This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
commonly used defuzzit1cation methods arc discussed and system responses with
different defuzzlfication methods are compared. Finally disturbance rejection
capabilities of the designed cOTIlrollers are investigated,
2, DC motor model
In annature conn'!.)l of separately excited DC motors, the vol::age applied to (he a:mature
of the motor is adjusted wlthonl changing the voltage applied to the field, Figure 1
shows a separately excited DC mo1nr equivalent modeI.
Ra La I
(,_Hili i 0
V Eb
"
e E2s:::l
't
'0'
Figure L DC motor mode!
( , R '() ,"'"CI) ( )
va t);;;:;:; a' ta t + L". ;;t' + eb t
(1 )
ehCt) = K
h
, wet) (2)
'"
1;"(0 = K
r
, i"CI) \j)
'P ">, J dw(r) ( )
Imlt.) = m';;: + Bm· w,t
(4)
where Va = amw.ture voltage (V)
Ra ::::;;; 3rrnature reslstam:,e (D)
La ;;; arrnature inciu.;.."tance (H)
fa  armature current (A)
Eo = hac·k emf (V)
w = angular speed (radjs)
' i ~ ;;;;;;. mo1onorqnc (Nm)
e == angular position of rotor shaft (rad)
1m :;;; rotor inertia (kgm?)
Em ;;;:;: viscous friction coefficient (Nms/rad)
KT = torque constant (Nm/A)
Kb ;;;;: back emfconsmnt (Vsjrad)
L';"4: \15 combine the uppet equations togetjec
38
. di,(t)
v,(t) = Ra.l,(t) + K,.w(t) (5)
. dw(t)
KT·la(t) = 8m. wet)
(6)
Laplace transfonns of (5) and (6) are:
Va(S) = Ra. laCs ) + La.1a,Cs) .s + K
t
. H' (s) (7)
K
T
·l,(s) = 1m. W(s).s + 8
m
, W(s) (8)
If current is obtained from (8) and substiruted in (7) we have
1
vats) = W(s). KT . [L
a
·1m· s' + (R,· 1m + La· 8m). S + (Ra·8m+ K,. KT) l (9)
Then Ihe relation between rotor shaf: and applied armature voltage is represented
by transfer funct ion:
W(s) KT
(10)
Va(s) :::: La.1m·52 + (Ra.fm + La· 8
m
), s + (R
a
· 8
m
+ K
b
· Kr)
The relarion between position and speed is:
1
8(s) = W(s) ( 11)
,
Then the transfer [untrien between shan posit ion and annarure voltage at noload is:
e(s) KT
( 12)
Va(s) = La· 1m·53 + eR
a
.1m + La· B
m
}, 52 + (K
r
· Kb + Ra· 8
m
), S
Figure 2 shows tbe DC motor model built in Simulink. MOlor model was converted to a
2m 2out subsystem, lnput ports are armature voltage (Va) and load torque (Tlaad) and
the outpm ports are angular speed in (w) and position (teta).
39
w
T, 1 I.
la.s. Ra Jm.s..Bm I'it
Va '
S
•• Integrator Momenl coefficient
Transfer Fooclion Transfer
Function
Back emf coetfdenl
Figure 2. Simulink model
A 3.70 kW, 240V, 1750 rpm DC motor with the below parameters was used:
Ra=1l.2fl
La = 0.1215 H
1m = 0.02215 kgm'
8
m
= 0.002953 Nms/rad
K, = 1.28 Nm/A
Kb = 1.28 Vs/rad
3. Proportional·jDtegral.derivati.... e (PIO) controller
PID controllers are widely used in industrial control applications due to their simple
structures, comprehensible control algori thms and low costs. Figure 3 shows the
schematic model ora cont rol system wi[h a PID controller.
+ u{c)
. ( L .(t)
K,
PlANT
l.
K, J
d
+
K:) di
._  
Fig ure 3. PID control system
Control signal u(t) is a linear combinat ion of error e(t), its integral and derivati ve.
40
de(t}
uCt) = Kre(t) + K, e(t)dt +
(13)
J
" 1 ' deet))
uCt) = Kp lett) +J e(t)dt +Tn . (14)
T, dt
where Kp ",. proportional gaul
K, ooc integral gain
Ko:::: dcrjvative gain
T
J
integral time
T{) 0" derivative time
rf the controller is digital, then the derivative lenn may be rcpjaced with a baclnvard
difference and the integral teml may be replaced with a sum. For a small constant
sumpltng rime T:;p (14) can be as:
n
" 1 ,
u,n) = Kp ,B('l) + cUlT, + To e(nl   1)) (15)
(
3.1 Tuning PIn parameters
PID controllers are usuaHy tuned using handtuning: or ZieglerKicools methods
(Jantzen, 2007).
Handtuning 1s generally used by experienced control engineers based un the rules
shmVll in Table L Bm these mi.e;,; are nor ahvays yalid, For example if an· integrator
exists in the plant, then increasing Kp resuhs in a more stable controL
Table 1. Handtuning rules
, i Fas:er I Increase,; Decreases'
i TD __ ___I __
'_yt.::L1__ ,
A simple hand.tuntng procedure is as foUows:
L Remove deriv0tive and integral actions by setting Tn = a anc :r ;;:;: 0
2. Tunc Kp such that it gives t'le desiTed response except the final offset valuc from
the set
3. Increase Kp s.lightJy find adjusl TI) to dampen the overshoot
4. Tune l/T/ such that final offset is removed
5. Repeat steps from '3 until Kp is as large as possible
41
The disadvantage of this method is that it should take a long tim.:: to find the optimal
values. Another method to tune PID para:;neters is frequency response
met..11od, The procedure is 33 follows:
1 Increase X
p
until system response oscillates v!lth a constant amplitude and
record that gdifl value as Ku (ulrimate gain)
2. Calculate the oscillation period and record it as 'l'u
3. Tune parameters using Table 2
Table 2, rules
P 0.5,'(<<
..... p
___ p ; O.tiKI<
ZieglerKichols frequency response method gives poor ::esul:s especially for the systems
Vtith a rime Jag mllch greater than the dominating time constant (Jaotze:o, 2(07).
Damping is generally poor. Rules work better for PID controllers than PI c(iJ'itroilers and
it is nrlt stated bow to calculate the partnr:eters for a PD controller.
Another method proposed by Ziegler and is the reaction curve or step response
.method whc!'c me unit:::.'"(t:.p response of the plant is used lO adjust parameICI'S, Bur the
plum must nO( involve any imegrators or dominant complex conjugate poles for [his
method to apply (Ogata, 1997).
3.2 PD controller design
A PD controller W33 designed to control the DC moiOL Cor:trol signa! of d PD
controller is as follows:
(
n(n) = Kp \e(11) +TD eCn)  :(n 1))
(16)
"
Controller parameters were tuned using Signa! Constraint block of Simulink Response
Optimization Toolbox imtead of conventional methods.
Signal Cons!Taint is a block where respGDse signals can be graphicaUy cons[tdined a'1d
model parameters should be automatically optimized to obtain the performance
requirements (Mathworks, 20n8).
P..:rformance criteria were specified as;
Rise time (t
r
) 1 s
Settling time Ct.;};$ 2 s
Maximum overshoot (Mp) ::;; 10 %
Steady state error (e) :S: 1 %
42
Figure 6 shows output and control signals of PD control system with adjusted
parameters.
4. Fuzzy logic controller
A fuzzy logic controller has four main components as shown in Figure 7: fuzzification
interface, inference mechani sm, rule base and defuzzification interface.
FLCs are complex, nonlinear controllers. Therefore it' s difficult to predict how the rise
time, settling time or steady state error is affected when controller parameters or controL
rules are changed. On the contrary, PID controllers are simple, linear controllers which
consist of li near combinat ions of three signals.
WN "'''''
"
,
•
..
,
e
<
•
,
0
0 ''
.. , ..
TImals)
,
3.5
•
., ,
""""""'"
__
"
\.
"
..
Tlme{$j
Figure 6. Output and control signals for crisp PD control system
45
r
c
.9
Input
, "
(Crisp)
."
0
.c

~
'
Inference
mechanism
f _
Rulebase
r
0
:;
,
Output
(Crisp)
"
"
u
Q
'
Figure 7. Fuzzy Logic controller
Implementation of an FLC requires the choice of four key factors (Mamdani, 1977):
number of fuzzy sets that constitute linguistic variables, mapping of the measurements
onto the support sets, control protocol (hat determines the controller behaviour and
shape of membership functions. Thus, FLCs can be tuned not just by adj usting
controller parameters but also by changing control rules, membership functions etc.
Rule base, inference mechanism and defuzzification methods are the sources of
nonlinearities in FLCs. But it's possible to construct a rule base with linear inputoutput
characteristics. For an FLC to become a linear controller with a control signal
U = E + CE where E is "error" and CE is "change of error", some conditions must be
satisfied (Jantzen, 2007):
I . Support sets of input linguistic variables must be large enough so that input
values stay in limits.
2. Linguistic values must consist of syrnmeTric triangular fuzzy sets that intercept
with neighbouring sets at a membership value of J.l = 0.5 so that for any time
instant, membership values add to t .
3. Rule base must consist of Acombinations of all fuzzy sets.
4. Outpullingui stic variables must consist ofsinglelon fuzzy sets (Si.l ) positioned
at the sum of the peak positions of input fuzzy sets.
5. A should be multiplication and defuzzification method mus[ be "centre of
gravity" (COGS).
4.1 FPD controiler design
Figure 8 shows an FPD controller that acts on the same signals with a PD controller but
the control strategy is constructed as fuzzy rules (Jantzen, 2007) .
•6
.e ~ ~ E
u U
~  
GU FLC
de/dt ~ CE
~ G C E > __I
Figure 8. FPO controller
Control sjgnaJ U(n) is a nonlinear function of "error" and "change of error". Thus,
U(n) = f(GE x e(n). GeE x e(n)) x GU (20)
where f represents the control algorithm. A linear approximation should be obtained
with a suitable choice:
I(GE x e(n). GeE x e(n)) '" GE x e(n) + GeE x e(n) (21)
Then
U(n) = (GE x e(n) + GeE x e(n))x GU (22)
GeE )
U(n) = GE x GU x e(n) + GE x e(n)
(23)
(
When we compare thi s equation with the control signal of a crisp PD controller. the
relationship between ga ins of a PO conrrolJer and of an fPD controller is:
GE x GU ::; Kp (24)
GeE
(25)
GE = TD
Consequeml y. parameter values of a linear FPO controller may be detemlined from a
tuned PD controller.
Figure 9 shows the contro l system wi th an FPD controller.
47
. ( 1.,'(l)
K, I
I
FPD
"(ll
d
K
, dl
yet)

PLANT
Figure 9. Control system wi th an FPD controller
4.2 Defuzzification methods
Defuzzification interface uses the implied fuzzy sets or the overall impli ed fuzzy set to
obtain a crisp output va lue. There are many defuzziiic3lion methods but the most
common methods are as fo llows:
1) Center of gravity (COG)
2) Bisector of area (BOA)
3) Smallest of maximum (SOM)
4) Mean of maximum (MOM)
5) Largest of maximum (LOM)
For discrete sets COG is called center of gravity for singletons (COGS) where the crisp
control value UCOGS is the abscissa of the center of gravity of the fuzzy set. UCOGS is
calculated as follows:
L f JlcCXaX/
(26)
UcOGS = Ltllc(Xi)
where Xi is a point in the universe of the conclusion (i = 1,2, ... ) and .u,exD is the
membership value of the resulting conclusion set. For continuous sets summations are
replaced by integrals.
The bisector of area (BOA) defuzziflcation method calcul ates the abscissa of the
vertical line that divides the area of the resulting membership functi on into two equal
areas. For discrete sets. U 60A is the abscissa Xj that minimizes
j tmllX
I  I L i <j < imax
(27)
i=l I:j+l
Here i mcu: is the index of the largest abscissa x i " BOA is a computationaJly complex
max
method.
48
Another approach to obtain the crisp value is to choose the point with the highest
membershi p. There may be several points in the overall implied fuzzy set which have
maximum membership value. Therefore it ' s a common practice to calculate the mean
value of these paints. This method is called mean of maximum (MOM) and the crisp
value is calcul ated as follows:
LiEf xi
UMOM = I = (i I = I'm=) (28)
III
Here J is the (crisp) set of indices i where J.Lc(xtl reaches its maximum and PI is
ils cardinali ty (the number of members).
One can also choose the leftmost poim among the points which have maximum
membership to the overall impli ed fuzzy set. This metbod is called smallest of
maximum (SOM) or the leftmosl maximum (lJvl) defuzzification method. Crisp value is
calculated as follows:
USO M == xmln (f)
(29)
Another possibility is to choose the rightmost point among the points which have
maximum membership to the overall implied fuzzy set. This method is called largest of
maximum (LOM) or the rightmost maximum (RM) defuzzification method where crisp
value is calculated as:
U WM = xmax (I)
(30)
4.3 Simuli nk implemen tation
Inputs of FPD are "error" and "change of error" where the output is "control". Input and
output variables of FPO consisr of seven fuzzy sets namely NB (negative big), NM
(negative medium), NS (negative smaJl ), Z (zero), PS (positive small), PM (positive
medium) and PB (positive big) as shown in Figure lO(a) and (b). Table 4 shows fuzzy
rules.
,
,VB .\').1 .VS z PM P8
"
(8) Fuzzy input variables "error"" and "change of error"
n
(b) Fuzzy output variable "output"
Figure 10. Fuzzy inputoutput variables
49
Table 4. Fuzzy rules
PB
NM I NS "'H Z i PS
, IJ\
NB NB I NB NO I NM NS Z NB
NM NS Z PS NM I NB NB I NB
N$ , Z PS PM NS NB NB NM
Z ! PS PM PB Z NO NM NS
PS , PM NS Z PB PB PS NM
ni l NS PS PM I PB PB PB z
PB ' PB PS PM PB PB PB Z
Figure 11 shows the fuzzy PD control system designed in Simulink.
"'......
I.....
OpIinl2:lti::ln
r I
'"
Kd
lJoIVa 1116's
r:J
11 VI) I
na; ,.,
l oc moJor
Loo'
""""
Figure 11. Fuzzy PO control system
Different defuzzification methods were used to obtain the control signal. Table 5 shows
the tuned values of the controller parameters for different defuzzification methods.
Table 5. Controller parameters for different defuzzificacion methods
Kp Method KD
2. 2484 0.01 Bisector
4.1236 0.01 SOM
0.1901 MOM 4.5538
4.7623 0 .1649 LOM
Figure 12(a)(d) shows the system responses and conrml signals for the fuzzy control
systems with different defuzzification methods.
Table 6 shows the values of the perfounance criteria for different defuzzification
methods with the tuned controller parameters.
50
39 . MOlor model was converted to a 2m 2out subsystem. laCs ) + La.1m + La· Bm}.s + Kt . KT)l s.Cs) .(t) = Ra. W(s).1m·52 KT + (Ra.s (7) (8) + 8 m .· 1m + La· 8 m). KT . s + (R a· 8 m + Kb· Kr) (10) The relarion between position and speed is: 8(s) = W (s) . S + (R a· 8 m + K.:~ed (9) Then Ihe relation between rotor shaf: by trans fe r funct ion: and applied armature voltage is represented W(s) Va(s) :::: La . W(s) If current is obtained fro m (8) and substiruted in (7) we have 1 vats) = W (s). 52 + (Kr · Kb + Ra· 8 m ).w(t) KT·la(t) = 1m' ~ + 8m. lnput ports are a rmature voltage (Va) and load torque (Tlaad) and the outpm ports are angu lar speed in (w) and position (teta).(s) = 1m.~+ K.1a. wet) Laplace transfonns o f (5) and (6) are: .l..(t) (5) . [L a·1m· s' + (R.v. H' (s ) KT ·l. 1 ( 11) Then the transfer [untrien between shan posit ion and annarure voltage at noload is: e(s) KT Va(s) = La· 1m·53 + eRa . dw(t) (6) Va(S) = Ra..(t) + La. S ( 12) Figure 2 shows tbe DC motor model built in Simu link. di.fm + La· 8 m ).
2fl La = 0. 40 .w I...28 Nm/A Kb = 1. Bm I 1 'it Momenl coefficient Transfer Fooclion Integrator ' S •• Kbll+~_.(t) K.s.. Proportional·jDtegral..02215 kgm' 8 m = 0. u{c) PlANT K ... 240V.derivati.e (PIO) controller PID contro llers are widely used in industria l control applications due to th eir simple structures. J d K:) d i . Jm. Fig ure 3.1215 H 1m = 0. Va la..J Back emf coetfdenl Figure 2. 1750 rpm DC motor with the below parameters was used: Ra=1l.. Ra T ransfer Function ~ T.. PID control system Contro l s ignal u (t) is a linear combinat ion of error e(t). = 1.( L . Figure 3 shows the schematic model ora control system wi[h a PID controller. comprehen sible control algorithms and low costs . _ .28 Vs/rad 3.002953 Nms/rad K. + + l.s. Simulink model A 3. .. its integral and derivati ve.70 kW.
Repeat steps from '3 until Kp is as large as possible 41 . ' e(t)dt + Tn .~(n . + To e(nl.:~~_J~oe. J e(t)dt + KD~ de(t} (13) " uCt) = Kp 1 deet)) lett) + T.  J (14) where Kp ". Handtuning 1s generally used by experienced control engineers based un the rules shmVll in Table L Bm these mi.T D __ ~ ___ __ ~'SJ. Increase Kp s. 2007).1 Tuning PIn parameters PID controllers are usuaHy tuned using handtuning: or ZieglerKicools methods (Jantzen.B('l) ( + T(~ cUlT. For example if an· integrator exists in the plant.] ... TJ ooc integral gain integral time derivative time Ko:::: dcrjvative gain T{) 0" rf the controller is digital.: 0 2. _!?ecre.tuntng procedure is as foUows: L Remove deriv0tive and integral actions by setting Tn = a anc :r ..1)) 1 n ~ (15) 3.~!_~~c~Ji~cr~~::iJ I '_yt. Handtuning rules !iiiii~tio~~T~~~~~~!tsi~_biiit. Tune l/T/ such that final offset is removed 5.p (14) can be approxinuH~d as: " u.e.lightJy find adjusl TI) to dampen the overshoot 4. then increasing Kp resuhs in a more stable controL Table 1. i. then the derivative lenn may be rcpjaced with a baclnvard difference and the integral teml may be replaced with a sum. . dt.n) = Kp ..proportional gaul K..uCt) = Kre(t) + K.. Decreases' A simple hand.... are nor ahvays yalid.::L1__ ~~~_ste!_L IW:f!'~Se$ ._:_~j i Fas:er I Increase. For a small constant sumpltng rime T:. Tunc Kp such that it gives t'le desiTed response except the final offset valuc from the set po~nt 3.:..
11od... P.. Another method proposed by Ziegler and ~ichols is the reaction curve or step response . Damping is generally poor.$ 2 s Maximum overshoot (Mp) ::. 3.:rformance criteria were specified as..method whc!'c me unit:::. Ziegler~Nichots rules control!e. Tune parameters using Table 2 Table 2.'(<< ~ .'+~K":f~~.'..5. 20n8). 2(07). Another method to tune PID para:.~ p L.neters is Ziegler~Nicho:s frequency response met. Calculate the oscillation period and record it as 'l'u 3..tiKI< ZieglerKichols frequency response method gives poor ::esul:s especially for the systems Vtith a rime Jag mllch greater than the dominating time constant (Jaotze:o. Rules work better for PID controllers than PI c(iJ'itroilers and it is nrlt stated bow to calculate the partnr:eters for a PD controller.i°4S·J{"··H:L':~~cc .:: to find the optimal values. 1997). The procedure is 33 follows: 1 Increase Xp until system response oscillates v!lth a constant amplitude and record that gdifl value as Ku (ulrimate gain) 2..}.The disadvantage of this method is that it should take a long tim.. Rise time (tr ) ~ 1 s Settling time Ct.'"(t:._. Bur the plum must nO( involve any imegrators or dominant complex conjugate poles for [his method to apply (Ogata. O. Signal Cons!Taint is a block where respGDse signals can be graphicaUy cons[tdined a'1d model parameters should be automatically optimized to obtain the performance requirements (Mathworks.2 PD controller design A PD controller W33 designed to control the DC moiOL Cor:trol signa! of controller is as follows: ( d PD n(n) = Kp \e(11) + TD eCn)  :(n 1)) (16) " Controller parameters were tuned using Signa! Constraint block of Simulink Response Optimization Toolbox imtead of conventional methods.l·~_t'Q· P ___ p I~_ 0..p response of the plant is used lO adjust parameICI'S. 10 % Steady state error (e) :S: 1 % 42 .
' .~::::=l. Fuzzy logic controller A fuzzy logic controller has four main components as shown in Figure 7: fuzzification interface. Therefore it' s difficult to predict how the rise time. PID controllers are simple. Output and control signals for crisp PD contro l system 45 . 4. ~ " . t .s. " """"""'" °o ~~:::::::::::. On the contrary.. Tlme{$j F igure 6. FLCs are complex.:::::~'::::~'~5::::::':=====~'~5::::::. TImals) . .. nonlinear controllers. rule base and defuzzification interface. linear controllers which consist of li near combinat ions of three signals. .• •..::::::.Figure 6 shows output and control signals of PD control system with adju sted parameters. WN "''''' .5 • . . 0 0 '' . settling time or steady sta te error is affected when controller parameters or controL rules are chan ged.. w r~~~~~~~~__~~ l " \. in ference mechani sm. < e . 3.
Rule base must consist of Acombinations of a ll fuzzy sets. inference mechanism and defuzzification methods are the sources of nonlinearities in FLCs. •6 . mapping of the measurements onto the support sets. Outpullingui stic variables must cons ist ofsingle lon fuzzy sets (Si.l ) pos itioned at the sum of the peak pos itions of input fuzzy sets. FLCs can be tuned not just by adj usting controller parameters but also by changing control rules. control protocol (hat determines the controller behaviour and shape of membership functions.rc r Inference mechanism 0 . 5. Rule base.l = 0. But it's possible to construct a rule base with linear inputoutput characteristics. Linguistic values must consist of syrnmeTric triangular fuzzy sets that intercept with neighbouring sets at a membership value of J. Thus. 3." .1 FPD controiler design Figure 8 shows an FPD controller that acts on the same signals with a PD controller but the control strategy is constructed as fuzzy rules (Jantzen. Support sets of input linguistic variables must be large enough so that input va lues stay in limits. 4. membership functions etc. :. 1977): number o f fuzzy sets that constitute linguistic variab les. 2. " f _ Rulebase . some conditions must be satisfied (Jantzen.5 so that for any time instant. 4. 2007): I . A should be multiplication and defuzz ification method mus[ be " centre of gravity" (COGS). membership va lues add to t . Fuzzy L ogic controller Imple mentation of an FLC requires the choice of four key factors (Mamdan i.9 Input (Crisp) . 2007) . Output (Crisp)  ~ Q " " u ' ' Figure 7. For an FLC to become a linear contro ller with a control signal U = E + CE where E is "error" and CE is "change of error".c 0 .
.e ~~ E ~de/dt ~ CE ~GCE>__ I u FLC U GU Figure 8. A linear approximation should be obtained with a suitable choice: I( GE x e(n). Kp GeE GE = TD (24) (25) Consequeml y. Figure 9 shows the contro l system wi th an FPD controller. Thus. FPO controller Control sjgnaJ U(n) is a nonlinear function of "error" and "change of error". 47 . GeE x e(n)) x GU (20) where f represents the control algorithm. GeE x e(n)) Then U(n) = (GE x e(n) '" GE x e(n) + GeE x e(n) (21) + GeE x e(n))x GU + GeE x e(n) ) GE (22) (23) U(n) = GE x GU x ( e(n) When we compare this equation with the control signal of a crisp PD controller. parameter va lues of a linear FPO controller may be detemlined from a tuned PD controller. U(n) = f(GE x e(n). the relationship between ga ins o f a PO conrro lJer and of an fPD controller is: GE x GU ::.
. For continuous sets summations are replaced by integrals. dl d Figure 9.. Control system with an FPD controller 4. For disc rete sets. ) and . 48 .. U 60A is the a bsc issa Xj that minimizes I i=l j tmllX ~.u.2 Defuzzification methods Defuzzification interface uses the implied fuzzy sets or the overall impli ed fuzzy set to obtain a crisp output va lue.(Xi)  I ~.J L i < j < imax (27) I:j+l Here i mcu: is th e index of the largest abscissa x i max " BOA is a computationaJly comp lex method.'(l)  K. There are many defuzziiic3lion me thods but the most common methods are as fo llows: 1) Center o f gravity (COG) 2) Bisector of area (BOA) 3) Smallest of max imum (SOM) 4) Mean of maximum (MOM) 5) Largest of max imum (LOM) For discrete sets COG is called center of gra vity for singletons (COGS) where the crisp control value UCOGS is the abscissa of the center of gravity of the fuzzy set. .. UCOGS is calculated as fo llows: L f JlcCXaX/ UcOGS = Ltllc(Xi) (26) where Xi is a point in the universe of the conclusion (i = 1. The bisector of area (BOA) defuzziflcation method calcul ates the abscissa of the vertical line that divides the area of the resulting membership functi on into two equ al areas.(x.2. ( 1. I FPD "(ll PLANT I yet) K.exD is the membership value of the resulting conclusion set.
PS (positive small). . Th is metbod is called smallest of max imum (SOM) or the leftm osl maxim um (lJvl) defuzzification method.VS z " PM P8 (8) Fuzzy input va riables "error"" and "change of error" n (b) Fuzzy output variable "output" Figu re 10. This method is called mean of maxim um (MOM) and the crisp va lue is ca lcul ated as fo llows: UMOM = LiEf xi III I = (i I ~. Z (zero). Therefore it 's a common practice to calculate the mean value of these paints.(Xi ) = I'm=) (28) Here J is the (crisp) set of indices i where J. Crisp value is calc ulated as fo llows: USO M == xml n (f) (29) Another possibility is to choose the rightmost point among the points which have maximum membership to the overall imp lied fuzzy set.1 . This method is called largest of maximum (LOM) or the rightmost maximum (RM) defuzzification method where crisp value is calculated as: U WM = xmax (I) (30) 4. Table 4 shows fuzzy rules. PM (positive med ium) and PB (positive big) as shown in Figure lO(a) and (b).VB . Fuzzy inputoutput variables 49 . NS (negative smaJl). Input and output variables of FPO consisr of seven fu zzy sets namely NB (negative big). PI is One can a lso choose the leftmost poim among the points which have maximum me mbership to the overall implied fu zzy set.\').Another approach to obtain the crisp value is to choose the point with the highest membershi p. There may be several points in the overall implied fuzzy set which have maximum membership value. NM (negative medium).Lc(xtl reaches its maximum ~m(U' and ils card ina lity (the number of members). .3 Sim ulin k implemen tation Inputs of FPD are "error" and "change of error" where the output is "control".
.. Z i PS P~l PB NB NB NM I NB NS NB NB I NB NO I NM NS Z NB I NB NM NS Z PS NB NM N$ .Table 4.01 0...1649 Bisector SOM MOM LOM Figure 12(a)(d) shows the system responses and conrml signals for the fuzzy control systems with different defuzzification method s..2484 4. Z PS PM Z ! PS PM PB NO NM NS Z PS . Table 5 shows the tuned va lues of the controller parameters for different defuzzification methods...7623 KD 0. Table 6 shows the values of the perfounance criteria for different defuzzification methods with the tuned controller parameters. PM PB PB PS NM NS Z ni l NS z PS PM I PB PB PB PB Z PS PM PB ' PB PB PB Figure 11 shows the fuzzy PD control system designed in Simulink. 50 .. .~ ~ 11 I r:J VI) O alfl~1TVI lJoIVa 1116's ~ ~~rt na. l oc moJor L oo' OpIinl2:lti::ln """" Figure 11. Fuzzy PO control system Different defuzzification methods were used to obta in the control signal. r I '" Kd . Table 5.. Controller parameters for different defuzzificacion methods Method Kp 2.1236 4.1901 0 ...01 0. Fuzzy rules IJ\ "'H NM I NS . "'.5538 4. I.