You are on page 1of 32

Fire and Gas system

A basic understanding with our day

to day job

Fire and Gas system – A basic understanding with our day to day job 1

WHY DO WE NEED FIRE & GAS PROTECTION SYSTEM????

WHY DO WE NEED FIRE & GAS PROTECTION SYSTEM???? How it Works… Looks? – Fire Detection
WHY DO WE NEED FIRE & GAS PROTECTION SYSTEM???? How it Works… Looks? – Fire Detection
How it Works… Looks?
How it
Works…
Looks?

Fire Detection /Mitigation

systems:

Fire Detection

Gas Detection

Fire Suppression systems

CO 2 , FM200, Deluge

Emergency Shutdown (ESD)

Systems

ICSS

DCS/F&G/ESD systems.

Emergency Alarm Systems

PA system

Combustible Gases-Lower & Upper Limits*

Combustible Gases-Lower & Upper Limits*

*No differentiation between the terms “Explosive” and “Flammable” as applied to the lower and upper limits of flammability

Clean Air Too rich for ignition Too lean for ignition Combustibles 50% Lower Upper Typical
Clean Air
Too rich for ignition
Too lean for ignition
Combustibles
50%
Lower
Upper
Typical Combustible
Gas Detector Range
Explosive
Explosive
Limit (LEL)
Limit (UEL)
of Measurement

How does Gas Detector work?

How does Gas Detector work?
00 4.0 milliamperes No fault LEL + - Flammable hydrocarbon 24 VDC gas
00
4.0 milliamperes
No fault
LEL
+
-
Flammable
hydrocarbon
24 VDC
gas

Detect & measure

vapor before

hazardous concentration is present

Provide outputs to enable emergency action

• Detect & measure vapor before hazardous concentration is present • Provide outputs to enable emergency

Types of Gas Detectors

Types of Gas Detectors

As per operating principle:

1.

Catalytic:

Combustibles

2.

Infrared:

Combustibles

3.

Electrochemical:

Mainly Toxic gases (H2S,Oxygen,Cl, SO2,)

In our plant, we are having Catalytic and Infrared types, they again may be divided into point or open path detectors

1. Pointwatch Eclipse

again may be divided into point or open path detectors 1. Pointwatch Eclipse 2. Open Path

2. Open Path Eclipse

again may be divided into point or open path detectors 1. Pointwatch Eclipse 2. Open Path

3. Catalytic Sensor/CGS

again may be divided into point or open path detectors 1. Pointwatch Eclipse 2. Open Path

Catalytic Sensor Operation

Catalytic Sensor Operation Flammable gas • Active Element - Hot wire resistor coated with catalytic material
Flammable gas
Flammable
gas

Active Element - Hot wire resistor coated with catalytic material

Reference Element - Same as active but without catalyst

Catalytic reaction when contact with flammable gas generates heat &

changes Active resistance; reference

resistance unchanged

Explosion is prevented by Flame Arrestor

Constant E or I power source required

is prevented by Flame Arrestor • Constant E or I power source required Combustible Gas Sensor
is prevented by Flame Arrestor • Constant E or I power source required Combustible Gas Sensor

Combustible Gas Sensor (CGS) with DCUEX Tx

Point Infrared Detector Elements

Point Infrared Detector Elements
Optical Beamsplitter Measurement Signal Detector Permeable Gas Sapphire Mirror Cell Optical Filters Reference
Optical Beamsplitter
Measurement
Signal Detector
Permeable Gas
Sapphire Mirror
Cell
Optical Filters
Reference
Signal Detector
Microprocessor
and
Electronics
IR Source Lamp
Permeable Gas
Gas
Cell
Concentration
(LEL)
IR Transparent Window

Theory of Operation The infrared (IR) method of gas detection relies on the IR absorption characteristics of

gases to determine their

presence and concentration. IR gas detectors consist of an IR light source (transmitter) and light detector (receiver) to

measure the intensity both at

the absorption wavelength and

a non-absorbed wavelength.

at the absorption wavelength and a non-absorbed wavelength.  If gas is present in the optical

If gas is present in the optical path, it will affect the intensity of light transmitted between the light source and the detector.

This change in intensity provides the data for determining that a

specific gas, or type of gas is present.

Open Path Gas Detector System Elements 10 - 60 m Flammable hydrocarbon gas Optical Beamsplitter

Open Path Gas Detector System Elements

Open Path Gas Detector System Elements 10 - 60 m Flammable hydrocarbon gas Optical Beamsplitter Measurement
10 - 60 m
10 - 60 m
Flammable hydrocarbon gas
Flammable
hydrocarbon
gas
Optical Beamsplitter Measurement Signal Detector Optical Filters Microprocessor and Electronics Reference Signal
Optical Beamsplitter
Measurement
Signal Detector
Optical Filters
Microprocessor
and
Electronics
Reference
Signal Detector
IR Source
IR Source

Gas

Concentration

(LEL)

As the IR beam reaches the receiver, it passes through a focusing lens and then passes through two narrow band IR filters an active and a reference wavelength. The detector computes the ratio between the two signals The instrument's output is a function of gas concentration times the length of the surveillance path

8

Fail-Safe Operation

Fail-Safe Operation

Active

Reference

Clean

Air

Fail-Safe Operation Active Reference Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level
Fail-Safe Operation Active Reference Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level

IR Signal Level

Active

Reference

Hydrocarbon

Gas

Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics
Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Hydrocarbon Gas IR Signal Level Active Reference Dirty Optics

IR Signal Level

Active Reference Dirty Optics and Clean Air
Active
Reference
Dirty
Optics
and
Clean
Air

IR Signal Level

Active

Reference

Optics and Clean Air IR Signal Level Active Reference Failed Sensor IR Signal Level Failed Active

Failed

Sensor

IR Signal Level

Failed

Active

IR-Source

Reference

IR Signal Level

Failed Microprocessor = 0 mA

EQP Field Devices - Flame

EQP – Field Devices - Flame

UV/IR (X5200) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector

UV (X2200) UV flame detector

IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector

Multispectrum IR (X3301) -

(X2200) – UV flame detector – IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector – Multispectrum
(X2200) – UV flame detector – IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector – Multispectrum
(X2200) – UV flame detector – IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector – Multispectrum
(X2200) – UV flame detector – IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector – Multispectrum

Ultraviolet Sensor Operating Principle

Ultraviolet Sensor Operating Principle

Anode

Plastic

housing

Quartz

Envelope

Operating Principle Anode Plastic housing Quartz Envelope Oi Test Source Cathode circuit board connectors (a,b,c,d)
Operating Principle Anode Plastic housing Quartz Envelope Oi Test Source Cathode circuit board connectors (a,b,c,d)
Operating Principle Anode Plastic housing Quartz Envelope Oi Test Source Cathode circuit board connectors (a,b,c,d)

Oi

Test Source

Cathode

circuit board

connectors

(a,b,c,d)

Det-Tronics UV Sensor

UV photons strike tube cathode

Cathode releases electron

Electron strikes gas molecule

Cascade effect occurs to anode

Discharge is quenched, creates pulse (count) output

Pulse output measured in CPS (counts per second)

counts/gate:

# of pulses (cps) required

to occur within one gate in order to

qualify

gate length:

consec. gates: # of consecutive gates required to be satisfied before a fire

unit of time

alarm output is provided

Arc Rejection Signal Processing

Arc Rejection Signal Processing
Arc Rejection Signal Processing

Signal Processing

Signal Processing

Analyzes the raw IR sensor signal “randomness”

Rejects signals that do not meet randomness criteria

• Rejects signals that do not meet randomness criteria No Fire Alarm Fire Alarm! Automatic optical
• Rejects signals that do not meet randomness criteria No Fire Alarm Fire Alarm! Automatic optical

No Fire Alarm

Fire Alarm!

do not meet randomness criteria No Fire Alarm Fire Alarm! Automatic optical integrity calibrated to perform

Automatic optical integrity calibrated to

perform at all operating temperatures Internal lamps test each sensor at the precise wavelength once per minute to verify operation.

Area with Detection & Suppression

Area with Detection & Suppression

8

7 6

5

4 3

2

1

System Cabinet Control Net GT Exit/Entry RR Flextronics Lube Oil console X3301 Thermals Fuel Gas
System Cabinet
Control Net
GT Exit/Entry
RR
Flextronics
Lube Oil console
X3301
Thermals
Fuel Gas System
DUCTWATCH
DCIO
SCALE: NONE
XXX
CUSTOMER:
DETECTOR ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
CONFIDENTIAL-
TOLERANCE UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
XXX
6901 WEST 110TH STREET
THIS DRAWING AND SPECIFICATION
DETECTOR ELECTRONICS
CONTAIN PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
MINNEAPOLIS, MN 55438
ONE PLACE
0.0
+/- .020
Simon Pate
AND ANY REPRODUCTION, DISCLOSURE,
TWO PLACES
0.00
+/- .010
OR USE THEREOF IS EXPRESSLY
THREE PLACES
0.000
+/- .005
DATE:
03/12/01
PROJECT:
DRAWING TITLE
SIZE
DRAWING NUMBER
REV
PROHIBITED WITHOUT WRITTEN
FRACTIONS
X/XX
+/- 1/32
PERMISSION OF DETECTOR
ANGLES
DEGREES
+/- 1
A
03/12/01
INITIAL RELEASE
CHECKED
ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
EAGLE QUANTUM
LOGIC & C&E SYMBOL LEGEND
B
A
BY:
REV
DATE
DESCRIPTION
E n c l o s u r e e x h a u s t

D

C

B

B A BY: REV DATE DESCRIPTION E n c l o s u r e e

A

8

7 6

5

4 3

2
2

1

D

C

B

A

Fire Detector Cone of Vision

Fire Detector Cone of Vision
Fire Detector Cone of Vision

How it Communicates

How it Communicates
BN- 300 BRANNALARM Tilpasningsenhet FIRE ALARM KNUS GLASSET Interface unit TRYKK HER PRESS HERE BREAK
BN- 300
BRANNALARM
Tilpasningsenhet
FIRE ALARM
KNUS GLASSET
Interface unit
TRYKK HER
PRESS HERE
BREAK
GLASS
Agent Release
Nr.
No.
Supervised Inputs Heats,
Smokes and MAC’s
UV/IR Fire Detection
X5200
Signal / Audible
Devices
SAM
I/O Modules
•Relay
DCIO
ARM
•AIM
Module
•IPM
UV Fire Detection
IR Fire
X2200
Detection
X9800
Network
IDC
Extender
IR Fire X2200 Detection X9800 Network IDC Extender HC Gas Detection Eclipse Premier Controller Ports
IR Fire X2200 Detection X9800 Network IDC Extender HC Gas Detection Eclipse Premier Controller Ports

HC Gas Detection Eclipse

Premier Controller
Premier Controller

Ports

Configuration (serial port)

Controller Ports • Configuration (serial port) • RS-485 serial Link (Modbus RTU) • Redundant media
Controller Ports • Configuration (serial port) • RS-485 serial Link (Modbus RTU) • Redundant media

RS-485 serial Link (Modbus RTU)

Redundant media ControlNet

serial Link (Modbus RTU) • Redundant media ControlNet Operator Interface Station running S3 software Ver 2.8

Operator Interface

Station

running S3

software

Ver 2.8

Operator Interface Station running S3 software Ver 2.8 Supervised Digital inputs MIR Fire Detection X3301 OPC

Supervised

Digital

inputs

MIR Fire Detection

X3301

OPC

option

Digital inputs MIR Fire Detection X3301 OPC option Toxic Gas Detection DCU / DCUEX 24 vdc

Toxic Gas Detection DCU / DCUEX

24 vdc

power supply

Battery
Battery

PSM

X3301 Multispectrum Infrared Flame Detector

X3301 Multispectrum Infrared Flame Detector
Extended Cone of Vision Combines the longest detection range with the best false alarm rejection
Extended Cone of Vision
Combines the longest detection
range with the best false alarm
rejection capabilities
range with the best false alarm rejection capabilities Automatic oi a calibrated performance test that is

Automatic oi

a calibrated performance test that is

automatically performed once per minute to verify complete detector operation capabilities. No testing with an external test lamp is required. The detector automatically

performs the same test that a maintenance person with a test lamp would perform

Magnetic oi / Manual oi

automatically performs the same test that a maintenance person with a test lamp would perform Magnetic

Smoke Detector

Smoke Detector
Smoke Detector
Smoke Detector
Smoke Detector
Smoke Detector

Ionization Smoke Detector

Ionization Smoke Detector
Ionization Smoke Detector
Ionization Smoke Detector
Ionization Smoke Detector

Optical Smoke Detector

Optical Smoke Detector
Optical Smoke Detector Sensing chamber is black molded to prevent light The chamber consists of a

Sensing chamber is black molded to prevent light

The chamber consists of a infrared LED and a

photo diode

Every 3 seconds LED emits a bunch of collimated lights. The light from LED does not fall directly to Diode as it is kept in some angle

When smoke enters into the chamber, some of the light is scattered and detected by the photo diode.

If the resulting signal from diode is above a threshold value, LED will emit two more bunch at an interval of 2 sec. If it goes high then alarm

state will be latched.

Heat Detector

Heat Detector
Heat Detector
Heat Detector

Fire Detection Systems

Fire Detection Systems

Fusible loop

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

Sprinkler

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

Smoke detector

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

Thermal detector

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

UV/IR detector

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

3IR detector

Fire Detection Systems Fusible loop Sprinkler Smoke detector Thermal detector UV/IR detector 3IR detector

Suppression Systems

Suppression Systems

TPP- EG

Suppression Systems T P P - E G TCPP Control Room LQ-MCC TCPP Deluge ATF Deluge

TCPP Control Room

Suppression Systems T P P - E G TCPP Control Room LQ-MCC TCPP Deluge ATF Deluge

LQ-MCC

Suppression Systems T P P - E G TCPP Control Room LQ-MCC TCPP Deluge ATF Deluge

TCPP Deluge

Suppression Systems T P P - E G TCPP Control Room LQ-MCC TCPP Deluge ATF Deluge
Suppression Systems T P P - E G TCPP Control Room LQ-MCC TCPP Deluge ATF Deluge

ATF

Deluge

Fire & Gas Panel

Fire & Gas Panel

FGP#2 - Mimic Panel FGP#1 FGP#3

TCPP Mimic Panel

FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for
FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for
FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for

TPP FGP computer

FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for
FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for
FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for

Mini-vesda for LQ MCC

FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for

Fusible loop panel

FGP#2 - Mimic Panel – FGP#1 – FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel TPP FGP computer Mini-vesda for

Alarms

Alarms

Platform Emergency Alarm

Alarms Platform Emergency Alarm A b a n d o n P l a t f

Abandon Platform Alarm

Emergency Alarm A b a n d o n P l a t f o r

Extinguishing Gas to be Released alarm

Emergency Alarm A b a n d o n P l a t f o r
Emergency Alarm A b a n d o n P l a t f o r

Emergency Manual operation

Emergency Manual operation
Emergency Manual operation
Emergency Manual operation
Emergency Manual operation
Emergency Manual operation
Emergency Manual operation

Enclosed Area Protection

Enclosed Area Protection
Enclosed Area Protection

Manual Release

Manual Release
Manual Release

Manual Release

Manual Release
Manual Release

FM-200 Bank

FM-200 Bank
FM-200 Bank

Emergency Beckons

Emergency Beckons
Emergency Beckons