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The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and

Applications

Trajectory design for geostationary satellite


insertion with the use of chemical upper stage
and electric propulsion
Mikhail Konstantinov , Min Thein

30.10. 2008
The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Introduction

• geostationary satellite insertion.

• trajectory for geostationary satellite insertion with the use


of chemical upper stage and electric propulsion.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Launching stages

• launch vehicle inserts the spacecraft (SC) into the low earth orbit
(LEO).

• The chemical upper stage (ChUS) inserts the electric propulsion


upper stage (EPS) with payload into the intermediate orbit.

• EPS starts from intermediate orbit and delivers the payload into
geostationary orbit (GSO).

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications
Three impulses transfer into an intermediate
orbit with the use of chemical upper stage

Line of
nodes
• The first impulse which is given at the
3rd burning of
point of line of nodes, lifts apogee up to
ChUS
apogee of the first intermediate orbit.

2nd intermediate • The second impulse which is given at the


orbit perigee of the first intermediate orbit,
Final orbit
increases velocity such the apogee has
risen up to apogee of a chosen
1st intermediate intermediate orbit.
orbit
Parking
orbit • The third impulse which is given at the
1st and 2nd burning of ChUS apogee of the second intermediate orbit,
changes an inclination and increases
velocity such the perigee has risen up to
a perigee of a chosen intermediate orbit.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Low thrust trajectory optimization into GEO

•Motion equations are written with the use of equinoctial elements.

•Model problem is used to solve the optimization problem of orbital transfer.

•Solving method of model problem is based on the use of Pontryagin’s


maximum principle and averaging method.

•The maximum principle is used to solve the main optimization problem also.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Optimization
problem
known:

Here,
We need to integrate the system of differential equations
for phase and adjoint variables.

• x = [A ex ey ix iy F], = [ A ex ey ix iy
F]
• Unknowns are (to) and they are extremely
sensitive.
M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …
The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Boundary conditions

It is required to transfer SC initial mass of mo from initial orbit


A = A0 , ex = ex 0 , ey = ey 0 , ix = ix 0 , i y = i y 0

into final orbit


A = Ak , ex = exk , ey = eyk , ix = ixk , iy = iyk

at time Т, which is minimized. Minimization of time of flight in


considered statement is equivalent to minimization of fuel
consumption for transfer.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications
W S
Equinoctial elements:
А=А ex = e cos(Ω + ω ) e y = e sin (Ω + ω )
ψ
P i
i x = tan cos Ω
i
i y = tan sin Ω F =ν +ω + Ω
Φ 2 2

T Motion equations:

T=(P/m)*cos(Φ)*cos(ψ)

S=(P/m)*sin(Φ)*cos(ψ)
where,
W=(P/m)* sin(ψ)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Optimal control

Hamiltonian :

where, и adjoint variables to phase


variables respectively.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Optimal control:

By the using of maximum principle, it is possible to get the optimal control


of spacecraft motion (yaw and pitch angles) as follows:

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Equations for adjoint variables

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

where ,
acb –non-dimensional jet acceleration.
M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …
The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications
Control law
In work [2] formulated some simplified model problem which offer to receive
analytical results and that results are used as initial guess of a main
problem. Thus it is possible to find the control structure of spacecraft’s
motion of orbital transfer. The jet acceleration and yaw angle are considered
as the constants on each revolution of a trajectory.

Structure of control on each revolution of trajectory


• On each revolution of a trajectory transversal
component of thrust accelerates SC on one
arch of a revolution of a trajectory and brakes
SC on other arch of a trajectory. Duration and
braking location of accelerating arc and braking arc on
accelerating each revolution of trajectory are chosen as the
optimized functions of slow time.
• Binomial component of thrust changes the its
direction in points of an osculating orbit with
argument of perigee equal to 90 deg and 270
deg concerning a plane of a terminal orbit.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Solving boundary value problem

The boundary value problem of maximum principle for a model


problem is reduced to system of three transcendental equations
with three unknowns. The systems of equations are provided with
satisfaction to reach into a final orbit (semi major axis, eccentricity
and inclination).

A0
fA( L1k , L1o , L4 ) = ;
Ak
fe ( L1k , L1o , L4 ) = 0.5 ⋅ e0 ;
fi ( L1k , L1o , L4 ) = i0 .

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

2 2
f acos L 1k L4
fA L 1k , L 1o , L 4 if 1 < L 1k < L 1o < 1
2 2
f acos L 1o L4
2 2
f acos L 1k L4
if 1 < L 1k < 1 . L 1o 1
2
π. 2
L 1o L4
2
2
π. 2
L 1k L4
2
if 1 < L 1o < 1 . L 1k 1
2 2
f acos L 1o L4
2
π. 2
L 1k L4
2
if L 1k 1 . L 1o 1
2
π. 2
L 1o L4
2

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

π
f( x) sin( x) x . cos ( x)
2
acos L 1o
2
sin ( x) . f( x)
fe L 1k , L 1o , L 4 dx if 1 < L 1k < L 1o < 1
2 2
f( x) L4
acos L 1k
3
4
2
2 π. π
L4 L 1o 2
2 . sin ( x) . f( x)
dx if 1 < L 1k < 1 . L 1o 1
2 2 2
2 π f( x) L4
L4
2 acos L 1k

acos L 1o
2
sin ( x) . f( x)
dx if 1 < L 1o < 1 . L 1k 1
2 2
f( x) L4
0
3

2 4
L4
2
L 1o .π π
2
2 . sin ( x) . f( x)
dx if L 1k 1 . L 1o 1
2 2 2
2 π f( x) L4
L4
2 0

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications
acos L 1o
sin ( x )
fi L 1k , L 1o , L 4 d x. L 4 if 1 < L 1k < L 1o < 1
2 2
f( x ) L4
acos L 1k

2.
π L 4 . L 1o 1
sin ( x ) 2. π
L 4. dx atan if 1 < L 1k < 1 . L 1o 1
f( x )
2
L4
2 π 2. L
2
4
L 1o
acos L 1k π
2.
acos L 1o L 4 . L 1k 1
sin ( x ) 2. π
L 4. dx atan if 1 < L 1o < 1 . L 1k 1
f( x )
2
L4
2 π 2. L
2
4
L 1k
0 π
π
sin ( x )
L 4. d x ... if L 1k 1 . L 1o 1
2 2
f( x ) L4
0
2. 2.
L 4 . L 1o 1 L 4 . L 1k 1
2. π π
+ atan atan
π 2. L
2
2. L 4
2
4
L 1o L 1k
π π

L1k, L10, L4 –The parameters which determine the values of the adjoint variables
to semi major axis and an inclination in an initial (current) point and a final point of
a trajectory of flight.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications
Relations between ( L1k, L10, L4 ) and adjoint variables

where,

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Algorithm

0. Phase variables (A, i, e) for initial or current point of a trajectory are


known.
1. Determine the parameters(L1k, L10, L4) and find the values of the
adjoint variables to semi major axis and to an inclination in an initial
(current) point and a final point of a trajectory of flight.

2. Define the adjoint variables with the use of known parameters.

3. Choose the duration of an investigated segment of a trajectory.


For example, one day, or 1 revolution of trajectory around of the Earth.

4. Integrate the system of the equations of optimum movement of SC on


the chosen interval of time.

Final orbit exit

5. Parameters of phase variables of an investigated segment of a


trajectory are used as initial conditions for a following segment of
trajectory.
M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …
The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Numerical results

It is considered to insert a satellite into geostationary orbit. Initial intermediate


orbit has the following characteristics:
• Radius of a perigee of an intermediate orbit - 10000 km,
• Radius of a apogee of an intermediate orbit - 65000 km,
• Inclination of an intermediate orbit - 30 degree.
• Argument of a perigee - 0 degrees,
• Longitude of the ascending nodes - 0 degrees.
Characteristics of a spacecraft in an intermediate orbit:
• Initial mass – 2000 kg ,
• Thrust of electric propulsion engine - 0.4 N,
• Specific impulse of electric propulsion engine- 16 km/s.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Semi major axis (m) as a function of


flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Radius of perigee and apogee(m) as a


function of flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Components of eccentricity as a
function of flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Eccentricity as a function of flight time


(day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Components of inclination (rad) as a


function of flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Inclination (degree) as a function of


flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Pitch angle (degree) as a function of


flight time (day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Fig.1 pitch angle (deg) as a function of


flight time in 1st revolution of trajectory

Fig.2 pitch angle (deg) as a function of


flight time in 50th revolution of trajectory

Fig.3 pitch angle (deg) as a function of flight


time in 115th revolution of trajectory

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Yaw angle (degree) as a function of flight time


(day)

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Fig.1 yaw angle (deg) as a function of Fig.2 yaw angle (deg) as a function of
flight time in 1st revolution of trajectory argument of perigee in 1st revolution of
trajectory

Fig.3 yaw angle (deg) as a function of Fig.4 yaw angle (deg) as a function of
flight time in 115th revolution of trajectory argument of perigee in 115th revolution of
trajectory

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

3D view of the calculated


transfer trajectory

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

Conclusion

• The trajectory for geostationary satellite insertion with the use of


chemical upper stage and electric propulsion is designed.

• The continuous low thrust trajectory optimization technique of the


multirevolution trajectory from elliptical orbit into noncoplanar
circular orbit is developed.

• The results by the use of developed technique, including the


numerical integration of system of equations (phase and adjoint
variables) as well as the characteristics of trajectory are presented.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

The literatures
1. M. Konstantinov. Optimization of Low Thrust transfer from elliptical
orbit into noncoplanar circular orbit. Proceedings of 2nd
International Symposium on Low-Thrust Trajectories LOTUS-2,
Toulouse, France, 2002.
2. M. Konstantinov. Optimization of low thrust transfer between no
coplanar elliptic orbits. Paper IAF-97-A.6.06, Turin, Italy, October
1997.
3. V. Petukhov. Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization. Presentation at
the seminar on Space Flight Mechanics, Control, and Information
Science of Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow, June 14, 2000
(http://arc.iki.rssi.ru/seminar/200006/OLTTE2.ppt)
4. M. Konstantinov. Analysis trajectories of the insertion into
geostationary orbit of a SC with the chemical and electric
propulsion with using of Moon’s swingy.

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …


The 3rd CSA-IAA Conference on Advanced Space Systems and
Applications

The end

Thank you!
Min Thein

M. Konstantinov , M. Thein: Trajectory design for geostationary satellite insertion …