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Continous Learning for Adults

with Needs
Prepared by: Nahide Yaman, Sevilay Yıldız


BOLU – 2008

CLAN – Continuous Learning for Adults with Needs
Grant Agreement 2007-3569/001-001
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use
which may be made of the information contained therein


hemsireler. That is why the reforms on health field and the expectations and complaints of the health personell are getting more and more importance day by day. In 2 . opened the first nursing school in London in 1962. the family and. has arisen from social needs. had been carried out in Ancient Egypt. social and financial aspects(http://www. it is obvious that the nurses should be backed up with psychological. manuel aptitude and pace. Florance Nightingale who is the founder of modern nursing. to carry out this job. there lies respect and In 1980. indispensable and preserving the level of its importance throughout the each periods of life. Health. NURSING AS A JOB Since the very early beginning of the history. takes care of the sick. for example. the nurse gives service to the people that are destitute of health and needing nelp. self-sacrifice. A nurse is a female person who . for the individuals. and is very much related to human life. discipline and solemnity. tries to do her best in order to make the individual. health has been on of the most indispensable aspects of life. patience and tolerance. Because of that it is impossible for a person that lacks love.after getting certain education. likewise the other professions. Handerson defined it as “a dynamic power to achieve the sick’s health and independence” The Union of International Nurse Community approved this definition. According to modern public health conception. Form this point of view. Because. It involves good skills on is one of the basic needs which is compulsory. Nursing. preserving the good health before it gets worse is among the initial targets. In he 20 th century. nationality. language. without having any discrimination such as religion. the society recover from their illness’. Nursing is tough job which involves hard working conditions and which includes self-commitment. Various definition has been made throughout the history. Greece and Rome not as much as it is done today. compassion.blogcu. The nursing which has got deep historical roots. gives health service at the clinics and assists to the doctor. The Union of American Nurses defined the nursing as “a profession that offers help” and the act of nursing as “the diagnosis and the treatment of man’s reactions against the existing and the potential health problems” (http://www. the act of bettering and ordering the environment of the sick”. moreover in its core. A nurse. in the 19th century Florence Nightingale defined it as “in order to recover the sick from his illness. India.

The ones who finished these courses. Also two year occupational high schools are available for high school graduates (http://www. Nowadays. developing the nursing applications by way of critical thinking and research. working as an effective member of health maintenance outfit. After the foundation of the modern Turkish republic. 1st function. Presentation of Society Service Nursing. the training of the sick. service receivers and health maintenance personell. We could analyze the functions of nursing under four the first nursing courses go back to an institution named “Hilal-i Ahmer Cemiyeti" (Kızılay) in 1911. This schools give education as three years with the level of a primary school and four years with the level of a high school. recovering or rehabilitating nursing services to the society. is the method of transporting the protective. 2nd function. took care of the wounded of 1912-1914 The Balkan Wars and 1st World War. they are health high schools with four year education. after the doctors. is the oldest health profession. 3rd function. developer.hemsireler. the first nursing school was opened in Istanbul which was followed by the opening of the nursing school in Ankara in 1939. 3 .Turkey. 4th function.

The difference at education level are not reflected at the authorization and responsibility at the workplace. This variety affects the profession negatively. However. even though it is stated that 400 nurses are needed. For instance. Seperating into branches: In our country. These politics that are aiming at getting profit from health sector. there are five levels of nursing education. and 18 month course after high-school. The Employment of Nurses: Some politics named the conversions at the health sector. Nursing in Turkey The nursing in Turkey. 90% of the total 80. The health high schools which were closed in 1996. except for the scholar life. if a hospital of 400 beds. were reopened in 2001. are not esteemed enough. have badly influenced the health personell especially the nurses and are still influencing badly. there cannot be seen separating into branches (such as Operation room nurses. nurses are facing the problem of leaving the care activities to some other people. are bringing an umemployment problem for the nurses into the light since they are based upon recovering health service not upon protecting health service. A nurse is usually considered as the assistant to a doctor and despite the fact that it is stressed that health service is achieved only by a well-organized cooperation. While some laws in accordance with the EU laws are putting into practice. however in practical that is not the case. high-school. This situation affects the quality of the job badly and causes some ideas such as a nurse is someone who acts accordingly by the orders of the doctor. a nursing law isn’t planned and existing laws doesn’t reply the problems of health sector today. The Law of Nursing 6283 numbered and 1954 dated Nursing Law doesn’t reply the needs of the changing roles and responsibilities of the nurses. there is no country that satisfies with high school education nowadays. intensive care unit 4 . Main Problems of Nursing in Turkey Getting educations with different levels: In our country.000 nurses of our country are working for recovering health service which indeed is the half of needed nurse number. The nurse’s request for university education wasn’t taken into consideration. despite having a great importance as one of the outfits giving health services. 2 yer college. They are 4 year college. open-university. generally you could see 150-170 nurses. Under such hard conditions.

midwives. Not being able to make an advancement at the profession. Having too much risk. Being appointed to some tasks out of profession. this situation is truly reflected in health sector. oncology nurses etc. it affects the development of profession badly. 2. 4. 6. There are very few male nurses in our country. 8.9% of the nurses are content eith their profession whereas 58.nurses. 5 .) Some nurses who worked for oncology clinics for years can be transferred to some other sectors. 9. Since nursing as a job has always been attributed to the female sex. Some reaons for this discontent are: 1. 5. Uncertainty at duties and responsibilities. Negative approach of the society to the profession. Since in an patriarchial society. Not being able to work under the wanted branch. Over-working 10. According to the survey which was carried out by Turkish Nurses Association in 2000 and which consists of the nurses.1% of the nurses are discontent with their profession. it has been observed that 41. 3. Sex: the most important sociological characteristic is the sex. Deficiency of money. 7. a woman is expected to yield to the man. and health civil servants. Being accepted as an assisting person. Intensive working conditions.

It has always been stated that the women of our country got their rights without struggle. this is not the case in health sector. the decision on opening nursing high-schools shows us that this idea is still on. who thought that a modern society is only achieved by good education for both men and women. As a matter of fact. Nursing is a professional kinda activity. Turkish Nursed Association organized the room in which Nightingel worked as a museum in 1954. expressed his idea: “It is compulsory that both men and women must take proper education on science. in the higher health convention in 20th of October. cheerful and self-committed are enough for being a good nurse. ). someone who has got a creative thinking can change the destiny of human being and shape the future. being aware of the fact that nursing is of great significance.blogcu. According to her. But. there are still people who are thinking that higher education is not necessary for the nurses. They believe that nursing doesn’t demand much information and skill. Besim Omer Pasa (1962-1940) is founder of modern nursing who attended the nursing conference in London in 1907 and met Florence Nightingale there. That is to say. Nowadays. But. As of summarizing the development of nursing: the history of nursing starts with the curing role of woman. 2007.” Women got their almost all the rights under the light of Ataturk’s these ideas. Ataturk. a modern approach to nursing as a job starts with Florance Nightingale (1820-1910) who gave health service in Istanbul during the Crimmean War (1854-56). the sexual discrimination is still going on in the health sector. trained the “ladies” of the important families of Istanbul himself. Dr. Turkey witnessed the birth of modern nursing. Only after that was it possible for the Muslim women to attend the Balkan War (1912) and 6 . They think that being lovely. Florance Nighingale is one of the initiators of Human Rights. He. When making plans on health sector in our country. nurses’ not being represented enough is seen as one of the reasons of the profession’s not having autonomy. Even though it has achieved its professional development in the developed countries. it has not been achieved in Turkey enough because of the reasons above.( http://gazi27.

With the helps of these organizations. Europe Nursing Office. is bound to the responsible doctor. This law draft which took a place in the agenda of the 55th government (12/01/1999) was neglected because of the fact that the 55th government was brought down. nursing is defined as a profession that is acquired by a high school education.saglikbilgisi. some books and study materials have been prepared for all the national nurses. Those recent developments necessitated a change in nursing. political and financial developments in Europe in the last 25 years. Legal Regulations Today.Dardanos War (1915-16) and give health service to the wounded. The Ministry of Health launched some reforms on health field and prepared a draft on “Nursing and Turkish Nursing Association” in which it is stated that nursing is a profession that is acquired by four year college education and suitable for both sexes. The decisions took in this conference have been unanimously accepted by the participants. In 1992. Some organizations such as ICN. 7 . One of the most important activity for strengthening the nursing profession is the European Nursing Conference held in Vienna in 1988. This law is quite out of fashion In this law. the efforts of EU. and a female profession as well. some developments in science and technology left some problems facing the health sector. In this new approach. physical-therapist and become an autonomous  All the educational programmes must be reorganized.hemsireler. Some social. what the nurses demand is that they want equality and cooperation with other health personell such as doctor. Several factors had roles in professional enlightenment. the actual health staff is expected to play the lead. Occupational Organizations The first nursing organization in Turkey was founded by volunteer nurses in 1933 under the name of “Turkish Sick Carers Association”. EU Nursing Perpetual Committee played important roles in legal changes in nursing profession. pharmacist. This association was reorganized in 1943 and the board was replaced by educated nurses and renamed “Turkish Nursing Association” Today. (http://www. WHO defined the nurses and midwives as the most important figure in order to give cheaper but qualified health service. all the legal issues are being considered under the 6283 numbered and 1954 dated nursing services law. WHO. The main decisions are as follows (http://www. The expenses for health service rose quite high and there happened a need for a cheaper but more qualified health service.

8% of the nurses are graduates of two-year degree. The interviews have been executed between 8th March and 19th March. 2004. The average age was 32. 8 .46. Metin and Ozer (2007) in their work named “The Setting out the Level of Nurses’ Being Exhausted” have set out the level of nurses’ being exhausted in Denizli SSK Hospital.  Nursing education must be reorganized as being a four year college education. there are samples of some researches on nursing in Turkey. The universe has been directly studied without choosing a sample (n=64). 71.  The laws on nursing must be reorganized as leaving the development and management of the profession to the nurses themselves.45±6. It has been observed that desensitization point average is higher in the ones that are having nuclear family or having a kid and the average points of desensitization and being emotionally exhausted are higher in the ones that are thinking of changing the profession. 71. 85. 76. It has been also observed that as the years pass the level of being emotionally exhausted decreases. RELATED RESEARCHES In this section.9% of the married ones are having children.9% of the nurses are having nuclear family. 87 nurses working at Denizli SSK Hospital made up the universe of the research.  Only the nurses themselves must be responsible for the education of the nurses.6% of the nurses are married.

The ones who are working at the insurance hospital. the expectations follow a different path. are dissatisfied with the payment. are having more stress than those ones. the satisfaction of the nurses was effected by the number of the sick. He also says that as the level of being educated rises. Ozaltin and Nehir (2007) did a study on the stress factors for the nurses of the intensive care unit of the hospitals in Ankara and the way of their coping with that stress. the level of education. it has also been seen that the most important factors of stress are taking care of the most critic sick persons and their relatives. In thi study. and are graduates of four-year degree and MA degree. states that nowadays things like commitment to the institution.. Yildirim and others made a research in 2007 called “the setting up the level of nurses’ using cognitive strategies for coping with the stress and effecting factors” 150 nurses who are working at Erzincan State Hospital made up the universe of this research which was held between 1st February and 14th February 2005. Güneş says that 60% of the nurses emphasized the commitment to the institution. Güneş (2007) has got a MA named the “The Factors that are Effecting the Nurses Who are working at the University Hospitals”. Gunes. ambiguity on duties and some conflicts between the outfits. reluctantly working at the intensive care units. lacking the necessary eduction. It was also founded that the nurses haven’t got the wanted level of learned strength. between 20 and 30. In this research. In this research. it was found the as the years pass the level of learned strength rises. and the working style have got nothing to the with learned strength. 9 . the unit to be worked. This research which was fulfilled on 407 nurses who are working at the two university hospitals has stated that the nurses that are working at the daytime and are having day-offs at the weekend have got a higher degree of professional satisfaction and efficiency. Among the mostly disturbed factors by the nurses are ambiguity on roles. married. stating that in the past.Karadağ and his friends have spotted that the nurses that are having an experience of less than 10 years have got a higher level of desensitization whereas the ones that are working for more than ten years are more dwelling upon the individual success (2002). regular turns etc. it has been seen that most of the nurses are single. self-development are on the ground. over 31.

Moreover. they stated that they look for social back up in order to cope with stress. 10 . A cooperation with the psychiatry section is also recommended. It is also recommend that some modifications should be put into practises in order to better the working conditions for the nurses so that this modifications should help them for coping with the stress. http://gazi27. Ankara: Yıl: 2008 Cilt: 28 Sayı:3 Yıldırım. Erzurum: 2007. Rojan ve Evin Kasımoğlu. 10: 3 Taş. Erzurum:2007. “Hemşirelerin Iş Yaşamı Kalitesi Ve Etkileyen Faktörlere Ilişkin Görüşleri” Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi. “Hemşirelerin Stresle Başa Çıkmada Bilişsel Stratejileri Kullanma Düzeylerinin Ve Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi” Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi. Diyarbakır: 2006 Cilt:33. (23-30) Güneş.com 11 . “Ankara İlindeki Hastanelerin Yoğun Bakım Ünitelerinde Çalışan Hemşirelerin İş Ortamındaki Stres Etkenleri Ve Kullandıkları Başetme Yöntemlerinin Belirlenmesi” Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi. “Hemşirelerin Tükenmişlik Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi” Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi. Esra ve Süheyla Aban. “Üniversite Hastanelerinde Çalışan Hemşireleri Etkileyen Etmenlerin Belirlenmesi” Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans http://www. Rabia ve Papatya Karakur. 10: 4 http://www. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Genel Cerrahi Ana Bilim Dalı . Hacıhasanoğlu. 10: 1 Özaltın.BİBLİOGRAPHY Arcak. Fatma ve ümran Çevik. Gülten ve Sevgi http://www. İzmir: 2007 (Hürriyet 12 Kasım 2007) Metin Ögür ve Fadime Gök Özer.” Diyarbakır Merkezdeki Hastane ve Sağlık Ocaklarında Çalışan Hemşirelerin Sağlık Hizmetlerindeki Rolü ve İş Memnuniyetleri” Dicle Tıp Dergisi.” Konya İlindeki Pediatri Hemşirelerin Şiddete Maruz Kalma ” Durumları “ Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi Cilt: 9 Sayı: 3 2006 Uğur. Sayı:1. Nuray.hemsireler. Erzurum:2007. Arzu.blogcu.