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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals (including humans) the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the body's bones (the skeleton), muscles, cartilage,
tendons, ligaments, joints, and
other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs.
The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system
for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.
This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on to each other. Muscles contract (bunch up) to move the bone attached at the joint. There are, however, diseases and disorders that may adversely affect the function and overall effectiveness of the system. These diseases can be difficult to diagnose due to the close relation of the musculoskeletal system to other internal systems. The musculoskeletal system refers to the system having its muscles attached to an internal skeletal system and is necessary for humans to move to a more favorable position. Complex issues and injuries involving the musculoskeletal system are usually handled by a physiatrist (specialist in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation) or an orthopaedic surgeon.
1.2.1 Contraction initiation 1.2.2 Tendons
1.3 Joints, ligaments, and bursae
1.3.1 Joints 1.3.2 Ligaments 1.3.3 Bursa
2 Diseases and disorders
Short bones. however. tendons. many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. allowing bodily movement.  There are five general classifications of bones. While some consider certain structures to be a single bone with multiple parts. muscles and cartilage. 3 References Subsystems Skeletal Main article: Human skeleton Front view of a skeleton of an adult human The Skeletal System serves many important functions. These are Long bones. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones.  The number of bones in the human skeletal system is a controversial topic. producingblood for the body. and Sesamoid bones. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. The number of bones varies according to the method used to derive the count. Irregular bones. The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments. protecting. it provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting. Flat bones.  . These are the axial skeleton and theappendicular skeleton. and storing minerals. It is a complex structure with two distinct divisions. others may see it as a single part with multiple bones.
Located in long bones are two distinctions of bone marrow (yellow and red). destroyed by the liver. and most leukocytes form in adults. platelets. Calcium and phosphorus are among the main minerals being stored. Muscular Main article: muscle Types of muscle and their appearance . and leukocytes migrate to the blood to do their special tasks. When the fluctuation of minerals is high. From the red marrow. approximately 2. the body uses the fat in yellow marrow for energy. erythrocytes.   The red marrow of some bones is an important site for blood cell production. This system acts as a protective structure for vital organs.6 million red blood cells per second in order to replace existing cells that have been Here all erythrocytes. Major examples of this are the brain being protected by the skull and the lungs being protected by the rib cage. Another function of bones is the storage of certain minerals.Function The Skeletal System serves as a framework for tissues and organs to attach themselves to. The yellow marrow has fatty connective tissue and is found in the marrow cavity. when it is low it will be withdrawn from the bone. these minerals are stored in bone. platelets. The importance of this storage "device" helps to regulate mineral balance in the bloodstream. During starvation.
. When enough receptors are stimulated. Tendons can stretch substantially.   by nerves. Contraction initiation Main article: muscle contraction In mammals. pulling on them and causing movement. Only skeletal and smooth muscles are part of the musculoskeletal system and only the skeletal muscles can move the body. which conduct electrical currents from the central nervous system and  cause the muscles to contract.   The extra-cellular connective tissue between muscle fibers binds to tendons at the distal & proximal ends. The space between the nerve terminal and the musclecell is called the neuromuscular junction. Depolarization of the motor neuron results in neurotransmitters being released from the nerve terminal. allowing them to function as springs during locomotion. and are not consciously controlled. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse and bind to specific receptor sites on the cell membrane of the muscle fiber. flexible band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. Tendons Main article: tendon A tendon is a tough. to communicate nervous energy to. Cardiac muscles are found in the heart and are used only to circulate blood. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and arranged in opposing groups around joints. like the smooth muscles. As muscles contract. tendons transmit the forces to the rigid bones. skeletal. and smooth.There are three types of muscles—cardiac. and the tendon binds to the periosteum of individual bones at the muscle's origin & insertion. Muscle contraction is stimulated by the motor neuron sending a message to the muscles from the somatic nervous system. when a muscle contracts. This process is known as initiation. a series of reactions occur. these muscles are not under conscious control. Muscles are innervated. Skeletal and cardiac muscles have striations that are visible under a microscope due to the components within their cells. Smooth muscles are used to control the flow of substances within the lumens of hollow organs. thereby saving energy. an action potential is generated and the permeability of the sarcolemma is altered.
  It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. and false joints or synarthroses. diarthroses which allow extensive mobility between two or more articular heads. Ligaments Main article: ligament A ligament is a small band of dense. Bursa Main article: bursa (anatomy) A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac made of white fibrous tissue and lined with synovial membrane.   Ligaments connect the ends of bones together in order to form a joint. fibrous elastic tissue. joints that are immovable. Since they are only elastic they increasingly lengthen when under pressure. are lubricated by a solution called synovial Fluid that is produced by the synovial membranes. and bursae Main article: joint Human synovial joint composition Joints are structures that connect individual bones and may allow bones to move against each other to cause movement. This fluid lowers thefriction between the articular surfaces and is kept within an articular capsule. white. Ligaments may also restrict some actions: movements such as hyper extension and hyper flexion are restricted by ligaments to an extent. joints that are not directly joined. There are two divisions of joints. Bursa may also be formed by a synovial membrane that extends outside of thejoint capsule. fluid and are found around almost every major joint of the body. Synovial joints. that allow little or no movement and are predominantlyfibrous. binding the joint with its taut tissue. bursa are filled with synovial . When this occurs the ligament may be susceptible to break resulting in an unstable joint. Most ligaments limit dislocation. Joints ligaments.Joints. Also ligaments prevent certain directional movement. or prevent certain movements that may cause breaks.
neurologic (related to the medical science that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it)  toxins. . Articular (of or pertaining to the joints)  disorders are the most common.   laxity to injury of to ‘mal-adaptive’ body mechanics. and Orthopedic surgery Disability-adjusted life year formusculoskeletal diseases per 100. or ataxiamay be caused by primary muscular dysfunctions of infectious or toxic origin. deficits. endocrine abnormalities. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system mostly encompass functional disorders or motion discrepancies. and nutritional imbalances. are interrelated. tendinous/ligamentous structures  altered laxity/stiffness of muscles. and integumentary systems.  One understated disorder that begins during pregnancy is Pelvic girdle pain. blood and vascular disorders. with the muscular system acting as the effector organ. including the vascular.  it is complex and multi-factorial and likely to be also represented by a series of sub-groups driven by pain varying from peripheral or central nervous system. however. the level of impairment depends specifically on the problem and its severity. paresis. especially a nerve impulse. disorders of one of these systems may also affect the musculoskeletal system and complicate the diagnosis of the disorder's origin. infectious diseases. also among the diagnoses are: primary muscular diseases. the primary disorder is usually related to the nervous system.Diseases and disorders Further information: Musculoskeletal disorders. and bladder malfunction. Rheumatology. However. no data less than 400 400-450 450-500 500-550 550-600 600-650 650-700 700-850 850-900 900-925 925-950 more than 950 Because many other body systems. an organ capable of responding to a stimulus. nervous. metabolic disorders. Disorders of muscles from another body system can bring about irregularities such as: impairment of ocular motion and control.000 inhabitants in 2004. respiratory dysfunction. Complete paralysis.
11. 2009. Houghton Mifflin Company. eNotes. Retrieved 2008-11-15. May 2007. Merck Manual. Inc. Michael (2002). Retrieved 2009-03-16. 2008 Feb 8. 4. Retrieved Nov. Farr (2002-06-25). The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. "Muscles". ^ Possible role of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament in women with peripartum pelvic pain. ^ "neurologic". 3. ^ "innervated". 19. ^ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". "The Human Body / How Many Bones Are In The Human Body?". ^ Jonathan. "Skeletal System". O’Sullivan and DJ Beales. Retrieved 2008-11-12. A Vleeming. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Pekka (2007). 8. 15. 12. LLC. 2009..References 1. "Ligaments". B Stuge. A Vleeming. "Muscles". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Pekka (2007). Cynthia. Fourth Edition. 10. Issue 5 .. Eur Spine J.. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Retrieved 2008-11-16. ^ ^ a b c a b Gary. Retrieved 2008-11-15. Kent Van De Graaff. 16. Retrieved 2009-01-24. Dictionary. J-P van Wingerden [hide] v d . "The Skeletal System". Issue 2. 7. Volume 12. 2. Carol DeKane Nagel (2009). Inc. ^ MeSH Musculoskeletal+System ^ Mooar. 17. Manual Therapy. Keith (06/07/2008). Musculoskeletal System Introduction: Introduction. ^ a b Diagnosis and classification of pelvic girdle pain disorders— Part 1: A mechanism based approach within a bio psychosocial framework. HB Albert. Cluett (2008). Retrieved 2009-01-03. 11. ^ Bridwell. USA: Merck & Co. ^ Engelbert. NJ. Edith. ^ European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Retrieved 2009-01-03. "SMOOTH MUSCLE". JM Mens. 5. 14. ^ "articular". Retrieved 2008-11-18. 6. Retrieved 2009-01-08. ^ a b Kahn. 2008. 2006. Page 430-436. PB. HC Ostgaard. U·X·L Science Fact Finder. Random House. ^ Bárány. 13. Scott Line (2008). 9. May 2002. Principles of Meat Science (4th Edition). "The Musculoskeletal System". 18. 2001. ^ "The Mechanism of Muscle Contraction". Volume 81. Dictionary. B Sturesson. "Tendons". Retrieved 2008-11-19.. Retrieved 2008-11-18. ^ a b Applegate.com. Phillis.. Retrieved 2008-11-19. World Health Organization.com. 2006. Inc. HJ de Vries.com. ^ Mooar.
superficial Normal Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System A basic primer on bones. Vein. Spongy bone is located inside the bone. Lymphatic vessel) · Heart Lymphatic system primary (Bone marrow. which fills the internal cavities of many bones. Produce blood cells — Red blood cells. ligaments. (Ninety-nine percent of the body's calcium is found in the skeleton. muscles. Tongue) · upper GI (Oropharynx. Without the skeleton to pull against. Esoph adnexa tract. and cartilages The skeletal system includes the bones of the skeleton and the cartilages. Penis. The bones of the skeleton also store energy reserves as lipids in areas filled with yellow marrow. stand. Spongy bone is located where bones are not heavily stressed or where . contracting muscle fibers could not make us sit. The bones of the body perform five main functions. nerves. Bronchus. Bones There are 206 bones in the adult body. precise movements. Prostate. white blood cells. the rib cage protects the heart and lungs. Vulva. Spinal cord. and other connective tissue that stabilize or connect the bones. Lymph node) Nervous system (Brain. or run. Compact bone is found on the external surface of the bone. Provide leverage and movement — Many bones function as levers that can change the magnitude and direction of the forces generated by muscles. walk.) The calcium salts of bone are a valuable mineral reserve that maintains normal concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in body fluids. tendons. the skull protects the brain. Nerve) · Sensory system (Ear. Protect body organs — Many soft tissues and organs are surrounded by skeletal elements. planes and lines. Testicl Endocrine system Pituitary · Pineal · Thyroid · Parathyroid · Adrenal · Islets of Langerhans Circulatory system TA 12–16 Cardiovascular system peripheral (Artery. regional anatomy. For example. e Human systems and organs Skeletal system TA 2–4: MS Bone (Carpus · Collar bone (clavicle) · Thigh bone (femur) · Fibula · Humerus · Mandible · Metacarpus · Metatarsus · Ossicles · Patella · Phalanges · Radius · S Joints Fibrous joint · Cartilaginous joint · Synovial joint Muscular system Muscle · Tendon · Diaphragm mostly Thoracic Respiratory system URT (Nose. Lung) TA 5–11: splanchnic/ viscus mostly Abdominopelvic Digestive system+ Mouth (Salivary gland. Nasopharynx. and the pelvis protects the delicate reproductive organs. the vertebrae protect the spinal cord. In addition to supporting the weight of the body. Pancreas) GU: Urinary system Kidney · Ureter · Bladder · Urethra GU: Reproductive system Female (Uterus. Eye) Integumentary system Skin · Subcutaneous tissue · Breast (Mammary gland) Blood (Non-TA) Myeloid Myeloid immune system Lymphoid Lymphoid immune system General anatomy: systems and organs. ligaments. Laryngopharynx. and other blood elements are produced in the red marrow. The proportion of compact and spongy bone varies with the shape of the bone. Thymus) · secondary (Spleen. Compact bone is thickest where stresses arrive from a limited range of directions. Placenta) · Male (Scrotum. Ovary. Individual bones or groups of bones provide a framework for the attachment of soft tissues and organs. Store minerals and lipids — Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Bone structure Each bone in the skeleton contains two forms of tissue: compact (dense) bone that is relatively solid and spongy (cancellous) bone that forms an open network of struts and plates. Larynx) · LRT (Trachea. Provide support for the body — The skeletal system provides structural support for the entire body. bones work together with muscles to maintain body position and to produce controlled.
muscles also maintain posture and body position. Spongy bone is much lighter than compact bone. Bone growth begins at the center of the cartilage. Most bones originate as hyaline cartilage. tendons Tendons — These attach muscle to bone. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage. The cartilage is gradually converted to bone through a process called ossification. Other elements of the musculoskeletal system Joints — These are where two bones interconnect. Ligaments — These attach bone to bone. It is a firm gel-like substance. elastic cartilage.stresses arrive from many directions. Moderate amounts of physical activity and weight-bearing activities are essential to stimulate bone maintenance and to maintain adequate bone strength. and coordinates the activities of the body's organ systems. and fibrocartilage. which results in an increase in bone length. support soft tissues. Examples in adults include the tips of ribs (where they meet the sternum) and part of the nasal septum. In addition to producing skeletal movement. whereas the shoulder joint allows for a full range of motion but is a relatively unstable joint. The body contains three major types of cartilage: hyaline cartilage. which helps reduce the weight of the skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move the bones. Each joint reflects a compromise between stability and range of motion. Nerves — Nerves control the contraction of skeletal muscles. guard entrances and exits to the digestive and urinary tracts. the bones of the skull are very stable but immobile. and maintain body temperature. which reduces friction during joint movement. As bones enlarge. Another example is articular cartilage. and portions of the skeleton do not stop growing until about the age of 25. . This type of cartilage provides stiff but somewhat flexible support. which is cartilage that covers the ends of bones within a joint. For example. Cartilage — This is a type of connective tissue. Skeletal muscles — These muscles contract to pull on tendons and move the bones of the skeleton. Bones begin to form in a mother's womb about six weeks after fertilization. The surfaces of articular cartilage are slick and smooth. Bone development and growth joint The growth of the skeleton determines the size and proportions of the body. interprets sensory information. bone growth activity shifts to the ends of the bones (an area commonly called the growth plate). Bone growth "factoids" Twenty percent of the adult skeleton is replaced each year.
between the pubic bones of the pelvis. and between the spinal vertebrae. Injuries to the joints can produce tears in the fibrocartilage pads. All rights reserved. Fibrocartilage can be found within the knee joint. The knee contains both hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. and the tears do not heal. The hyaline cartilage covers bony surfaces and fibrocartilage pads in the joint prevent contact between bones during movement. and damaged fibrocartilage in joints such as the knee can interfere with normal movements. and limits relative movement. © Copyright 1995-2009 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. joint mobility is severely reduced. The external flap of the ear is one place where elastic cartilage can be found. .ligaments Elastic cartilage provides support but can tolerate distortion without damage and return to its original shape. Cartilage heals poorly. Eventually. prevents bone-to-bone contact. Fibrocartilage resists compression.