Integrated study of the birds of Shimoni and Kisite

Shimoni is a peninsula about 73 km South of Mombasa with a total land area of approximately 105 km2 at low tide. The area encompassed extends from Ramisi river on the North to Umba river estuary on the South. Near shore habitats include sandbanks, mudflats and mangrove areas. The mainland consists of about 10 km2 coastal “coral-rag” forest, several seasonal freshwater pools, high grassland, agricultural land, several small communities and scrub. Kisite is a small, waterless coral island 8 km offshore in the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine National Park. The park lies south of Wasini Island off Shimoni, on the south Kenyan coast near the Tanzanian border, and covers an area of 11 km2 at low tide. Kisite itself is flat and treeless, covered in low grass and herbs. Coral platforms around the raised central portion are exposed at low tide. There are three other coral islets in the park (Mpunguti ya Juu, Mpunguti ya Chini and Jiwe la Jahazi), but these lie closer to the larger Wasini Island, are scrub-covered, and support no significant numbers of nesting waterbirds. Between July and October, Kisite supports an assemblage of pelagic-feeding birds. In many (but not all) years this includes a significant breeding colony of Sterna dougallii. Up to 1,000 pairs have been recorded, but numbers fluctuate greatly from year to year. In October 1997, 400 adults and c.100 young birds were noted. Sterna fuscata also nest here regularly (50 pairs recorded in 1976, and c.20 in 1997), along with Egretta dimorpha. Kisite’s relatively remote location and the lack of tall vegetation make it suitable for nesting seabirds. All along the Kenya coast, seabirds nest during the June–October period, when the south-east monsoon makes for rough seas and prevents human access to their nesting sites. Nonetheless, before this site was protected in 1978, egg collectors frequently disturbed the breeding colonies. The colonies now appear to be recovering. The number of tourists visiting Kisite is increasing, and careful management is needed to ensure that they do not disrupt the colonies (Birdlife International 2011).

Species list What follows is an annotated list of the 199 species of bird that have been recorded in the Shimoni and Kisite area, mostly during field work in the area but with some additional records. Scientific name Accipiter melanoleucus Accipiter minullus Accipiter tachiro Acrocephalus palustris Actitis hypoleucos Alcedo cristata galerita Amblyospiza albifrons Anastomus Lamelligerus Andropadusi mportunus Anthreptes collaris [= Hedydipna collaris] Anthreptes neglectus [ = Hedydipna neglectus] Anthreptes orientalis [= Hedydipna orientalis] Anthreptes pallidigaster [= Hedydipna pallidigaster] Anthreptes reichenowi [= Hedydipna reichenowi] Common name Great Sparrowhawk Little Sparrowhawk African Goshawk Marsh Warbler Common Sandpiper Malachite Kingfisher Grosbeak Weaver African Open-Billed Stork Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Collared Sunbird Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird Amani Sunbird Plain-backed Sunbird

Apalis melanocephala Apalis flavida Apalis porphyrolaema Apaloderma narina Apus affinis Apus apus Apus caffer Aquila rapax Ardea cinerea Ardea melanocephala Batis minor Batis mixta ultima Batis soror Bias musicus Bostrychia hagedash brevirostris Bradornis microrhynchus Bradornis pallidus murinus Bubo africanus Bubo lacteus Buteo buteo vulpinus Butorides striatus atricapillus Bycanistes brevis Bycanistes bucinator Calidris alba Calidris ferruginea Calidris minuta Calidris temminckii Camaroptera brachyura Campephaga flava Campethera abingoni Campethera cailliautii Campethera mombassica Campethera nubica Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos Centropus grillii Centropus superciliosus Cercotrichas quadrivirgata Ceryle rudis Ceuthmochares aereus Ceyx pictus Charadrius hiaticula Charadrus marginatus, tenellus Chlorocichla flaviventris

Black-Headed Apalis Yellow-breasted Apalis Chestnut-throated Apalis Narina Trogon Little Swift Eurasian Swift White-rumped Swift Tawny Eagle Grey Heron Black-headed Heron Black-headed Batis Forest Batis Pale Batis Black-and-white Shrike-flycatcher Hadada Ibis African Grey Flycatcher Pale Flycatcher Spotted Eagle-owl Verreaux's Eagle-owl Common (Steppe) Buzzard Striated Heron Silvery-cheeked Hornbill Trumpeter Hornbill Sanderling Curlew Sandpiper Little Stint Temminck's Stint Grey-backed Camaroptera Black Cuckooshrike Golden-tailed Woodpecker Green-backed Woodpecker Mombasa Woodpecker Nubian Woodpecker Great Egret Black Coucal White-browed Coucal Eastern Bearded Scrub Robin Pied Kingfisher Yellowbill (Green Coucal) African Pygmy-kingfisher Common Ringed Plover White-Fronted Plover Yellow-bellied Greenbul

Chrysococcyx klaas Chrysococcyx caprius Cichladusa guttata Ciconia episcopus Circaetus cinerascens Circaetus cinereus Circaetus fasciolatus Circaetus pectoralis Colius striatus Coracias caudatus Coracias naevia Corvus albus Corvus splendens Cossypha natalensis Cuculus canorus Cuculus gularis Cuculus poliocephalus Cuculus solitarius Cypsiurus parvus Dendropicos fuscescens Dicrurus adsimilis Diomedea cauta Dryoscopus cubla Egretta dimorpha Egretta garzetta Erythropygia quadrivirgata Euplectes hordeaceus Euplectes nigroventris Eurystomus glaucurus Falco peregrinus Falco tinnunculus Guttera pucherani Gypohierax angolensis Halcyon albiventris Halcyon chelicuti Halcyon leucocephala Halcyon senegaloides Haliaeetus vocifer Hieraaetus ayresii Himantopus himantopus Hirundo abyssinica Hirundo aethiopica Hirundo senegalensis

Klaas's Cuckoo Diederik Cuckoo Spotted Morning-thrush Woolly-necked Stork Banded Snake-eagle Brown Snake-eagle Southern Banded Snake-eagle Black-chested Snake-eagle Speckled Mousebird Lilac-breasted Roller Rufous-crowned Roller Pied Crow House Crow Red-capped Robin-chat Common Cuckoo African Cuckoo Lesser Cuckoo Red-Chested Cuckoo, African Palm-swift Cardinal Woodpecker Fork-tailed Drongo Shy Albatross Black-backed Puffback Dimorphic Egret Little Egret Bearded Scrub-robin Black-winged Red Bishop Zanzibar Red Bishop Broad-billed Roller Peregrine Falcon Common Kestrel Crested Guineafowl Palm-nut Vulture Brown-hooded Kingfisher Striped Kingfisher Grey-headed Kingfisher Mangrove Kingfisher African Fish-eagle Ayres's Hawk-eagle Black-winged Stilt Lesser Striped-swallow Ethiopian Swallow Mosque Swallow

Hypargos niveoguttatus Ispidina picta Kaupifalco monogrammicus Lagonosticta rhodopareia Lamprotornis chalybaeus Lamprotornis corruscus Laniarious aethiopicus Larus hemprichii Larus ridibundus Lonchura bicolor Lonchura cucullata Lonchura fringilloides Lophaetus occipitalis Lybius melanopterus Melierax gabar Melierax poliopterus Merops albicollis Merops nubicus Merops pusillus Merops superciliosus Mesophoyx intermedia Milvus migrans Monticola saxatilis Motacilla aguimp Muscicapa caerulescens Muscicapa striata Mycteria ibis Nectarinia amethystina Nectarinia bifasciata Nectarinia olivacea Nectarinia senegalensis Neocossyphus rufus Nicator gularis Numenius arquata Numenius phaeopus Numida meleagris Onychognathus walleri Oriolus auratus Oriolus chlorocephalus amani Oriolus larvatus Oriolus oriolus Oxylophus jacobinus Pachycoccyx audeberti validus

Peters's Twinspot Pygmy Kingfisher Lizard Buzzard Jameson's Firefinch Greater Blue-eared Glossy-starling Black-bellied Glossy-starling Tropical Boubou Sooty Gull Common Black-headed Gull black and white mannikin Bronze Mannikin Magpie Manikin Long-crested Eagle Brown-breasted Barbet Gabar Goshawk Eastern Chanting-goshawk White-throated Bee-eater Northern Carmine Bee-eater Little Bee-eater Madagascar Bee-eater Intermediate Egret Black Kite Common Rock-thrush African Pied Wagtail Ashy Flycatcher Spotted Flycatcher Yellow-billed Stork Amethyst Sunbird Purple-banded Sunbird Olive Sunbird Scarlet-chested Sunbird Red-tailed Ant-thrush Eastern Nicator Eurasian Curlew Whimbrel Helmeted Guineafowl Waller's Starling African Golden Oriole Green-Headed Oriole African Black-headed Oriole Eurasian Golden Oriole Black And White Cuckoo Thick-Billed Cuckoo

Passer griseus Phalacrocorax africanus Phoenicopterus roseus Phoeniculus purpureus Phyllastrephus terrestris Phyllastrephusf ischeri Pitta angolensis Plegadis falcinellus Ploceus bicolor Ploceus bojeri Ploceus golandi Ploceus intermedius Ploceus melanocephalus Ploceus ocularis Ploceus subaureus aureoflavus Pluvialis squatarola Poeoptera kenricki Pogoniulus bilineatus Pogoniulus simplex Poicephalus cryptoxanthus Polyboroides typus Prinia subflava Prionops retzii Puffinus lherminieri Pycnonotus barbatus Quelea erythrops Rhinopomastus cyanomelas Scopus umbretta Serinus leucopygius Serinus mozambicus Stactolaema olivacea Sterna anaethetus Sterna bengalensis Sterna dougallii Sterna hirundo Sterna saundersi Streptopelia capicola Streptopelia semitorquata Tauraco fischeri Telecanthura stricilaema ussheri Terathopius ecaudutus Terpsiphone viridis Threskiornis aethiopicus

Grey-Headed Sparrow Long-tailed Cormorant Greater Flamingo Green Woodhoopoe Terrestrial Brownbul Fischer's Greenbul African Pitta Glossy Ibis Dark-backed Weaver Golden Palm Weaver Clark's Weaver Lesser Masked Weaver Black-headed Weaver Spectacled Weaver African Golden Weaver Grey Plover Kenrick's Starling Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird Eastern Green-tinkerbird Brown-headed Parrot African Harrier-hawk Tawny-flanked Prinia Retz's Helmet-shrike Audubon's Shearwater Common Bulbul Red-Headed Quelea Common Scimitarbill Hamerkop Yellow-rumped Seedeater Yellow-Fronted Canary Green Barbet Bridled Tern Lesser Crested Tern Roseate Tern Common Tern Saunders's Tern Ring-necked Dove Red-Eyed Dove Fischer's Turaco Mottled Spinetail Bateleur African Paradise-flycatcher African Sacred Ibis

Tockus alboterminatus Treron calvus Tringa stagnatilis Turdoides jardineii Turdus tephronotus Turtur chalcospilos Turtur tympanistria Uraeginthus bengalus Uraeginthus ianthinogaster Vidua macroura Xenus cinereus Zoothera guttata

Crowned Hornbill African Green-pigeon Marsh Sandpiper Arrow-Marked Babler, African Bare-Eyed Thrush Emerald-spotted Wood-dove Tambourine Dove Red-Cheeked Cordon Bleu Purple Grenadier Pin-tailed Whydah Terek Sandpiper Spotted Ground-thrush

Last update 5 March 2012 by Zeno Wijtten - GVI, shimoni@gviworld.com

Literature cited BirdLife International (2011) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kisite island. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/11/2011.