References 1. Engineering Materials: Properties and Selection by Kenneth G.
Budinski and Michael K. Budinski, Pearson Prentice Hall, 8th edition, 2004 2. Corrosion Engineering by Mars G. Fontana, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 3rd edition, 1987 3. Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), Houston – Texas, 1984

Why study corrosion ?
Corrosion is a worldwide problem Constructions, chemical companies, marine industries, petroleum companies, food companies, automobiles, aircraft/aerospace, etc. What is corrosion? Deterioration of a material (or its properties) because of reaction with its environment The result? Rust ! Study in the US on cost of corrosion per year 1975: $70 billion 1982: $126 billion 1998: $275 billion USD (in US alone) = $370 billion NZD

Effects of Corrosion which can result in ……..

• Loss of load-bearing cross-section • or penetration • Crack Initiation (due to pits) & Growth (due to H) • Blockage

Effects of Corrosion which can result in ….. • • • • • Maintenance and operating Cost Plant Shutdowns Lost valuable products Effects on Safety and Reliability Product Liability ….$100 billion per year (in the US)…to cover legal cost

• Loss of Electrical Contact • Decrease in Heat Transfer • Debonding of Coatings, Spalling of Concrete • Contamination of products • Degradation of appearance
H2O Pb External Rust Spots

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ore. welds. remove O2 .g. e. etc.g. Iron ores contain oxide of iron. anode/cathode areas. (Consider non-metals) • Ensure overheating of liquids cannot occur • — testing should simulate all relevant details • e. seawater Industrial atmosphere Steam and other gases. gold.g.g.e. add inhibitors Use both for underground steel structures • — occurs due to • • use of wrong material general breakdown of coatings unanticipated change of environment • Select more resistant materials. e.g. sulfuric.Nature of corrosion Why corrosion occurs? Most metals want to return to their natural and stable form. Page 2 . hydrogen sulfide Acid FeCl2 + H2 Ferrous Gas Chloride Forms of Corrosion Coating Metal or nonmetal General or Uniform corrosion The most common form of corrosion Normally occurs on the entire exposed surface or over a large area Represents the greatest destruction of metal on a tonnage basis ‘Uniform’ Pitting Filiform Crevice More noble metal Least damaging from technical point of view because the life of component can be predicted from comparatively simple tests Intergranular Flowing Corrodent Exfoliation Selective Load Galvanic Erosion-Corrosion & Impingement Fretting Corrosion High Temperature ‘Dry’ Corrosion Control of General Corrosion “General” Corrosion • Positions of Anodes & Cathodes change with time • Use protective coatings • Use cathodic or anodic protection • Treat environment. e. distilled water Salt. nitric Air and moisture Bases. e. e. Corrosion Reactions Fe + H2O + 1/2O2 Iron Water Oxygen Fe(OH)2 Ferrous Hydroxide Fe + 2HCl Practically. degree of aeration. chlorine. i. all environments are corrosive to some degree Iron Acids. fresh water. is in metallic form The process allowing the metals to return to ore (oxide or sulfide) is called corrosion.g. A few metals. hydrochloric.g. e.

seals and within small holes and cracks Different oxygen content in the stagnant area vs. phosphate Does not weaken or destroy metallic components but affects surface appearance Appears as network with an active head and red-brown corrosion product tail Page 3 . open surface Stainless steels and aluminium are susceptible to crevice corrosion Galvanic Corrosion Occurs when two dissimilar metals are in contact (or electrically connected) Metal with less corrosion resistant become anodic. Shape & Density of Pits can vary enormously Pitting often leads to initiation of fatigue. magnesium and aluminium surfaces covered by tin. Brasses (Cu-Zn).Pitting Corrosion Localized attack that results in holes. gold. e. mainly small holes Serious form of corrosion (one of the most destructive) Often difficult to predict because their small size and are often covered with corrosion products Stainless steels are prone to pitting corrosion especially in salt water. Monel (Ni-Cu) to stainless steel will show negligible activity. Galvanic Series Platinum Most cathodic or resistant to corrosion (noble) Gold Titanium Silver 18-8 austenitic stainless steels (passive cond. the greater potential galvanic corrosion to occur. lacquered (transparent surface films) Commonly observed on food or beverage cans Observed on steel. SCC. silver. bronzes (Cu-Sn) have better pitting resistance than stainless steels Size. gaskets. Occurs especially under bolt & rivet heads. Magnesium to steel is a very bad combination.) Iron-chromium alloys (passive cond. etc. and the more resistant metal become cathodic (see galvanic series) The farther apart two metals are in the galvanic series.g. lap joints.) Inconel (passive) Nickel Monel Bronzes Copper Brasses Inconel (active) Nickel (active) Tin Lead 18-8 Austenitic stainless steels (active) Cast iron Mild steel and iron Aluminum alloys Zinc Most anodic or easy to corrode (active) Magnesium and magnesium alloys Filiform Corrosion Occurs under protective films. Crevice corrosion Usually associated with stagnant solution caused by gasket surfaces.

copper alloys.) Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Material deterioration (cracking) due to combination of corrosive environment and tensile stress Found in aluminium alloys. • Valves at seals that leak Exacerbated by solid particles in liquid dezincification graphitization Page 4 . stainless steels. etc Stainless steels and aluminium are prone to chloride-containing solutions. layer and peel off) Typically found in aluminium alloys on aircraft components (skins. e. brasses crack in ammonia-containing solutions Strongly influenced by materials treatment (heat treatment and stresses) Normally intergranular Intergranular Corrosion Occurs preferentially along grain boundaries Usually caused by segregation along grain boundaries Segregation leads to dissimilar composition between grain boundaries (anodic) and the grains (cathodic) The most common case: sensitization and welding of stainless steels When stainless steels are heated in the temperature range of 400 to 850oC. titanium alloys. spar. etc. bends • Propellers. chromium carbides (CrC) tend to form along grain boundaries Also observed in high-strength aluminium alloys and copper alloys Intergranular Corrosion of Stainless Steel (“Weld Decay”) Holding or slow cooling in the range 500-800°C is responsible Dealloying (selective leaching) Occurs on metal where one constituent of metal alloy is removed from the alloy There are two forms: Dezincification: removal of zinc from brass (Cu-Zn) Graphitization: dissolution of iron from gray cast irons leaving only the graphite Dezincification occurs when brass exposed/operates at a relatively high temperatures. etc.g.Exfoliation Corrosion Specifically attack on flattened and elongated grains Appears as layers below metal surface (flakes. 80oC for several months Graphitization occurs on gray cast irons pipes over a period of time Erosion-Corrosion Turbulent Flow (relative motion of fluid and metal surface) Mechanical Force of Liquid removes Corrosion Products /Protective Films Pits / Grooves with directional pattern produced Occurs in • Pipes at changes of section.

g.Erosion .Corrosion of Steel Pipe Section of Large diameter 0. Steep-sided Pits — caused by Cavitation due to vibration of pipe filled with water • Cathodic Protection (Impressed Current. Inhibition.corrosion due to use of 90:10 Cu:Ni material (which is rated to 3m/s maximum flow rate) Cavitation Corrosion Formation & Collapse of Vapour Bubbles due to Hydrodynamic Pressure Changes Examples of Cavitation Pressure of Shock Wave produces spalling of Oxide & localised plasticity 316 Stainless Steel Pump Impeller (Vacuum Evaporation Unit) 70°C Skimmed Milk 1 yr. Oxygen Removal Deep. Sacrificial Anodes) • Coatings Remedy: Secure pipe to wall with more brackets to reduce vibration — don’t just repair (by welding) without addressing cause Page 5 .exposed to flowing sea water at 4m/s Specified material : 70:30 Cu-Ni water flow 12mm — Erosion Corrosion due to weld metal protruding into flow causing turbulence Erosion. service Oxide reforms—Bubble reforms in same place … Cavitation Corrosion of Pipe Sectioned Mild Steel pipe Corrosion Control • Design & Fabrication Practice • Material Selection / Surface Modification • Environment Modification e. in service C Steel Pipe Condensate+Steam leaking from trap Several yrs.2%C Steel Pipe Weld Erosion -Corrosion of Sensor Tube .

g. Commisioning. Cleaning) • Consider Local Factors e. etc.Cathodic Protection How to minimise or avoid corrosion Examples of Design Features to Avoid • Avoid Dissimilar Metals …see Galvanic Series • Avoid stagnant regions / deposits / crevices Material Selection Remember to: • Anticipate range of conditions (e. Shut Down.g.g. pins.concn of cooling water even if designs/materials used successfully elsewhere • Consider effects of Fabrication / Heat-treatment Remember that: • Corrosion resistance of “minor” components e. Cl. may be just as important as major ones Page 6 . screws.

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