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DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION

PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

1. determine settlement of pile.

Prediction the settlement of pile folows the equivalent foundation method Equation:

S 1 = S i = Σ ( σ zi aver .h i ) / E i

(1)

In which

E i :Modulus

σ zi aver :Vertical pressure h i :Thickness soil layer

Due to the input data of pile is unknown, we assumped that settlement of pile is 0,0cm.

2. determine settlement of each soil layers.

Calculation settlement of each cohesive soil layers using following equation:

s

s

=

=

H

H

⎡ ⎡ C

C

1

cr

cr

+ e

1 + e

o

o

lg lg

+

pp

pp ⎤ ⎤

o

o

+

p

p

o

o

Δ

Δ

( ( 2 ) )

2

s

s

=

=

H

H

lg

⎢ ⎥⎢

ep

ep

⎥⎢

lg

C

C

p

p

⎤⎡

⎤⎡

cr

cr

c

c

1

1

+

+

+

+

oo

oo

⎦⎣

⎦⎣

BH - no1

C

C

c

c

1

1

+

+

e

e

o

o

lg

lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

c

c

( ( 3 ) )

3

when

when

p

p

p

p

o

o

o

o

+

+

+

+

Δ pp

Δ pp

Δ pp>

Δ pp>

c

c

c

c

In which : C cr : Recompress index

C c :Compresstion index p c :Preconsolidation pressure p o :Effective overburden pressure

:Imposed pressure increase

Δ

Δ

p

p

3. Determine settlement
 Layer Depth Thickness γ No. Layer 35% Layer Settlement Unequal Symbol Description From To h (m) (T/m 3 ) Settlement Settlement of pile settlement S (m) S 1 (m) ΔS ΔS (m) 1 0.0 -1.0 1.0 1.77 0.029 0.010 0.000 0.010 2 -1.0 -2.0 1.0 1.77 0.029 0.010 0.000 0.010 3 -2.0 -3.0 1.0 1.77 0.032 0.011 0.000 0.011 4 -3.0 -4.0 1.0 1.77 0.035 0.012 0.000 0.012 5 2 Clay verry soft -4.0 -5.0 1.0 1.77 0.039 0.014 0.000 0.014 6 -5.0 -6.0 1.0 1.77 0.042 0.015 0.000 0.015 7 -6.0 -7.0 1.0 1.77 0.045 0.016 0.000 0.016 8 -7.0 -8.0 1.0 1.77 0.045 0.016 0.000 0.016 9 -8.0 -9.0 1.0 1.77 0.044 0.015 0.000 0.015 10 -9.0 -10.0 1.0 1.71 0.041 0.014 0.000 0.014 11 Clay , sandy clay -10.0 -11.0 1.0 1.71 0.038 0.013 0.000 0.013 12 3 -11.0 -12.0 1.0 1.71 0.036 0.012 0.000 0.012 13 soft -12.0 -13.0 1.0 1.71 0.033 0.012 0.000 0.012 14 -13.0 -14.0 1.0 1.71 0.032 0.011 0.000 0.011 15 -14.0 -15.0 1.0 1.82 0.023 0.008 0.000 0.008 16 -15.0 -16.0 1.0 1.82 0.022 0.008 0.000 0.008 17 -16.0 -17.0 1.0 1.82 0.021 0.007 0.000 0.007 18 4 Clay stiff -17.0 -18.0 1.0 1.82 0.020 0.007 0.000 0.007 19 -18.0 -19.0 1.0 1.82 0.019 0.007 0.000 0.007 20 -19.0 -20.0 1.0 1.82 0.018 0.006 0.000 0.006 21 -20.0 -21.0 1.0 1.82 0.017 0.006 0.000 0.006 22 5 Clay to firm -21.0 -22.0 1.0 1.78 0.020 0.007 0.000 0.007 23 -22.0 -23.0 1.0 1.78 0.019 0.007 0.000 0.007 Total of calculating thickness H (m) 23.0 0.244
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance

Negative shaft resistence occures due to the settlement between soil and pile. The amount of settlement between soil and pile necessary to mobilize the nagative shaft resistance is about 10 mm. Therefore, nagative shaft resistance will occur on the pile shaft in each soil layer or portion of a soil layer with a settlement greater than 10 mm. Therefore the pile segment in layer 2,3 will be subjected to the negative shaft resistances (downdrag).

5. Determine downdrag force
Pile's parameter
Diameter (cm)
Perimeter (m)
30
0.942
 Soil layer Depth D/b c u Rs (-) (m) (T/m2) (T) Layer 2 6 20.00 1.3 7.3 Layer 3 5 16.67 1.26 5.9 Magnitude of downdrag force Rs(-) 13.3

6. ANNEX CALCULATION SETTLEMENT

SETTLEMENT CALCULATION

Project:apple - hai phong

I. Input data: BH- NO1

 * Ground soil: Layer Depth Thickness γ G Pc C v x10 -4 SPT No. eo Cc Cr C α (for sand Symbol Description From To h (m) (T/m 3 ) (%) (T/m 2 ) (cm 2 /s) layer only) 1 1 Backfilling 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 2 0.0 -1.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 3 -1.0 -2.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 4 -2.0 -3.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 5.0 2 Very Soft clay -3.0 -4.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 6.0 -4.0 -5.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 7.0 -5.0 -6.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 8.0 -6.0 -7.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 9.0 -7.0 -8.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.035 0.01 0 10.0 -8.0 -9.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 11.0 -9.0 -10.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 12.0 3 Clay ,sandy clay -10.0 -11.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 13.0 -11.0 -12.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 14.0 -12.0 -13.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 15.0 -13.0 -14.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 16.0 -14.0 -15.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 17.0 -15.0 -16.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 18.0 -16.0 -17.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 19.0 4 Clay stiff -17.0 -18.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 20.0 -18.0 -19.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 21.0 -19.0 -20.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 22.0 -20.0 -21.0 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 6.30 0.22 0.028 0.01 12 23.0 -21.0 -22.0 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 5.60 0.27 0.031 0.01 6 24.0 5 Clay to firm -22.0 -23.0 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 5.60 0.27 0.031 0.01 6 25.0 -23.0 -24.0 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 5.60 0.27 0.031 0.01 6 -24.0 -25.0 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 5.60 0.27 0.031 0.01 6 Total of calculating thickness H (m) 25.0 Drainage length (PVDs) d (m) 25.0
ii.Primary consolidation settlement without soil improvement by backfilling, compensation and required load
 0.7m of compesation * Loading input: 3m of backfilling Required load L (T/m 2 ) 0.0 Backfilling thickness H TK (m) 3.70 Compensation Hco (m) 0.00 Construction height H TC (m) 3.70 25.0 Filling slope 1/m 2 Width of slope a (m) 13 Unit weight of filling sand γ d (t/m 3 ) 1.80 Pressure on ground level q E (T/m 2 ) 6.66 No. Depth Z h γ G Pc SPT Cc Cr ΔP=Ι∗q Ε Po Po+ΔP empirical Settlement mm m T/m 3 (%) e o (T/m 2 ) (for sand layer only) T/m 2 T/m 2 T/m 2 coefficient Sc (m) 2 -1 -0.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 0.39 7.05 1.1 0.029 3 -2 -1.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 1.16 7.82 1.1 0.029 4 -3 -2.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 1.94 8.60 1.1 0.032 5 -4 -3.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 2.71 9.37 1.1 0.035 6 -5 -4.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 3.48 10.14 1.1 0.039 7 -6 -5.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 4.26 10.92 1.1 0.042 8 -7 -6.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.02 6.66 5.03 11.69 1.1 0.045 9 -8 -7.5 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 0 0.27 0.04 6.66 5.81 12.47 1.1 0.045 10 -9 -8.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 6.55 13.21 1.1 0.044 11 -10 -9.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 7.26 13.92 1.1 0.041 12 -11 -10.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 7.97 14.63 1.1 0.038 13 -12 -11.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 8.68 15.34 1.1 0.036 14 -13 -12.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 9.40 16.06 1.1 0.033 15 -14 -13.5 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 3 0.31 0.04 6.66 10.11 16.77 1.1 0.032 16 -15 -14.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 10.88 17.54 1.1 0.023 17 -16 -15.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 11.70 18.36 1.1 0.022 18 -17 -16.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 12.53 19.19 1.1 0.021 19 -18 -17.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 13.36 20.02 1.1 0.020 20 -19 -18.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 14.18 20.84 1.1 0.019 21 -20 -19.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 15.01 21.67 1.1 0.018 22 -21 -20.5 1.0 1.82 99.40 1.17 9.80 12 0.22 0.03 6.66 15.83 22.49 1.1 0.017 23 -22 -21.5 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 6 0.27 0.03 6.66 16.64 23.30 1.1 0.020 24 -23 -22.5 1.0 1.78 98.60 1.14 8.60 6 0.27 0.03 6.66 17.44 24.10 1.1 0.019 Estimated total con-settlements: 0.70

OCR

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

1.47

Total primary consolidation settlement by required load, backfilling and compensation is 0.7m. The settlement here exceeds allowable settlement. Thus soil improvement is required here.

DOWNDRAG FORCE CALCULATION

PROJECT : apple - HAI PHONG

1. determine settlement of pile.

Prediction the settlement of pile folows the equivalent foundation method Equation:

S 1 = S i = Σ ( σ zi aver .h i ) / E i

(1)

In which

E i :Modulus

σ zi aver :Vertical pressure h i :Thickness soil layer

Due to the input data of pile is unknown, we assumped that settlement of pile is 0,0cm.

2. determine settlement of each soil layers.

Calculation settlement of each cohesive soil layers using following equation:

s

s

=

=

H

H

⎡ ⎡ C

C

1

cr

cr

+ e

1 + e

o

o

lg lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

o

o

( ( 2 ) )

2

s

s

=

=

H

H

lg

⎢ ⎥⎢

ep

ep

⎥⎢

lg

C

C

p

p

⎤⎡

⎤⎡

cr

cr

c

c

1

1

+

+

+

+

oo

oo

⎦⎣

⎦⎣

BH -no13

C

C

c

c

1

1

+

+

e

e

o

o

lg

lg

pp

+

+

pp ⎤ ⎤

Δ

Δ

o

o

p

p

c

c

( ( 3 ) )

3

when

when

p

p

p

p

o

o

o

o

+

+

+

+

Δ pp

Δ pp

c

c

Δ pp>

Δ pp>

c

c

In which : C cr : Recompress index

C c :Compresstion index p c :Preconsolidation pressure p o :Effective overburden pressure

:Imposed pressure increase

Δ

Δ

p

p

3. Determine settlement
 Layer Depth Thickness γ No. Layer 35% Layer Settlement Unequal Symbol Description From To h (m) (T/m 3 ) Settlement Settlement of pile settlement S (m) S 1 (m) ΔS ΔS (m) 0 1 Fillsand 4.20 -- - - 1 0.0 -1.0 1.0 1.77 0.029 0.010 0.000 0.010 2 -1.0 -2.0 1.0 1.77 0.029 0.010 0.000 0.010 3 -2.0 -3.0 1.0 1.77 0.032 0.011 0.000 0.011 4 2 Clay verry soft -3.0 -4.0 1.0 1.77 0.035 0.012 0.000 0.012 5 -4.0 -5.0 1.0 1.77 0.039 0.014 0.000 0.014 6 -5.0 -6.0 1.0 1.77 0.042 0.015 0.000 0.015 7 -6.0 -7.0 1.0 1.77 0.045 0.016 0.000 0.016 8 -7.0 -8.0 1.0 1.77 0.045 0.016 0.000 0.016 9 Clay , sandy clay -8.0 -9.0 1.0 1.77 0.044 0.015 0.000 0.015 10 3 -9.0 -10.0 1.0 1.71 0.041 0.014 0.000 0.014 11 -10.0 -11.0 1.0 1.71 0.038 0.013 0.000 0.013 12 soft -11.0 -12.0 1.0 1.71 0.036 0.012 0.000 0.012 13 -12.0 -13.0 1.0 1.71 0.033 0.012 0.000 0.012 14 4a Clay firm to soft -13.0 -14.0 1.0 1.71 0.032 0.011 0.000 0.011 15 -14.0 -15.0 1.0 1.82 0.030 0.010 0.000 0.010 16 -15.0 -16.0 1.0 1.82 0.021 0.007 0.000 0.007 17 -16.0 -17.0 1.0 1.82 0.020 0.007 0.000 0.007 18 -17.0 -18.0 1.0 1.82 0.020 0.007 0.000 0.007 19 4 Clay stiff -18.0 -19.0 1.0 1.82 0.019 0.007 0.000 0.007 20 -19.0 -20.0 1.0 1.82 0.018 0.006 0.000 0.006 21 -20.0 -21.0 1.0 1.82 0.017 0.006 0.000 0.006 22 -21.0 -22.0 1.0 1.78 0.016 0.006 0.000 0.006 23 -22.0 -23.0 1.0 1.78 0.016 0.006 0.000 0.006 Total of calculating thickness H (m) 23.0 0.244
4.Dertermine the pile length that will experience negative shaft resistance

Negative shaft resistence occures due to the settlement between soil and pile. The amount of settlement between soil and pile necessary to mobilize the nagative shaft resistance is about 10 mm. Therefore, nagative shaft resistance will occur on the pile shaft in each soil layer or portion of a soil layer with a settlement greater than 10 mm. Therefore the pile segment in layer 2,3,4a will be subjected to the negative shaft resistances (downdrag).

5. Determine downdrag force
Pile's parameter
Diameter (cm)
Perimeter (m)
30
0.942
 Soil layer Depth D/b c u Rs (-) (m) (T/m2) (T) Layer 2 5 16.67 1.31 6.2 Layer 3 5 16.67 1.26 5.9 Layer 4a 1 3.33 1.85 1.7 Magnitude of downdrag force Rs(-) 13.8

6. ANNEX CALCULATION SETTLEMENT

SETTLEMENT CALCULATION

Project:apple - hai phong

I. Input data: BH- NO13

 * Ground soil: Layer Depth Thickness γ G Pc C v x10 -4 SPT No. eo Cc Cr C α (for sand Symbol Description From To h (m) (T/m 3 ) (%) (T/m 2 ) (cm 2 /s) layer only) 1 1 Fill sand 4.2 0.0 -4.2 - 2 0.0 -1.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 3 -1.0 -2.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 4 -2.0 -3.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 5.0 2 Very Soft clay -3.0 -4.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 6.0 -4.0 -5.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 7.0 -5.0 -6.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 8.0 -6.0 -7.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.024 0.01 0 9.0 -7.0 -8.0 1.0 1.77 99.60 1.17 5.50 24.00 0.27 0.035 0.01 0 10.0 -8.0 -9.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 11.0 -9.0 -10.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 12.0 -10.0 -11.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 13.0 3 Clay ,sandy clay -11.0 -12.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 14.0 -12.0 -13.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 15.0 -13.0 -14.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 16.0 -14.0 -15.0 1.0 1.71 99.80 1.37 5.30 17.40 0.31 0.035 0.01 3 17.0 4a Clay firm to soft -15.0