandy clay

-10.0

-11.0

1.0

1.71

0.038

0.013

0.000

 

0.013

12

3

-11.0

-12.0

1.0

1.71

0.036

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

13

soft

-12.0

-13.0

1.0

1.71

0.033

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

14

-13.0

-14.0

1.0

1.71

0.032

0.011

0.000

 

0.011

15

   

-14.0

-15.0

1.0

1.82

0.023

0.008

0.000

 

0.008

16

-15.0

-16.0

1.0

1.82

0.022

0.008

0.000

 

0.008

17

-16.0

-17.0

1.0

1.82

0.021

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

18

4

Clay stiff

-17.0

-18.0

1.0

1.82

0.020

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

19

-18.0

-19.0

1.0

1.82

0.019

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

20

-19.0

-20.0

1.0

1.82

0.018

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

21

-20.0

-21.0

1.0

1.82

0.017

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

22

5

Clay to firm

-21.0

-22.0

1.0

1.78

0.020

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

23

-22.0

-23.0

1.0

1.78

0.019

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

Total of calculating thickness

H (m)

23.0

       

0.244

   
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance

Negative shaft resistence occures due to the settlement between soil and pile. The amount of settlement between soil and pile necessary to mobilize the nagative shaft resistance is about 10 mm. Therefore, nagative shaft resistance will occur on the pile shaft in each soil layer or portion of a soil layer with a settlement greater than 10 mm. Therefore the pile segment in layer 2,3 will be subjected to the negative shaft resistances (downdrag).

5. Determine downdrag force
5. Determine downdrag force
Pile's parameter Diameter (cm) Perimeter (m) 30 0.942
Pile's parameter
Diameter (cm)
Perimeter (m)
30
0.942

Soil layer

Depth

D/b

c

u

Rs (-)

 

(m)

 

(T/m2)

(T)

Layer 2

6

20.00

1.3

7.3

Layer 3

5

16.67

1.26

5.9

Magnitude of downdrag force Rs(-)

 

13.3

6. ANNEX CALCULATION SETTLEMENT

SETTLEMENT CALCULATION

Project:apple - hai phong

I. Input data: BH- NO1

*

Ground soil:

   

Layer

 

Depth

Thickness

γ

G

 

Pc

C

v x10 -4

     

SPT

No.

             

eo

   

Cc

Cr

C

α

(for sand

Symbol

Description

From

To

h (m)

(T/m 3 )

(%)

(T/m 2 )

(cm

2 /s)

 

layer only)

 

1

1

Backfilling

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.00

               
 

2

   

0.0

-1.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

3

-1.0

-2.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

4

-2.0

-3.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

5.0

2

Very Soft clay

-3.0

-4.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

6.0

-4.0

-5.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

7.0

   

-5.0

-6.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

8.0

-6.0

-7.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

9.0

-7.0

-8.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.035

0.01

0

 

10.0

   

-8.0

-9.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

11.0

-9.0

-10.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

12.0

3

Clay ,sandy clay

-10.0

-11.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

13.0

-11.0

-12.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

14.0

   

-12.0

-13.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

15.0

-13.0

-14.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

16.0

   

-14.0

-15.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

17.0

-15.0

-16.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

18.0

-16.0

-17.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

19.0

4

Clay stiff

-17.0

-18.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

20.0

-18.0

-19.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

21.0

-19.0

-20.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

22.0

-20.0

-21.0

1.0

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

6.30

0.22

0.028

0.01

12

 

23.0

   

-21.0

-22.0

1.0

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

5.60

0.27

0.031

0.01

6

 

24.0

5

Clay to firm

-22.0

-23.0

1.0

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

5.60

0.27

0.031

0.01

6

 

25.0

-23.0

-24.0

1.0

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

5.60

0.27

0.031

0.01

6

       

-24.0

-25.0

1.0

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

5.60

0.27

0.031

0.01

6

 

Total of calculating thickness

H

(m)

25.0

 
 

Drainage length (PVDs)

d

(m)

25.0

ii.Primary consolidation settlement without soil improvement by backfilling, compensation and required load
ii.Primary consolidation settlement without soil improvement by backfilling, compensation and required load
improvement by backfilling, compensation and required load   0.7m of compesation * Loading input: 3m of
 

0.7m of compesation

*

Loading input:

3m of backfilling

 
 

Required load

L

(T/m 2 )

0.0

 
 

Backfilling thickness

 

H

TK (m)

3.70

 
 

Compensation

Hco (m)

0.00

 
  Compensation Hco (m) 0.00    
 
 

Construction height

 

H

TC (m)

3.70

 

25.0

 

Filling slope

 

1/m

2

 
  Filling slope   1/m 2  
 

Width of slope

 

a (m)

13

 
 

Unit weight of filling sand

 

γ d (t/m 3 )

1.80

 

Pressure on ground level

 

q

E (T/m 2 )

6.66

 

No.

Depth

Z

h

 

γ

G

 

Pc

SPT

Cc

Cr

ΔP=Ι∗q Ε

Po

PoP

empirical

Settlement

mm

 

m

 

T/m 3

(%)

e

o

(T/m 2 )

(for sand layer only)

T/m 2

T/m 2

T/m 2

coefficient

Sc (m)

 

2

-1

-0.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

0.39

7.05

1.1

0.029

 

3

-2

-1.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

1.16

7.82

1.1

0.029

 

4

-3

-2.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

1.94

8.60

1.1

0.032

 

5

-4

-3.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

2.71

9.37

1.1

0.035

 

6

-5

-4.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

3.48

10.14

1.1

0.039

 

7

-6

-5.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

4.26

10.92

1.1

0.042

 

8

-7

-6.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.02

6.66

5.03

11.69

1.1

0.045

 

9

-8

-7.5

1.0

 

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

0

0.27

0.04

6.66

5.81

12.47

1.1

0.045

 

10

-9

-8.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

6.55

13.21

1.1

0.044

 

11

-10

-9.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

7.26

13.92

1.1

0.041

 

12

-11

-10.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

7.97

14.63

1.1

0.038

 

13

-12

-11.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

8.68

15.34

1.1

0.036

 

14

-13

-12.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

9.40

16.06

1.1

0.033

 

15

-14

-13.5

1.0

 

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

3

0.31

0.04

6.66

10.11

16.77

1.1

0.032

 

16

-15

-14.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

10.88

17.54

1.1

0.023

 

17

-16

-15.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

11.70

18.36

1.1

0.022

 

18

-17

-16.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

12.53

19.19

1.1

0.021

 

19

-18

-17.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

13.36

20.02

1.1

0.020

 

20

-19

-18.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

14.18

20.84

1.1

0.019

 

21

-20

-19.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

15.01

21.67

1.1

0.018

 

22

-21

-20.5

1.0

 

1.82

99.40

1.17

9.80

12

0.22

0.03

6.66

15.83

22.49

1.1

0.017

 

23

-22

-21.5

1.0

 

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

6

0.27

0.03

6.66

16.64

23.30

1.1

0.020

 

24

-23

-22.5

1.0

 

1.78

98.60

1.14

8.60

6

0.27

0.03

6.66

17.44

24.10

1.1

0.019

 

Estimated total con-settlements:

 

0.70

OCR

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

1.47

Total primary consolidation settlement by required load, backfilling and compensation is 0.7m. The settlement here exceeds allowable settlement. Thus soil improvement is required here.

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG 1. determine settlement of pile. Prediction
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION

PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG
1. determine settlement of pile.
1. determine settlement of pile.

Prediction the settlement of pile folows the equivalent foundation method Equation:

S 1 = S i = Σ ( σ zi aver .h i ) / E i

(1)

In which

E i :Modulus

σ zi aver :Vertical pressure h i :Thickness soil layer

Due to the input data of pile is unknown, we assumped that settlement of pile is 0,0cm.

2. determine settlement of each soil layers.
2. determine settlement of each soil layers.

Calculation settlement of each cohesive soil layers using following equation:

s

s

=

=

H

H

⎡ ⎡ C

C

1

cr

cr

+ e

1 + e

o

o

lg lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

o

o

( ( 2 ) )

2

s

s

=

=

H

H

lg

⎢ ⎥⎢

ep

ep

⎥⎢

lg

C

C

p

p

⎤⎡

⎤⎡

cr

cr

c

c

1

1

+

+

+

+

oo

oo

⎦⎣

⎦⎣

BH -no13

C

C

c

c

1

1

+

+

e

e

o

o

lg

lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

c

c

( ( 3 ) )

3

when

when

p

p

p

p

o

o

o

o

+

+

+

+

Δ pp

Δ pp

c

c

Δ pp>

Δ pp>

c

c

In which : C cr : Recompress index

C c :Compresstion index p c :Preconsolidation pressure p o :Effective overburden pressure

:Imposed pressure increase

Δ

Δ

p

p

3. Determine settlement
3. Determine settlement
 

Layer

Depth

Thickness

γ

       

No.

           

Layer

35% Layer

Settlement

Unequal

Symbol

Description

From

To

h (m)

(T/m 3 )

Settlement

Settlement

of pile

settlement

               

S (m)

S 1 (m)

ΔS

ΔS

(m)

0

1

Fillsand

 

4.20

--

   

-

-

 

1

   

0.0

-1.0

1.0

1.77

0.029

0.010

0.000

 

0.010

2

-1.0

-2.0

1.0

1.77

0.029

0.010

0.000

 

0.010

3

-2.0

-3.0

1.0

1.77

0.032

0.011

0.000

 

0.011

4

2

Clay verry soft

-3.0

-4.0

1.0

1.77

0.035

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

5

-4.0

-5.0

1.0

1.77

0.039

0.014

0.000

 

0.014

6

-5.0

-6.0

1.0

1.77

0.042

0.015

0.000

 

0.015

7

-6.0

-7.0

1.0

1.77

0.045

0.016

0.000

 

0.016

8

   

-7.0

-8.0

1.0

1.77

0.045

0.016

0.000

 

0.016

9

Clay , sandy clay

-8.0

-9.0

1.0

1.77

0.044

0.015

0.000

 

0.015

10

3

-9.0

-10.0

1.0

1.71

0.041

0.014

0.000

 

0.014

11

-10.0

-11.0

1.0

1.71

0.038

0.013

0.000

 

0.013

12

 

soft

-11.0

-12.0

1.0

1.71

0.036

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

13

-12.0

-13.0

1.0

1.71

0.033

0.012

0.000

 

0.012

14

4a

Clay firm to soft

-13.0

-14.0

1.0

1.71

0.032

0.011

0.000

 

0.011

15

-14.0

-15.0

1.0

1.82

0.030

0.010

0.000

 

0.010

16

   

-15.0

-16.0

1.0

1.82

0.021

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

17

-16.0

-17.0

1.0

1.82

0.020

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

18

-17.0

-18.0

1.0

1.82

0.020

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

19

4

Clay stiff

-18.0

-19.0

1.0

1.82

0.019

0.007

0.000

 

0.007

20

-19.0

-20.0

1.0

1.82

0.018

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

21

   

-20.0

-21.0

1.0

1.82

0.017

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

22

-21.0

-22.0

1.0

1.78

0.016

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

23

-22.0

-23.0

1.0

1.78

0.016

0.006

0.000

 

0.006

Total of calculating thickness

H (m)

23.0

       

0.244

   
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance

Negative shaft resistence occures due to the settlement between soil and pile. The amount of settlement between soil and pile necessary to mobilize the nagative shaft resistance is about 10 mm. Therefore, nagative shaft resistance will occur on the pile shaft in each soil layer or portion of a soil layer with a settlement greater than 10 mm. Therefore the pile segment in layer 2,3,4a will be subjected to the negative shaft resistances (downdrag).

5. Determine downdrag force
5. Determine downdrag force
Pile's parameter Diameter (cm) Perimeter (m) 30 0.942
Pile's parameter
Diameter (cm)
Perimeter (m)
30
0.942

Soil layer

Depth

D/b

c

u

Rs (-)

 

(m)

 

(T/m2)

(T)

Layer 2

5

16.67

1.31

6.2

Layer 3

5

16.67

1.26

5.9

Layer 4a

1

3.33

1.85

1.7

Magnitude of downdrag force Rs(-)

 

13.8

6. ANNEX CALCULATION SETTLEMENT

SETTLEMENT CALCULATION

Project:apple - hai phong

I. Input data: BH- NO13

*

Ground soil:

   

Layer

 

Depth

Thickness

γ

G

 

Pc

C

v x10 -4

     

SPT

No.

             

eo

   

Cc

Cr

C

α

(for sand

Symbol

Description

From

To

h (m)

(T/m 3 )

(%)

(T/m 2 )

(cm

2 /s)

 

layer only)

 

1

1

Fill sand

4.2

0.0

-4.2

-

               
 

2

   

0.0

-1.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

3

-1.0

-2.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

4

-2.0

-3.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

5.0

2

Very Soft clay

-3.0

-4.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

6.0

-4.0

-5.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

7.0

   

-5.0

-6.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

8.0

-6.0

-7.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.024

0.01

0

 

9.0

-7.0

-8.0

1.0

1.77

99.60

1.17

5.50

24.00

0.27

0.035

0.01

0

 

10.0

   

-8.0

-9.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

11.0

-9.0

-10.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

12.0

-10.0

-11.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

13.0

3

Clay ,sandy clay

-11.0

-12.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

14.0

-12.0

-13.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

15.0

-13.0

-14.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

16.0

-14.0

-15.0

1.0

1.71

99.80

1.37

5.30

17.40

0.31

0.035

0.01

3

 

17.0

4a

Clay firm to soft

-15.0