Presented by:

Wilmington Institute Network

MARY JOHANNA MCCURLEY, Dallas M'Curley, Orsinger, M'Curley, Nelson & Downing, L.L.P. KATHRYN MURPHY, Plano Koons, Fuller, Vanden Eykel & Robertson
*Reprinted from: AmericanAcademyof Matrimonial Lawyers March, 2005


State Bar of Texas 31ST ANNUAL ADVANCED FAMILY LAW COURSE August 8-11, 2005 Dallas


Trial and Settlement Sciences

Dr. Robert Gordon is a forensic and clinical psychologist and attorney. He is founder and director of the Wilmington Institute of Trial and Settlement Sciences. He is the pioneer in the field of trial and settlement psychology in America. His study of the American Jury Process began in 1968. He has provided consultation on many of the celebratedAmericanjury trials during the past 20 years. Dr. Gordon's vision of this field for the Century is to contribute to the administration of justice through psychological research conducted in a powerful and ethical manner.


Dr. Gordon is boarded in the specialties of clinical and forensic psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. He earned a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Oklahomaand a J.b. degree in law from Baylor University. Dr. Gordon has served as Chair of the Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists. He is the past president of the

Texas Psychological Association. In 1991, his work in establishing this new field was recognized by the Texas Psychological Foundation in the granting of the Distinguished PsychologistAward. The Wilmington Institute provides trial and settlement science services in State and Federal forums, as well as assisting international clients with domestic cases, The Institute's facilities provide hi-tech, ADR and courtroom environments with innovative information systems in Dallas and Houston,

Robert Gordon 2 . CNN News.S. Gordon and the Institute Team has been featured on the MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour.. Larry King Live. The Gordon's have two children. and MSNBC. Wilmington Institute & Lw. Sky-T. Reuters News and in leading Japanese Newsprint.A. The Gordon'sson Adam is a teacher who is on a year's sabbatical teaching in Japan.V. Ami Gordon who is a practicing attorney in San Antonio and married to Scott Henslee who is a dermatologist. Dr. Good Morning America. Today. Gordon lives in both Dallas and HoustonTexas with his wife Susan who is a teacher.The Institute has conducted extensive research in order to better understand how and why complex civil lawsuits. development of dispute resolution procedures such as summary jury trials and other innovative methods for settling important cases. He has frequently been a guest commentator on legal issues for CNN. jurors make decisions in His work has contributed to the The work of Dr. U. ABC Nightline. Fox News.

1991 and 1992. Texas Supreme Court Child Support and Child Visitation Guidelines Committee. 1981-1982.MARYJOHANNA MCCURLEY M" MARYJOHANNAMCCURLEY: born Baton Rouge.present. 1953. 1983.D. CourseDirector. 1996-1997. Vice Chairman.P. 1998. 1982-1985: Family Law Council. Texas SupremeCourt Child Supportand Child Visitation GuidelinesCommittee. Family Law Manual. Vice President 2002 - . Louisiana. State Bar of Texas. Mary's School of Law. Assistant CourseDirector. EXTRACURRICULAR RESPONSIBILITIES: Delta Theta Phi (Vice President. The Best Lawyers in America .. L. 1984. Course Director. Texas.2005-2006edition State Barof Texas . Secretary. CourseDirector. 1995. Student Senate. 1992.Secretary. Advanced Family Law Course. 1993(AAML . Co-Editor Family Law Manual. Dallas (Family Law Section. St. Board Certified. November 2000 present.. Family Law Council. Suite 800 Dallas.Texas Chapter . State Bar of Texas 1989-1990. President. St. MatrimonialLaw . Board of Directors. Past Chairman. Member. 1997. State Bar of Texas.National . State Bar of Texas. 1979. 1986). 1995-1996.L. 1987 . President.Child Custody and Child Visitationin Texas. Orsinger. Life. Family Law.Treasurer. EDUCATION: Centenary College (B. 2000.Chair of Family LawSection of the State Bar of Texas. 1975). Louisiana State University. 1996-1997. Inc. 1979. . 5950 Sherry Lane.A. Art and Advocacyof Family Law. Nelson & Downing. FACULTY: National Business Institute. admitted to bar. 1979). Chairman 1985. Lawyeringand the Pursuit of Happiness. PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Assistant Editor.McCurley. Co-Chairperson. President-Elect.) 1995. Secretary-Treasurer. 1978-1979). Texas 75225 Phone: 214/273-2400 marvio(E!momnd. American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.2002. Mary's University of San Antonio (J. American Academyof MatrimonialLawyers (AAML .1998. State Bar of Texas. October3. 1997-1998) MEMBER: . 1982-1989. Texas Board of Legal Specialization (1984). 2003 (Adjunct Member.

State Barof Texas. "Relocation Debate" co-authored with Kathryn Murphy. Two Professions.Why More People are Seeking Prenuptial Agreements in the Millennium" coauthored with CarsonP. Fort Worth Business Journal. 1990-1992.D. One Marriage" co-authored with Mike McCurley.Defendingand Attacking Premarital and Post-Marital Agreements" co-authored with Carson P.present. 2001. Advanced Family Law Course State Bar of Texas. Instant Email. Member. AmericanAcademyof Matrimonial Lawyers Annual Meeting. Stepfamilies Rights and Adoption Committee. 1997-present and Co-Chair of this Committee. Ph.Interdisciplinary Relations . Mediation Study Committee.present. August. 1997. 1995 and 1997-1998. Fort Worth Business Press.State Bar of Texas.October 3. June of 2004 "Family Law: Changes to Keep in Mind" co-authored with Laura M. Instantly Gone? .Mental Health. and Kathryn Murphy. Member. 1998 . Co-Chairperson. 2003 "Love and Money . Member. MarriageDissolution CourseState Bar of Texas. 1999."Advanced Family Law Course. Board of Directors. 2004. 2000. 2003-2004 for Special Concerns Children Committee. Marriage Dissolution Course. Advanced Family Law Course. 1999.State Bar of Texas. Hilliard. "Defending Against Malpractice" co-authored with JuliePruett. "Shrinking the Shrinks Down to Size" co-authoredwith Mike McCurley and DrewTen Eyck. Member. AUTHOR AND LECTURER: "Psychological Testing" co-authored with Jonathan Gould. Continuing Legal Education. Advertising Committee. Chairman. October 3. "Two People. Hilliard. Epes. Michelle May. Texas Bar Journal. Member.Lecture at Advanced Family Law Course. 2003 "Don't Forgetthe Child" . March 5. NewFrontiers in Marital Property Law .The Roleof Technology in Infidelityand Divorce" co-authored with Laura M.Board of Governors. 1998. 2003 "Top Ten Things You Should Know to Ask About Handling Kid Cases" co-authored with Laura M. 1993. 2003 "Maintenance is Alive and Well in Texas" co-authoredwith A. "Reimbursement Issues" co-authoredwith Drew Ten Eyck. American Bar Association. 1994. HiUiard. 2002 "A Primeron Psychological Testing.January2004 edition "Did Your Client 'Get Hitched'WithoutA Hitch . Texas Academy of Family Law Specialists. Fort Worth Business Press. 1999.MarriageDissolution Course State Bar of Texas.State Bar of Texas. 2005. - . 2001 and 2002. Epes. AdvancedFamily Law Course.State Bar ofTexas. Marketing and Public Relations Committee.Annette StewartAmerican Inn of Court.Masterand Secretary/Treasurer. current member. AssociateJudge'sTraining.State Bar of Texas. 2003 "Instant Message. Chairperson.

" Advanced Family Law Course .State Bar of Texas. Texas Academyof Family Law Specialists . "Tracing."The Practical Lawyer. Advanced Family Law Course .State Bar of Texas. Texas Society of Certified Public Accountants. Second Family and Other Significant Problems. 1993. From Sole to Joint and Back Again.State Bar of Texas. 1991. - - - . "Discovery. "Effectively Deafing with The Child's Choice of Managing Conservator" co-authoredwith R. 1991." Advanced Family Law Course . "Child Support Issues .State Barof Texas. 1997.State Barof Texas. Hirsch and R. 1996. Scott Downing and Kenneth W.State Bar of Texas. 1992. 1992." Utah chapter of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. "Preparing for the Petitioner's Financial Temporary Hearing. 1991.State Bar of Texas.Fact or Fiction?. October 1994." AnnualDivorce Conference of the Dallas Chapter." South Texas College of Law. 1993. 1997. StockOptions and Other NewSourcesofWealth.State Bar of Texas. 1994. "An Overview of Psychological Testing." Annual Family Law Institute. "An Overview of Psychological Testing.State Bar of Texas." Advanced Family Law Course." co-authoredwith R. Rockenbach. Rockenbach." Marriage Dissolution Course. 1998. 1991.State Bar of Texas. 1995. "Attorneyand Guardian Ad Litems.State Bar of Texas.Modification." 18th Annual Marriage Dissolution Course. 1990. 1994." American Bar Association Family Law Conference." Illinois State Bar Association Family Law Handbook. ChrisLake and Ken Rockenbach. "Dealing with Ad Utems. "DivorceTaxation. 1995. AdvancedFamily Law Course State Bar of Texas. Advanced Family LawCourse State Bar of Texas. Texas Academyof Family Law Specialists ." New York BarAssociation." State Bar of Texas. Advanced Family Law Course."Advanced Family Law Course. "Ethics. 1997. "Modification. "Pensions. "An Overview of Psychological Testing. "Peculiar Characterization Issues. Marriage Dissolution Course. Scott Downing)." American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. "Dealingwith Experts and Psychological Tests. "Gender Bias in Our Courts and Practice ." State Bar ofTexas. "An Overview of Psychological Testing. 1998."Shrinking theShrinks Down to Size"co-authoredwith Mike McCurley.State Bar of Texas. 1997. "Social Studies and Psychological Evaluations: Their Use in Evidence and Howto Cross Examine." Marriage Dissolution Course. "Attorney Ad Litem and Guardian Ad Litem Practice." co-authoredwith Jack W.State Bar of Texas. 1994.State Bar of Texas. Scott Downing. Scott Downing and Kenneth W. "Managing Stress. 1992. 1993. "Effectively Dealing with the Child's Choice of Managing Conservator. Not Stress Management. "Psychological Testing and the ExpertWitness. 1993. South Texas College of Law. Have Found The Enemy It Is Ust" or Self Management. Advanced Family Law Course." (co-authorwith ReginaldA. 'We AdvancedFamily Law Course." co-authoredwith R. 1992. Marr & Kathleen Cardone.

1989.State BarofTexas." Marriage Dissolution Course. Verner." American Academy of - "Jury Selection in Custody Cases. "Enforcement. "Psychological Testing: An Update. Texas Revolution in Child Support: Perspective.Matrimonial Lawyers.. State Bar of Texas. Marriage DissolutionCourse. 1990. 1990. 1986. 1987. 1990. "Evidentiary Issues in Child Support. Advanced Family Law DraftingCourseState Bar ofTexas. Jr.' co-authored with JimmyL."Advanced Family Law Course State Bar ofTexas." Advanced Family Law Course. "Managing Stress. 'innovative Ideas for Setting and Collecting Attorney Fees. .State Bar of Texas. Pleading and Practice."State Bar of Texas. 1986.Support and Visitation". "Alimony.

Board of Directors (1997-2000) Southeastern Paralegal Institute (1993-1996) Fee Dispute Committee .present) PUBLICATIONS: Co-Author.Texas Board of Legal Specialization Board Certified Family SPECIAL RECOGNITIONS/HONORS: Listed in D Magazine "BestLawyers in Dallas" for Family Law (May 2001 and May 2005) Listed in "ilie Best Lawyers in America" Listed in TexasMonthly— Texas Super Lawyers (Top 50 Women Attorneys in Texas.State ofTexas Dallas AllianceofCollaborativeFamily Lawyers Collaborative Law Institute ofTexas International Academy ofCollaborative Professionals State Bar ofTexas(Family Law Section) American Bar Association(Family Law Section) College ofthe State Bar ofTexas Dallas Bar Association (Family Law Section) Collin CountyBar Association (FamilyLaw Section) PIano Bar Association DAYL People's Law School (1995 & 1996) J. Suite 2200 Piano.ller.C.D. & Robertson P.Family Law (1995) Dallas Social Venture Partners (2003 . 1989 1986 BA SouthernMethodist University.KATHRYNJ.Dallas. 2000 Program AdvisoryBoard in CASA 2001 Collin County Bench Bar Conference Grievance Committee. Texas PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIESANDAFFILIATIONS: Partner Koons.VANDENEYKEL& ROBERTSON.Dallas Bar Association (1998 -2000) Collin CountyBench Foundation Bar Committee. Top 100 Attorneys in Texas) (2004) Fellow - Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Co-Chair Member Instructor Member Fellow American Academy ofMatrimonial Lawyers Texas Academy of Family Law Specialists - - Chairman Board MemberCo-Chair Member Certificate Partner Bar Family Law Council. West Publishing Company. PROTECTING YOURASSETS FROMA TEXASDIVORCE(2005). 2002. 2003 and 2004) Author.FULLER. Law .present) Advanced Mediation . Reuben Clark Law Society . Tyler. Fuller. supplemented 2001. District IA (2002 . TEXASFAMILY LAW PRACTICE GUIDE(published March 2000.Collin County Bench Bar Conference. Top 100 Attorneys in Texas) (2003) Listed in Texas Monthly— Texas Super Lawyers (Top 50 Women Attorneys in Texas.corn Website: www. Vanden Eykel. Texas 75093 (972) 769-2727 Internet: Kathrvn(ñ)koonsli. 5700 W. Piano Pkwy. Texas University ofTexas at EDUCATION: J.koonsliiller.P. . MURPIIY KOONS.

Dallas Bar Association Friday Clinic (December 1996 and July 1998) OPENING ANDCLOSING THE FILE. 25" Annual Advanced Family Law Course. if-MAILS. 29th Annual Advanced Family Law Course. IN American Bar Association.23rd Annual Advanced Family Law Course. ETC. Williamson County (October2004) RELOCATION DEBATE. 1999) OPENINGSTATEMENTJURYOR NONJURY. State Bar of Texas (August 1998) DISCOVERY UPDATE. Reuben Clark Law Society(October. Dallas Chapter Texas Society ofCertified Public Accountants Fifth Annual Divorce Conference (September 1996.American Bar Association. September 1998) DISCOVERY. Family Law Practice Institute.Ten Hot Topics in Family Law. 32" Annual Advanced Family Law Course. Collin County Bench/Bar Conference (June 2000) MODERATOR. 'Nuts and Bolts" Family Law Training (February 2005) OPENING STATEMENTSANDCLOSING ARGUMENTS.J. Dallas Women'sLawyers Association (December. 16°' Annual Advanced Evidence & Discovery Course.22ndAnnual Advanced Family Law Course. Orlando. 1999) CROSS-EXAMINA HON OFA VALUATION EXPERTAND BUSINESS VALUATIONS DIVORCE. Reuben Clark Law Society (April 2002) DIVISIONOF PROPERTYON DIVORC'E. Dallas Bar Association Family Law Training Seminar (October 1996) ATTORNEY'S FEES. Family Law Conference forthe General Practitioner and Legal Assistant. DIVISION OF PROPERTYON DIVORCE. State Bar ofTexas (August 1997) DISCOVERY UPDATE.Family Law Section. State Bar of Texas (August. San Diego (October. State Bar ofTexas(August 1996) BUSINESS VALUATIONINDIVORCE. 1999) UPDATE ONFAMILYLAW. HARDDRJyES. Section ofFamily Law.J. University of Houston Law Cenler (October 2002) OBJECTIONS AT TRIAL. Collin County Bench/BarConference (June 2000) FAMILYLAW UPDATE.J. 30"' Annual Advanced Family Law Course. ATTACKING& UNDOING. Dallas VolunteerAttorney Program and Family Law Section. Ultimate Trial Notebook— Family Law.University ofHouston Law Foundation (April 2000) FAMILYLAJVDISCUSSION. Collaborative Law Spring Retreat (March 2004) HIGH TECH EVIDENCE. StateBar ofTexas (August 2003) FAMILYLAWEVIDENCE. Collin County Bench Bar Conference (May 2003) FAMJLYLAJVEVIDENTIARY ISSUES. E-MAILS. HAItDDRIVES. American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (March 2005) RELOCATION.PtJBLICATIC)NS/LECTURES: CHILD SUPPORT. University ofHouston (September 1996) . State Bar of Texas(December 2004) HIGH TECHEVIDENCE. 1998) OBTAININGRECORDS FROMNON-PARTIES. 24th Annual Advanced Family Law Course. WEBS!TES. State Bar ofTexas(August 2005) PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING. State Bar ofTexas (August 2004) COLLABORATIVELAWPANEL. South TexasCollege ofLaw (February 1998 and February 1999) DISCOVERY UPDATE. WEBSITES. Reuben Clark Law Society (June2000) E. State Bar of Texas (March 2003) PARENTAGE: ESTABLISHING. University of Houston Law Foundation (June 2002) FAMILYLAWFOR THE NON-SPECIALIST. 1998) FAMILYLAWFOR THE NON-SPECIAL1ST. Dallas Bar Association (December. FL (November 2002) DIVISION OF PROPERTYAND DIVIDING SPECIFICASSETS. Texas Academy ofFamily Law Specialists (January2003) PARENTAGE: CURRENT ISSUES. University of Houston Law Foundation (September 2001 and September 2002) FAMILYLAW UPDATE. Fall CLEConference.

I6PF V. INTRODUCTION GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING A.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. B. INTELLIGENCE TESTS A. WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING WITHtNTHE LAST DECAl) A. C. GeneralConsiderationsWhen an Experthas Psychological Testing Standards and Guidelinesfor Child CustodyEvaluations in Divorce Proceedings Final Thoughts . IV. 29 29 33 54 54 55 55 VI. Sex Abuse Legitimacy Scales(Sals) CONCLUSION A. Bricklin PerceptualScales (Bps) B. B. I Reliability Validity 2 2 3 4 8 8 18 Ill. U. Stanford-Binet IntelligenceScale C.Revisedor Third Edition(WAIS-R) PERSONALITY TESTS A. ObjectivePersonality Tests B. Purpose ofIntelligence Tests B.


achievement tests. . in his book.this article will examinethe major tests in these areas." Validationofa test. INTRODUCTION The family law practitioneris confronted with the resultsof psychological testing with increasing frequency.Copingwith Psychiatricand Psychological Testimony. 1. Asthis article illustrates.the ratiobetweentwo differentquantitativemeasures. Validity j. in statisticalterms.0 (perfectreliability). the closerto thecoefficientofa 1.] Since cases involvingthe parent-childrelationship involve psychologicalissues and.Vol. In laymen'sterms. often requirepsychologicaltestimony regardingintelligenceand personality.] However.2004 andagain on January 1. Smith is a good mother. Psychological testingbecamepopularduringWorld War11. "Mental health professionalslovetheirinterpretations. Ifsomeoneis tested on August 1. then he is an "unreliable" witness. or even constitutionallyappropriate. administration and use ofpsychologicaltesting in custody disputes. However.80reliabilitycoefficientdoesnotmeet thestandardsofreliabilityaccepted by eitherschoolofthought. For example." Anotherschoolofthought arguesthat tests lowestacceptable with areliabilitycoefficientofo. along with two other order for a lest to be "reliable" in scientific terms.the attorney should be aware that for every psychologistand psychiatrist existing.80aresufficient. 211(1981). Il. Thetests arecategorizeddepending on what factorsthe particulartest tests is designedto measure. Forexample. What was true at the depositionshould alsobe trueattrial.this meansthat the closerthe resultsare between the firsttestingand the second testing. The report is designedto help the clinical psychologistdetermine"validity" of a certaintest. Ziskin. In appraisinga particularpsychologicaltest. six weeks or six months later. Reliability Reliabilityofa given test requires consistencyofresults. and clinicalpsychologistshavebeen toting testkits tests eversince. A reliabilitycoefficientvalue ranges from 0.does a particularintelligencetesttruly measureintelligence? TheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation.personalitytests.90is the correlation coefficientforatestto be considered "reliable. The Making ofa Psychiatrist. there are two considerations whichmust always be keptin mind: reliabilityand validiti' ofthe particulartest. they are gifts that they give themselves. therefore.haveproduceda report entitled. As David Viscount.Clearly. of Reliability a testisusuallydetermined in termsofa coefficient correlation betsveen test scoresona firsttesting and then on a second. Jones saysin adepositionthat Mrs. there is a differentopinion as to what the lower limits ofreliabilityoughtto be. Thetests aregenerallyinterpreted as establishingthe mental healthand parenting skills ofa parent. Shuman.2005.Psychological Testing Chapter 5 PSYCHOLOGICALTESTING I."Educationaland Psychological Tests and Manuals. The legal analogyofreliability is witness credibility.0 theresultswill be. thenthe test resultsshould be essentiallythe same ifthe test is reliable. A. [D. observes. but at trial he says she is not always a good mother. "Correlation coefficient" means. Intelligence tests. for scientificpurposes.Psychiatricand Psychological Evidence47(1986). IfMr.andneuropsychological haveallbeen developed in an effort to create objective and standardizedinstruments. This article supports the continued development.a testwith less than a 0.' II.requires that the test measure what it actuallypurports to measure.the tests can be no better or worse than the interpretation itself. in this situationrepresentingthe degree ofassociationofthevariablephenomenaofa first testtaking versus a second. the test results should be essentiallythe same whether the patient is tested six days. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONSOF PSYCHOLOGICAL 1'ESTING Psychological testingis a standardized methodofcheckingaportionofan individual'sbehavior and comparing it to that ofa groupwith knowncharacteristics. The more conservativegroup believes a correlationcoefficientof0. but it also sends a warning to attorneys to not always have faith that these tests are valid.more problematic is the applicationofpsychologicaltestingto the resolution of custody issues. There is not complete agreement among psychologistsas to what reliabilitystandardshouldbe set in order to be confidentof a certaintest.0 (no reliability)to +1. psychological havea potentiallyvaluable role to play intheassessmentofthe mental health ofparentsand ofchildren. Because all psychological tests are eventually filtered through the psychologist's interpretation. fair. [J.

if the person administering the test does not follow the standard instructions and methods of administration designedfor that particular test. res ipsa loguitur. Depending on the presenting problem to the psychologist." (Id. Ifthe test is not given and scored as directed by the test manual. "PREDICTIVE VALIDITY .when the issue is whether he is cruel to his wife? In other words. intelligence or mechanical comprehension or anxiety. at 81. whichare: I.whichaids the clinicalpsychologistin thediagnosis of individuals. for example. ClinicalPsychology113 (1983). Jones is a good businessman (highreliability). Anintelligencetestmay indicate a personality disturbancewhen thetest taker's performanceis erratic. ilL INTELLIGENCE TESTS A. "the thing speaksfor itself. this may be indicative ofa serious mental disturbance. Observationsofthe Subject's Behavior Often. This means that with certain information about A.assumefive witnessesalt testify that Mr. does it make him or her tense. Intelligence tests are astandardizedmethod ofevaluating mentalability.more enduringand more abstractkind ofbehavioraldescription. There are differentapproachesto validity. Additionally.the test may reveal an unusuallyhigh ability in the use of vocabulary or arithmetical computation.The most commonly used and useful validation process is predictivevalidity. it would then seem to follow that the test measuresone's ability to multiply.This is an all-encompassingconceptwhich assimilatesone or more of the other types of validity.validity is more difficult to establish thanreliability.PsychologicalTesting Chapters However. Purposeof Intelli2enceTests.] One ofthe majorproblemswith intelligencetests is that theytend to includean abundanceofverbal testing. they as stated earlier. except insteadofbeing predictive ofbehavior.or makehim orher at ease? [S. no valid relationship has been establishedbetween being a good businessman and mentalcruelty. 3. Itentails abroader. Such erraticperformance is evidentwhenthe test taker'sresponsesto questions are notconsistent. Indications ofPossible Personality Disturbance." If the test involvedproblemsin multiplication. Comparingwhat scoreonemakesonan intelligencetest with what gradesthe test taker is making in school is an example ofconcurrentvalidity.the testtaker answersthe easierquestionsincorrectly. Garfield.Concurrent validity is essentially the same as predictive validity. Intelligence tests cannever beusedalonetodiagnoseapatient. Likewise. Is thererelevanceto that undisputedtestimony. such information can add to the understandingofthe patient'sskills and potentialities. 3.) 2. then it cannot be interpreted in terms ofthe existing norms. For example.) "CONCURRENT" VALIDITY.althoughthey cancontributeto theunderstanding IndicationsofSpecial Abilitiesor Limitations Alow verbal score maybe evidenceoflackofeducationor it may mean the loss orimpairmentofthe power to use words as symbols as the result ofsome brain injury.but is able to answerthe more difficultquestionscorrectly.does the testing makethe test takerill. ( 4. "CONSTRUCT" VALIDITY. then the results will be faulty. ofthe patient's behavior.and arealso biased towardclasses ofindividualswith particulareducationaland cultural opportunities. one can state with probabilitythat B willoccuriljat 78. Forexample. 2.the test scoresare compared to present information. Even more alarmingis that 2 . For example. An Appraisalofthe Intellectualor Mental Capacityofan Individual. ifthe test takergives strange answersto questions.) "CONTENT" OR "FACE"VALIDITY -Thiskind ofvalidity is basedon what we call in law. Additionally. 4. personalitytrendsmay bepicked upbyclose observation duringthe testing. Intelligence tests are used to achieve four main purposes: I. "It refers to the extent to which the test may be said to measure a theoretical concept. at 80.

Q.) There is no administration time reported for the entire testing.Psychological Assessmentin the Schools(1994). of IOU. is determined by dividingthe determinedmental age by the individual's chronologicalage and multiplyingby 100. a number. (D. Theexaminee'sageand perfonnancewill determinethenumber 15 subsections. For example.whereas. note 1. a child who is ten and obtains mental age often. Those who score above 140 represent one percent ofthe population. jpj Garfield. and revisedin 1937. The testconsists ofsubparts that measuredifferentareas ofcognitive development. Verbal Absurdities— A series of "foolish" statements are read and the child must tell the examinerwhat is foolishabout the statement. MemoryforDesigns—A cardwith two designs is shownto the child and then the child isasked to draw the designsby memory. Ifthe patient is six to fourteen years ofage. 4. the itemsare grouped into halfyearlevels (forexample: 4. The tests will produce a Composite StandardAge Scorewhich isreferredto as "SAS". Quantitative Reasoning.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 sometimesthestandard instructions are incomplete orinadequate and the clinicianmust rely onhis orherownjudgment. The flip-overtest booklets havethe directionson the examinersside. Thetest consists of whicharenotadministered toeveryone. ofsubteststhat aregiven. [C. 4tb Edition. TheStanford-Binetwas originally published in 1916. After the age of fourteen.etc. an animal. 12 at 113)." (S. of 120.7. (intelligencequotient)is an index whichindicatesthe rate ofmentaldevelopment. twenty-fivepercent achieve above 110. 5. (}3urosDeskReference.1 give you a dollar for somethingwhichcosts fiftycents. as well as overall cognitivedevelopment. The test is convenientto use. PaperCutting — The childisasked to cut out six inch squaresofpaper whichhave been folded and then is asked to makea drawingofhow the paper would look unfolded. at 121. It is currentlyin its Itwas devised as ameasureofchildren'sintelligenceand later revisedto includeadults. ofa mean of 100andastandarddeviationof16.5-1/2. at 122. there are four levels ranging from "AverageAdult" to "Superior Adult.8. orjust belowit. and twenty-fivepercent below 90.the Stanford-Binethas adoptedthe deviation twelve.) The scale is based on mentalage. lithepatient is belowtheage ofsix.and Short-Term Memory. and thenproceedingup a level until the person fails all the itemson that level. would have an l. 1960 and 1972. verbal testing is mostly used. thus making the test only as good as the clinicianand his or her judgment. Garfield. and the display forthe examinee on the other. at 113). Abstract/Visual Reasoning. as well as problem solving and abstract thinking. Shuman. Stanford-Binet IntelligenceScale I. 5. subtestdoes havestricttime limits. For example. III.Q.) Flowever. as well as verbal testing. Rhymes Making Change — The child is simply required to make change. I. If the same child secureda mental level of at 123. testing beginningat the level ofthe person'schronological age. although the Pattern Analysis incorrectly. Golden. — The child is to tell the name ofa color.Q. ClinicalInterpretationofObjectivePsychological approach Tests 2 (1979)] ( Approximatelyfifty percent ofthe peoplewho take the Stanford-Binetobtain a score ofbetween 90 and 110.Q. Historyand Construction oithe Stanford-I3inet Test The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scaleis designedto measure cognitiveabilitiesin anyone over the age oftwo. These subpartsinclude VerbalReasoning. (lij B. The followingshows examplesofwhat is on the test range at the nine year level: 1. or a flower which with a specific word.) Thetestis administeredby at the children'slevel uses blocks and toys. (jj (jj The I.). At the adult levels. rhymes 2. 4-1/2. (S. he or she would receive an I. Mental age is determinedby groupsoftest itemswhich are arranged in terms ofage levels. the items are grouped into year levels of6.) The two most widely usedintelligence testsare the revised Stanford-J3inet and the variousWechslerScales. It is used to analyze patternsof thinking. or going down from the initial level ifthe person answers all ofthe items on that level at 122. at 51. Flow much changedo I get back? 3 . 3. and so on.

chronic alcoholism.persons over the ageof 18 were not represented in the standardizedsample.home environment.Q. On the Wechsler Scales.40to 0. not particularlywell suited for adults.Larson & Matarazzo. all of the digit items are grouped together as one sub-testand administeredfrom the easiest to the most difficult. at 125. Garfield. Only those testing items whichproved to be the bestwere used in the revision. thetest is clearly dominatedby testing verbal abilities(except at the very earliestages) and is. at 124. is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) and is now considered the most widely used adult intelligencetest in the UnitedStates.) very well be only appropriatefor children from ages 5 to 15 or for suspectedretarded adults. The clinicianwhohas givena Stanford-Binetin a custody case probablycannotassurethe court ofits validity. and the present health of the individual. of122. pm note6.44. With the growingnumber ofAsiansandMexicansinour culture. Points are given forcorrectanswers. Forexample. a scoreof 115 at ages 25 -34 is equalto an l. to C. and on each new level. Reliability/validity There are at least two limitations to the Stanford-Binet scale. incrustationand perfunctory. First ofall. Forexample. In the 1972 revision. at 127-29.500 subjects from ages 2-1/2 to 18 years. Anotherdifference betweenthe WechslerScalesand theStanfordBinet is that wherea certaintype oftest item is found throughout the Stanford-I3inet at different levels. After34. Golden.) The test has two majorcategoriesoftasks: verbal and performance. the WechslerScalesarepoint scalesratherthanmentalage scales. a2-1/2 year old mightbe requestedto repeattwo digits." 39 Am Psychologist 452-453 (1984). evidence indicates that the IQ scores can beaffectedby suchthingsas differentexaminers. The usefulness ofthe test for any other purposeshas never been adequately demonstrated.) On the SuperiorAdult III level.Q. it is equivalent to an 1.) (l The 1960 revision was basedon testing about 4.according to theWAIS-Rmanual.Q."PatternsofPsychologicalTest Usage inthe United States: 1935.) Thetestmay at 126. equal to an I.) Additionally.100cases were tested. and brain damage. the test taker must be able to define thirty words correctly. a seriesoffourdigits given to him or her. backwards. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale — Revised or Third Edition (WAIS—Ri 1. Eachcategoryhas sub-testswhichmeasure different abilities.) Obviously. Itappearsfromnormative samplesthat adults reachthepeak oftheirmental developmentbetweenthe ages of25 and 34. some ofthe actual test itemsrelate mainlyto children or to school.on the Stanford-Binet.) Thistestwas devisedspecificallyto meet theneeds ofa standardized test for adults. as well as verbal performance and fill scale l.74. and the testis. (Ziskin.of 105.] Not only are the WechslerScales differentfrom the Stanford-Binet in that they were developed for adults. the latest in 1981. a custody fight affects the home environmentand sometimes eventhehealthofan individual. (S. 4 . the difficulty is increased. (aat 125. Secondly. (1± at 215. This testing method assists the clinicianin the diagnosis ofpsychiatric disorders.and thissamplewas evenmore representativeofthe general population than the original. Additionally. and from 70.) 2. ((h TheStanford-Binet's predictive validity has rangedfromcorrelation coefficients of0. an inadequate test to test intelligence for a person with limitedverbalcapabilities. note 6. at 215.s. [Lubin. there is a slowdecline. thesame score is equal to an I. Garfield. whetherfroma lack ofeducationora differentculturalupbringing.75 whencompared to schoolgrades.tinsproblemwith thetest shouldbe kept inmind. therefore. and at ages 55-64. (5. The newest version - TheWechslerscale was developedin 1939. it is the duty ofthe attorneyoncross-examination explore this. and then thosepoints areconvertedintostandardscoresand thento anI. for example.teacherratingsandachievementtest scores. History and Constructionof the Wais-r (kjat 127. enabling the clinician to analyze the pattem of scores across the sub-tests. TheWechslerscalesalsohaveagenorms foradults. Chapters Repeating FourDigitsReversed—The childmust repeat. The reliabilitystandard for the items are generally in the 0. at 124.Q. such as ocher. of 100. the Wechsler Scalesgroup like items together.PsychologicalTesting 6. but has been updatedseveral times since then. [C.90's. of 113.Q. At ages 34 . thus.1982.Q.

For example.Verbal PictureCompletion . at 18. Lowscoreson thissub-testare associatedwith low intelligence.TheVocabulary sub-testisconsideredthebestestimateofaperson's intelligence. Sixsub-tests are intheverbalcategory and fiveare in theperformance TheWA!S-Rconsists category.Revised(1981).) Generally.The comprehension sub-testis a measure of the test taker's ability to (e) understandsocial customsand to show the appropriate responsein given situations. but are rather interspersed throughoutthe test: Digit Span .] Each sub-testappearsbelowin the order in whichitappears in the test.spatial.whichis interestingly in the verbal category. Note that the verbal sub-testsare not all groupedtogether. The test requires the individual to select.Performance Comprehension Verbal Digit Symbol. [D. The individual of (1) is askedto tell how two objectsare alike.The arithmeticsub-test.Performance Similarities Verbal Information .WAIS-RManual: WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale .) Similarities." thenthe clinicianwould have a clue that this individual may have a problem. Wechsler.The picture completionsub-test consists ofa series of drawings or (a) sketches where an essentialelement is missing. knowledge 2ipmnote90.the most logical answer. Forexample.) an individual's ability to work number conceptslogicallyand in thecontext ofdaily problems.outof"tools"or"clothing"or " well as thereasons forparticular responses.Verbal Block Design." a term used toreferto one'sintelligence prior to theoccurrenceofaheadinjuryor other 5 . (j4. (C. More concrete thinkingis usuallyrelated to the low test scores. Comprehension . PERFORMANCE SUB-TEST on verbal skills. Additionally. ifan individual is asked why we registermarriages.PsychologicalTesting a.if the remarks are bizarre or unusuallyodd.Performance Arithmetic.from alternativeanswers. Items are arranged in eachsub-test from the simplest to the most difficult. or sequentialabilitiesrather than Picture Completion . at 15-6. This may even offer diagnostic clues.The digit span sub-test is a test of immediate memory.) Good scores onthis sub-testis a goodindicationofwhether someoneis in touch with reality. (jt at 18.The information sub-test consists of items to test the test taker's general (a) ofinformationofspecific facts. Performance sub-tests are designedto be more dependenton is thought that schizophrenics tend to deny thepresence ofsimilarities. at 18.) ( (j (l One advantage ofthis particular sub-test is that it elicits remarks from the individualswhich reveal a pathologicalcondition. forwardand backward."So that the governmentcan keep track ofchildrenwho are to be sent to top secret camps.measures (d) at 16. Chapter 5 Sub-tests ofeleven sub-tests. The sub-testobviouslyassessesthe individual's socialization and assimilation in society.Verbal Object Assembly. fora combined score. (14. nor are the performancesub-tests.Thelastsub-test the verbalcategoryis the similaritiessub-test. those with obviously high verbal intelligence and advancededucation.) .Performance - b. meaninghow well he relates and interactswith therest ofsociety.) Highscores aremade by (c) Vocabulary Arithmetic .) gy (k c. VERBALSUB-TEST Information . at 19. Golden.Performance Vocabulary. the test evaluates the test taker's long-term memory and experiences.) Digit Span .at 17.Verbal PictureArrangement . at 16. (j4. Scores are given for (b) memory ofdigits. the higher the score he or she will receiveon the sub-test.and he answers."which two are the most similar? The more abstract the person's association. The picture completionsub-test is often the best estimate ofwhat is called"pre-morbid intelligence.

The test takerviews the block designthat the examinerhas made andthen attempts to reconstructit.the skills necessaryin basic engineering may be tested. Obviously.) (d) ObiectAssembly .although considered the best estimate ofintelligenceon the WAIS. Wechslercalled this test (1958)a measureof"social intelligence.2iflU note 14. Gill & Schafterbelieve that depressedindividuals tendto make low scores on this sub-test. Verbal Sub-tests intelligence.thissub-testmaynotbe a particularlygood indicationofarithmeticskillsdue tothenonuse ofpenciland paper onthis sub-test.whether it is impulsivelyor in an betweenschizophrenics brain-damaged and organized manner.97.theindividual must put togetherpuzzles offamiliarobjects. Weiner (1966) believes that schizophrenia can be determinedby what errors are made. concentration. a.) Lowerscores are often indications of conditions ranging from anxiety to brain damage. his or her organization ofseveral pictures. It is.) verbal skills.) (c) Vocabulary. The the test allows the psychologistto observehow the subjectgoes about solvingproblems. Rapaport. the individual has a good grasp of social realties. (jjat 18.60. therefore. (lit at 20. at 19-20. The test taker mustalso associate a symbolwith a number.) 6 . at 49. Agood visual memory is requiredas well as quickness. For example.a schizophrenic might finda tongue or sex organsmissing on a picture ofa hot-se with a missing tail. For a high score.This sub-testisagood measure ofdifferentiating patients.) Block Design .it is rare that theanswerson this sub-test are indicative ofa specificpathology. it is reported that many individualsreact poorly and even refused to answer the problemspresentedthem becausethey feel the problemsare stupid. the best measure ofnonverbalintelligenceand generalspatialskills. (jd at 49. Thus. perceptionof certain pictures. Golden. attentionand at 16-7. This sub-testis well suited to being given to the culturallydeprived or uneducated becauseit relies very little on verbal skills. in that rather than formingabstractdesigns.) Arithmetic. Golden. (C.can be affectedby a lack of concentration or attention. Golden. at 22. Although itis generallythoughtthat in thesimilarities sub-test. ability to form and test hypotheses. Additionally. an otherwisebright individual may end up with a low score. It is unlike theblock design.The objectassemblysub-test is not unlike the block designsub-test in that Digit Symbol . the WAIS has several sub-tests which havereliabilityscores as low as 0. test requiresvisualanalysisskills and visualmotorcoordination. Or. (C.PsychologicalTesting Chapters It appears that paranoid patients often believe that nothing is missing from the picture.The picture arrangementsub-test is designedto evaluate a person's ( itrequires visual motor skills. and furtherdue to the emphasisplacedon memory. The digit span sub-test. if the test taker is distractedbecause ofthe problems involved in his or her divorceor custodysuit.) mental illness or condition. ( ( 2. at 21. For example. awarenessofappropriatesocial sequences. betheresult ofthe subjectbeing from a differentcultural background than the norm grouporhavinga poor educational at 14. however. (a) Information. This testis thoughtto be a very good measureofhigh levels ofanxiety. planning skills.) (b) Picture Arrannement . jip.The digit symbol sub-testis sensitive to motorproblemsin the dominanthand (e) and measuresbasic learningskills.schizophrenies deny (1) thepresence ofsimilarities. the schizophrenicmight say the violinistis missing. so many of the persons who are in custody litigationare naturally distractedand anxious. The vocabularysub-test. (C. is also themost adverselyaffectedby differencesin cultural and socio-economic background.althoughbasically a test ofmemory. (Shuman. speed and accuracy are essential. and flexibility and ability to sequence items in a logical order. The biggest flaw with the arithmetic sub-test is that anyonewho is distractedor (d) highly anxious may have low scores. then the test resultsmay not be accurate. Whilea good score on the comprehensivesub-test is a good indicationthat (l Similarities.The block designsub-testis the purestmeasureofnonverbalreasoningin the (c) WechslerScale. at 16. An expert witnesswho has given the VIAlS may concludethat it may not reach acceptablereliabilitylimits. Once again." at 21. studies have shown that the opposite is not necessarilytrue if the individual has a low score on this sub-test. IteliabilitylValidityofthe Wais-R The overall reliabilityofa total score achievedon the WAN is 0. Thus. on a violin that is missing strings. Although a low information sub-testscoremgi mean low it can also (b) Digit Span.) background ormental disorder.) (e) Comprehension. Furthermore.

] 3. [Matarazzo. 4. d.ontheother hand. It has been suggested that depressed individualsdo poorly on the object at22. (b) Picture Arrangement. C. there are problemsadministeringit to Blacks. which is a test specificallydesigned for black Americans and which is suggestedbysome researchersto be used in place ofthe WAIS when the individualto be testedis black). c. tests may currentlybemeasured.Q. at 21.Q. at 20. schizophrenics These findings by Wechslcr and Rabin have not.) Picture Completion. The biggest disadvantage ofthe block designsub-test is the difficultythat low (e) intelligenceindividuals may have taking it becausethere are not easily answerableitems on this test. and it. It is presentlythemost comprehensive normed adult intelligencetestavailable. offersaclear advantage to theliterateoreducatedindividual. Performance Sub-tests It is generally assumed that the performance sub-tests and the verbal sub-tests measure different things. (1[ at 28-9. (h[ at 33-4.not unlike letters. The WAIS-R does not just give the cliniciana final score. TheWAIS has the tendencyto overestimate low I.) There are a numberofadvantages in using the WAIS-Ras a measureofintelligence: a. There isastrongculturalcomponent to the taskassociatedwith the picture (a) sub-tests becausefamiliarity with the object pictured is necessary for high scores on this sub-test. For completion example.Q.) (jj (e) Digit Symbol.Psychological Testing Chapters b. ( at 21. Once again. The scientific validity requires that the test measure what it actually purports to measure. b. The WAIS-R has been the most heavily researchedtest availableto the psychologist. been confirmedby other studies. Disadvantagesof the Wais-R a. However. however.) (d) Object Assembly. Wechsler (1944) and Rabin (1941) reported that their studies showed that obtain higherscoresontheVerbalScalethan on theperformanceScale. d. (kj.Wechsler's Measurement AppraisalofAdultIntelligence. (There is an intelligence test called BITCH.) Theattorney assemblysub-test becauseofthe heavyemphasison time bonusesused inscoringthissub-test.) ( being from a particularculture. might want to ask the witness whohas administeredthis test ifsituational depressionin yourclient might affecthis or her score on this test. c. not merely as a tool to measure intelligence. theDigit Symbolsub-testincorporates numbersandsymbols. Golden.which is the Black Intelligence Test Corrected for Honkies. the biggestdrawbackto this sub-test is the componentof Block Design. Almost every performance test involvesverbal abilities. Becauseofthe role that visualacuity. therefore. itmay be a more difficult sub-testfor older adults. but also sub-test scores. For example. which can give importantinformation whichan overall score cannot give.) Themost seriousproblemoftheWAIS is thetendencyofcliniciansto use thetestfor diagnosticuses. Thus. Thepicturecompletionsub-test. there is some question as to whetherspeed should be given any weight in and theevaluationofthe individual's intelligence. e.Mexicansand other minoritygroups. Since the WAJS is biased toward the average American culture group. TheWAIShasa tendencytoproducehigherscoreson retesting(as do mostintelligence tests). Studieshaveshown that older adults donot write orhandle objects asquicklyas younger adults. The WAIS-R is not suitable for large group testings increases the cost of its administration.supra. A person with a score of0 might actuallybe an even lower I.s. b.canonly be understoodthrough verbal instruction. 215 (1972).someonewho has grownup in Harlemand has neverleft mightnotbeabletocompletethe stirrupson a saddle. Similarcontradictoryfindings ofotherdiagnosticuses oftheWAIS havealso 7 . For example. motorcoordinationand speed play in this sub-test. this assumption appears to be false. Advantages ofthe Wais-R The WAIS-Risa standardagainst whichallother I. at 33.

1944.) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(Mmpi) a. (McCurleyand Fuller.etal. the research still does not revealtruly reliable or valid patternsofopinions on using the WAIS to diagnose. at 54. (Garfield. Some ofthe variations ofthe standard566question MMPIincludethe MIvIPI-1 68(whichcontainsonly 168 questions). However.D. presents us with studies that are inconsistent.Ph. 1. Despitethese findings. There are two types of personality tests .at 131. It should be noted that currently the various short fonns describedabove aresanctionedby the Universityof Minnesota. objectivetest. Objective Personality Tests Objective personalitytests present to the subjecttest taker questionsor statementswhich he or she is required to answerby choosing amonga group ofalternativeanswers. 1986. 1962.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 been reported. Guertin. Rabinand Guertin. StateBar of Texas. (M. postulatedby Wechsler and Rapport. atT-2. Harper." Advanced Family Law Course.objective and projective. Fashingbauer'sAbbreviated MMP1 (commonlyknown as the FAM and containing 166 questions)." The most commonly used objective personalitytest is the MinnesotaMultiphasic PersonalityInventory(MMPI). The MIvIPI'sbasic purposeis that ofa diagnostictool to examine psychologicalpathology. IV. whichwas developedinthe 1930's and firstpublishedin 1943. theschizophrenic or theneurotic(page 177).theinitials standfor Minnesota Personality Inventory. Many scientific investigators have called attention to the conflicting results and patterns reported for various clinical populations (Garfield 1948.) G. and hence.viz. as neurosis. 1948.9iI2 note 40.Ph." at 54.. (14. McCurleyand K.have not received support. however.D. Much as an x-ray machinelooksinsidethe body. The following covers the major and most used objective and projective personality tests.. (Shuman. 1941). PERSONALITYTESTS his or her evaluation of an While intelligence tests are designed to evaluate the intellectual ability of an individual. (Guertin.theMini-Mult(71 questions). therefore.has become the "premierdiagnostic andscreeningdevisein clinical psychology. The choiceofanswers may be "true-false. at SI. "The MMPI . is that the specific predictions regardingthe performanceofthe suggests in the major diagnosticcategories.M. Since the revision (Jd. sought to develop a tool to condense psychiatric interviews which were both lengthy and very to expensiveto administer the mental healthpatient. 1971).)Although psychiatricdiagnosisis farmore difficultthanphysicaldiagnosis.What is It?. 1950. theresearch revealthat there is characteristic pattern ofperformanceon the sub-tests for. Fuller. at 130-31. H. 1966. 1970. more recentstudiesindicatesomeimprovement inthe quality ofresearchonusing the WAISfordiagnostic purposes. The testis known as a standardized. concerning the use ofWechsler Scalesas diagnostictools: "The overviewof the more than twenty-fiveyears of research. or the brain-disordered.) si (jj Any cross-examination of an expert witness who has used Wechsler Scales in individual should include inquiries into how the WAISwas used in his or her evaluation.the MMPIseeks insightintoan individual's psyche. which and not for clinicaluse.the MMPI's creators. jg note 1.the MMPI has beenusedin so many settings for over forty years that an enormous body of literaturehas resulted regarding diagnostic and treatment implications ofvarious MMPI profiles. Hunt and Cofer. Rabin.Frank and Ladd. Rabin 1945.) b. What does seem clear.. GeneralTerms and Definitions The following is a listofkey terms used in the application ofthe MMPI.) oftheWAIS. and the Maxi-Mult (94 questions).) publishestheMMPIforuse asa researchtool ( 4y 8 .thereareseveral differing"flavors" ofthe MIvIPI.As indicated (1) above. Frank wrote the following. Carter and Bowles. theMidi-Mult(86 questions)." or "agree-disagree.psychologistshavecontinued to use the WAJSfor diagnosticuses. the purpose of personality tests is to evaluatedifferent aspects ofa person's emotional and social functioning.) Stark Hathaway. "MMPI" . 1949. schizophrenia. for example. and John McKinley. The standardMIvIPI most commonlyseen in custody litigationconsistsof566 questions. inconclusive. at 132. Indeed. History and Background ofMMPI The MMPI. contradictory." "sometimesalways-never.and the MMPI-2(which will be discussed later in this paper). however. A..

i. therewas prior validatingevidencethat a fa!se answer to that statementis an indicatorthat aperson may be depressed. the respondentis instructed to answer "true"if the statement is "mostlytrue" or "false"ifthe statementis "mostly false. on it face. 67.seem to haveanythingto do with depression.The designofthe MMPI recognizes that males (circa 1940). After the 566 itemswhich makeup the MMPI were selected. (lcj.they claim that no item was arbitrarily includedin the finalpool ofitemsifthevalidatingevidencefortheitemswas notstrong.however. i. "I like to flirt. etc. no item was eliminated from the final pool ofitems only because its manifest contentseemed to have no relationto the psychologicalsyndrome in question. must be considered in the socialcontext ofthe subject ofstudy.) (Ij at T-4.e. I !7. are the responsesofthe test taker answered in such a mannerthat the testissubjecttoa validinterpretation ofthat person'spersonality?Theremainingtenscalesare "clinical scales.the lawyershouldnot betooquick touse this scaletoindict the highlyeducatedmales ashomosexuals orthelower-educated females as lesbians(which many divorce lawyersare apt to do in cross-examination). on its face. The T-score is arrived at by whicharenot easilyunderstandable withoutasophisticated takingthe raw scores through variousstatistical calculations at T-3."! like to talk about sex. For example.The standardMMP! is broken down into !4 categoriesknown (3) as "scales. the standard 566 question MMPI. Hathaway. "! do not like everyoneIknow.malesand femalesarescoreddifferently. p. S.). "false. Thus. accordingto therationaleofHathaway and McKinley. and the scoresheet will usuallyso indicateby denotingMMPI-Male or MMPI-Female. (Remember. !! I.e.' To each ofthe items."The"critical direction"means howmany itemsin theparticularscalethe respondent the item was answered in such a manner to elevate the score." Theclinicalscales aredesignedtomeasurethepsychologicalinventoryofthe respondent. A "Scale" ontheoriginal MMPI is simplythat group ofitemsand their responses whichpurport to measurea phenomena. etc. will score higher on the female scale because oftheirtypical appreciationofart and other aesthetic values.This is thetermused to referto the questions appearingintheMMP!.. respond different!yto certain items appearing on the MMP!.. Each item is an affirmative statementwritten in the firstperson singular. These categories includedtopics ranging from "General Health"to "Habits"to "Obsessive Compulsive" behavior. After reviewingvarious researchworks and after exercisingtheir subjective and professionalopinions. whichreads.University ofMinnesotaPress. (2) however. at T-2.thecreatorsof the MMPIdid not throwout any itemsmerely becausethewordingoftheitem did not seem. The items are not really questions. Therefore.!ower educatedfemales will scorehigheron themasculinescale becauseoftheirtypicalculturalassociation with moremasculineenvironments(drag races. 1-lowever." this would elevate the score onthe "L"scale. they were divided into 26 different categories. !6 items are repeated. 2.R. So. !06.This." as the statement appliesto the respondent.part of Scale 0 (Si) (70 items) is madeup ofitems 32. (5) MALE/FEMALE SCALES .) knowledgeofstatistics.highly educatedmales (lawyers. The "T"score is the eventual scoreshown on theMM?! score sheet. doctors. 1956. Put anotherway. ( at T-5. manyversionsoftheMMPIcontainmore thantheoriginal aspreviouslymentioned.000 Accordingto the creatorsofthe MM?!. It shouldbe understood at the outsetthat theitemsappearing on the MMPItestform arenot arrangedbyscale. at T-2. If the respondentcannot answer"true" or "false" to the items. For example.traditional. (Id. Basic Readingson the MMPI in Psychology and Medicine.) ( "1" SCORES AND"RAW" SCORES .purportedlya potentialindicatorofdepression. ( and females may. and in some circumstancesshould. thescales were developed by determiningwhich group or groupingsofitemsand theiranswersindicated certainpersonalitytraits soughttobemeasured. (hjatT-3. containstenclinicalscales. reads. The Male/FemaleScalesare only a measure ofthose characteristicsthat havebeenobservedas typical. Hathaway and McKinley. like all other scales. Likewise. the respondentis allowedto answer"cannotsay.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS As seen from the outset.' Theitemsare presentedto the respondentusually in the formofa test bookletand the respondent fills in his orher answers on ananswer form. STEP2: GROUPING THE ITEMSINTO GENERAL CATEGORIES: As the items were being selected.tractorpulls.) or itemsthat had !ong beenin use in the psychologicaltexts and psychiatricexamination formsoftheirtime STEP I: SELECTING THE ITEMS: Hathaway and McKinley gatheredover 1. 124 and so on." Although to the laymanthis statement maynot. at T-3. such as item #231 in the original MM?!." Four of the scales are devotedto test validity. Normal "T" scoresgenerallyrange from 30 to 70 on each scale.) b.narrowedthe item pool to550.". 9 .. questions Construction ofthe MMP! a.) Aspecia!warningto lawyerson this scale. 82. as opposedto group evaluation. psychologists. defining the MMPI can be difficult becausethe term may be used generically by psychologiststo describe any ofthe variations ofthe test.) "ITEM" .conservativemale and femalevalues. to have any relevanceto the particularpersonality trait being measured.A "raw" scoreon theMM?! indicates (4) answered in the "criticaldirection. Minneapolis.) "SCALES" . The question. The MMP1 most commonly administeredto individualsfor individualevaluation.). ifa respondent answered the item.

the clinicalscales were establishedby givingthe MMPIto a group ofnormal respondents and a group of. one is modest at best. d.1972.but. Welsh." Ziskin. Additionally. married. such a Minnesotanormaladultwas about thirty-five years old.68.sample groupsofindividuals diagnosedas havingvariouspsychologicalailments. did the personanswer the questions like the normal folks or like the "crazy" ones.for adetaileddiscussionregardingthediscrepancies betweenthe original 1940group and its refined subsethere identifiedas the 1957 group. (j. As the manualstates. "A high scoreon a scale hasbeen foundto predict positivelythecorresponding final clinical diagnosis or estimate in more than 60% of new psychiatric admissions. This would be my position in general. UniversityofMinnesota Press. pages67.j at T-6.Buros. Itwas empiricallydevelopedfrompatient populations that were reasonably cooperative and reasonably motivated to reveal upset. The weightofthe psychological literatureprobablycould be summed upby sayingthe MMPI is a valuableclinicaltool but shouldnot berelied on to the exclusion ofeverythingelse. Covingwith Psychiatricand Psychological Testimony. Reliability and Validity ofthe MMPJ IftheMMPIwere a perfect instrumentfor inventoryinga person'spsychologicaltraits. Considersome ofthe descriptionsquotedby Jay Ziskin in his work. theoriginalMMPIhas 14scales (four validity scales and 10 clinicalscales). Using the devicesofQ sorts and true-falserating scales. lived in a small town or rural area. Minneapolis.yet in this case. These were few encumberedby methodological problems.hypochondria. Each subject taking theMMPI. Research has beendone by RogerGreenattemptingtoexamine"testandretest" reliabilityfor theMMPI. according toreviewersinBurosFifth MentalMeasurements Yearbook. regardless being compared to the way a typical man orwomanendorsedthoseitems. and worked at a skilled or semi-skilled trade (or was married to a man with such an occupation level). It is a complexquestion.schizophrenics. STEP 3: SELECTION OF THE NORMATIVE SAMPLEGROUP: The scoring and interpretationofthe MMPI is essentiallybased on comparing the score of the individual taking the test with that of a sample group ofpsychologically nonnal and abnormalpeople. We might well decide that the MMPI as an instrument is valid for many interpretations and purposesbut a varying levels ofeffectiveness. i. In 1940. for example.40. Validity has always been held to be the most importantaspect of a test review. A basic understanding how thesesscales were developedis essential to of understandingthe MMPI.K. Yet it would also be possible to doubt the validity or "adequacy"ofa global personalitydescriptionbased on the MMPIalone.8. 1983. pages 7 .." It does not take a mathematical geniusto figureout that the MMPI fails to accuratelypredictpersonalitydisorders in almost 40% ofthe cases.the scale ofthe original MIvIPI denotedScale 8 (Sc). at 220-21. and Dahlstrom. STEP 4: CREATING THE SCALES: Asstated earlier. Relatively studieshave madeconcertedattacksontheproblemofglobal validity. An MMPI Handbook.were selected. For example.[O.such as terms ofpathology. Essentially. The scale for schizophrenics would then be developed by comparing how the two groups answered various items. Additionally. had eight years of general schooling.(Emphasisadded. resultswere quite disappointing. One researcherdescribed the importance of the MMPI normative group as follows: theperformance ofthese menand women on each ofthe component scales in theMMPI is used as thebasis forthenorms in thetest profile. Ziskindiscussesthe validity and reliabilityofthe MMPI as follows: "The test is dependentfor its power on self-description. testjudgesagreed with therapistsandlor interviewjudges with nogreater correlation than0. Thecharacter and attributesof the normativegroup are very importantbecausethe characterand attributes of the group comprise the cornerstone of the original MMPI. one would expect that unless the individual goes through a majorchangein personality. it is a most difficult matter to evaluate. In a differently motivated population.multipleMMPIsgiventothe individualwould produce similar results.) 3. I: Clinical Interpretation.Fifth Mental MeasurementsYearbook(1959)] the validity for distinguishing kind ofgroup from another. normalsample groups were selected. it is with the aspect of"global'validitythat we aremost concerned.e. and schizophrenia. (schizophrenia was essentiallydevelopedby noting which items the schizophrenicsanswered in a true or false manner andcomparing thoseresponsesto the responses ofthenormalsampleand groupingthe itemscommonlyendorsed by the schizophrenicsinto Scale8 (sc). Vol. Colligan." Dahlstrom. Yet.therefore. Shouldsuch predictiveerror be allowedin the courtroom? () There is noresearch indicating that the MMPIis 100% valid ortotally invalid.) 10 .Psychological Testing Chapter 5 c. As discussed above in Step 3. the test and its standard norms are not valid and can be grosslymisleading.

Colliganreportsthat "withthe possible exceptionoffive subjectsforwhomwehave noinformation.alloursubjectswere white.notmuch has changedwith the revisions.substanceabuse. If the definitions have changed. the normative samplegroup waswhittleddown to 1138 males and 1462females.408 people are all formMinnesota. andboweland bladderfunctions. that criticism ofthe MM!'! based on the scant informationconcerningsome ofthe small samples of psychiatricpatients done in the 1940'swould still be valid.other than removingitems that were thoughtto be "offensive"suchas questionsabout religion. Many ofthe abnormalgroupsused to create the tenclinical scales on the MMPI were diagnosed as havingdisorderswhich have outdated labels. and makethecontentmore approachable.dubbed "AX" as an amalgamfor"Adult Experimental"was conducted as a parallel study to the adolescentMM!'! study referencedabove. or cannot say. It would seem. orsamples. most ofwhich: were intendedto replace onesthat were culturallyoutmodedor psychometricallyunsound in the existing inventory as well as to serve as sourcesofsupplementarymeasuresin the areas offamily dynamics.suicide and readinessfor treatmentrehabilitation.what about the abnormals? The work did not create new psychiatric samples." (kl) The experimental booklet. theitemsthat were deletednever scoredon the basic scales. 3rd Ed. pm.' While thenewnormative sampledeveloped by Colligan.Psychological Testing ChapterS Although the MMPI is described as a "standardized. McKinley. whichwere designedto assessrecent changesinthesubject'slives."Fact Sheet on the MinnesotaMultiphasicPersonality Inventory -2 (MMPI-2)".) is quite difficult. In arrivingat the changes. including approximately 3. a research form ofthe MMP! bookletwas developed. Hathawayand J.) One proposed revision includes 100 new itemsfor a versionofthe examgeared specificallytowardadolescents— an importantrevision to note when considered in conjunction with an adolescent'sabilityto file a "ChoiceofManaging Conservator" affidavitwith the Court. the terms can be misleading. All that "standardized" means is that the test asks the same questions in the same order of every person taking the test.Section 3." (klj The biggest changewith the 1989update to the MMPI is in the norms. Infact. 1983. eventhoughthere is anewnormativesample.000 inthe adolescentsample. at T-48. As to the nation-widesample. In addition to the experimental booklet(s).many ofthe items seem outdatedin their content.408 whites from Minnesota? One last general observation concernsdiagnostic languageand categories.which containednot only the original 550 items. false.andAsian-American subgroups are under-represented in the re-standardization sample. According to BeverlyKaemmer.' Colligan. 1989. Oneproblem that the committee in charge ofthere-standardization still has arguablynot surmounted is the factthat the"Hispanic. including the degree of satisfaction the subjecthad in his or herpersonal relationships. MMPI-2 WORKSHOP. There are few items dealingwith "the family"on the MMPI and fewerstill about children.subjectswere asked tocompletespecialsupplementary forms. Trying to findwheretheschizophrenicof 1940 fits into DSM 111 (Diagnosticand StatisticalManual ofMentalDisorders.a publications representativeofthe UniversityofMinnesotaPress. eatingdisorders.) MMPi-2 a. All "objective" meansis that the person taking the test has only three responses: true. 4. "1 lovemy child" or "I'd rathersee my son's baseballgame than play golf. However. Additionally. Differences from the OriginalMMPI.sexualpractices. AnneAnastasiwritesthat: "The two experimental forms ofthe MM!'! were administeredto nationallyrepresentative normative samples. the test may be a good clinical tool for diagnosingand treating mentalhealth patients.the norm is nowbased on anation-widesample. Statisticaltheorynotwithstanding. (I) The samplegroup which took the new experimental versions of the MMPI ranged in age from 16 to 90. objective" test. but an additional 154 items. Regarding the MMPI as a whole. page83. the question arisesas to whetherthe test is a goodindicatorofwho is thebest parent.000 persons inthe adultsampleand3. therefore. There are no items that say. Other itemshavebeen designed"to assesssuch behavioras treatment compliance and amenability to change." (S. The participants II .. UniversityofMinnesota. is it fairto comparethe resultsofthe testingofone Hispanicfrom Houston to the testimonyof 1. Rather than limitingthe norms to tests conducted in Minnesota. thesamplegroup of1. make the questionsmore clear. Type A behavior. A smallpercentage ofthe items were revised to eliminatesexist language. isaprobableimprovementover theMMPIin that a newsample group ofnormalswas established. shouldn'tthe clinical scales and their developmentalso be updated? (McCurleyand Fuller. et al.C. Further.

The aim was to obtain a sample that is nationally representativeaccording to urban-rural and geographic residenceand such demographic characteristics as age.the 16 duplicate items have been andorder (46 items) Social attitudes(72 items) Affect. 12 . (Hathaway. North Carolina.MMPIVersus MMPI-2.delineatedbelow: General Health(9 items) Generalneurological(19 items) Cranial Nerves(II items) Motilityand Coordination (6 items) Sensibility(5 items) Vasomotor.trophic.) The MIMPI-2 and the MMPJ are very much the same. Drs. Fuller.sccretory (10 items) Cardiorespiratory (5 items) Gastrointestinal items) (II Genitourinary(5 items) Habits (19 items) Family and marital (26 items) Occupational(18 items) Education(12 items) Sexual attitudes (13 items) Religiousattitudes (19 items) Politicalattitudes ." (A. MeCurley and K. Pennsylvania.(31 items) Phobias (29 items) Sadistic. and generatinguniformT scorestoproduce the same type of two-point and three-pointhigh-pointcodes as have beenused in thepast.) Ms. (3) Although the test booklet isabout the same length (567 questions). pg. depressive(32 items) Affect. The remainderofthe itemsprovidesupplementarymaterial. Tscores are basedoneightofthe basicscales. preliminaryanalyses indicatea fairlyclose match with the 1980Censusin these demographicvariables. with no repeats.refiningScalesSand0(masculinity/femininity andsocial (2) introversion). More subtle indications of personalitywill be assessed by new scales intended to assess protocol (4) validity.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 comprise randomsamples within communities chosenbecausetheirdemographic characteristics conformclosely to the 1980 U.553 (6th Ed.sexist languageand objectionable itemshave been modified.the next issue to resolve was how to score the results--was the test takercompatible with normal scores or those ofthe abnormal people? The MMPI-2 contains 567 items.and althoughsome items were on the original exam.femininity (55 items) Items toindicatewhetherthe personis tryingtopaint himselfassocially unacceptable (15 items) (M. for a total of566 items. many augmentthe exam.Virginia and California. and to provide diagnosticaids to respondentsin clinical settings. Anastasi.because they do not impact on thebasic scales. manic(24 items) Obsessive.emphasizesthat the changesare notexpectedtohave that big ofan impact. to provide separatemeasurements of masculine and femininegender roles. Ohio. including the states ofMinnesota. Washington. The items were subdividedinto26 differentcategories on the original MMPI. b. na) Once the itemswere differentiated into categories. 1988. therebyfacilitating ascore ofthebasic scales basedon the first 370 items. and ethnicgroup membership. Construction: Modificationsand Continuities. sex.compulsive(15 items) Delusions.and the item order is changed. speech.masochistic (7 items) Morale (33 items) Masculinity. The total normative sample wasdrawn from several regions of the United States. educationallevel. HathawayandMcKinley boiled downthe initialpool of1000itemsto 550 itemsorquestionsontheoriginal MMPI. Sixteenofthe itemsare repeated on the originalMMPI as a fail safe device.ofthe University ofMinnesota Press. but the followingrefinements distinguishthe MMPI-2: of (1) Implementation nationalnorms.S. Psychological Testing. Kaemmer. Census.

Examples ofthenewscalesinclude: EgoStrength(Es). Swenson and elevatedscore on theparanoiascale may simply indicatethe testtaker tends to be distrustful. at 7-9. McReynolds and C. Originally. (jj (a) The Original NormativeGroup: Hathaway And McKinley.S. [J.] Furtherresearch has illustratedthata single elevated score taken out of contextmay not truly reflect the test taker's personality.SwensonAndOfford.6. Dominance(Do). 6. Many scales were developedby using normal samples to assesspersonality traitsthat were not related to pathologicalconstraints. a Colliganandhiscolleaguesdeveloped newrange ofresponsesfor the MMPI. the Hathaway and Briggs Groupof 1957. that person has responded differently from 97. As indicated above. Anastasi.] thereforeconsidered "clinicallysignificant.investigative and curious. Other scales have been developed for highly specialized purposesand are more limited in their applicability. 1983. "Perspectives and Uses of the MM!'! in Non-psychiatric Settings" in P. of 1983.and WPA administration workers. most by independentinvestigatorswho were not privy to thedevelopmentofthe original MM?!. and the contemporary normative studyofColligan.and Social Status(St). The resulting 13 scales have provedpromising indiagnosisand mayserve as a usefulsupplementin the interpretationoftheoriginalscales.overlapping reviewofMMPIscalesisthepreferred approach." at 526. The Colligangroup alsocreated a new mannerof calculatingT scores.7 of the "normal"subjects taking the MMPI. the initial samplewas comprisedofaspecifiedclinicalgroupandofa normalcontrolgroup made upofvisitors to the University ofMinnesotaHospitaland othergroupsfrom the Minnesotaarea.) Osborne.The re-standardization committeechargedwith compilingtheMMP!-2 opted for such a multi-dimensional approach.PsychologicalTesting 5."SomeNormativeDataontheNewMM!'! Scales.J. Creating the MMPI-2 Scales.68 (New York: PraegerPublishers.) (b) The 1957 Group: HathawayAnd Briggs.] For a thorough review ofthe difference between the original 1940 normative group and the 1957 normative subset. (A. includingpersons attendingpre-college conferences at the UniversityofMinnesota. Chelune (Eds)." [Colligan. ChapterS DevelopmentofMM?! and MM?! Norms. [Hathaway andBriggs. Advances in Psychological Assessment. the MM?! scales were intendedto differentiatebetween what was considered 'normal" and what reflectedtraditionaldiagnostic categories.Vol. Kunce and W.) (A. item clustersbased on a subjectiveclassificationofcontent were revised and reftned through factoranalytic and internal-consistency procedures. Anastasi.and consistedof226 males and 315 females. Since the 1940's over 300 new scales havebeen created.The MMPI: AContemporary Normative Study.Osborne.Vol.Anderson. 13(1957). and that a multidimensional. Justbecauseyourclient happenstoscore high on theparanoiascale does not necessarilymeanthat he orshe is paranoid. 1940.T. In the construction ofthese scales." 364-368JournalofClinicalPsycholouv. The new scales arevaried. (c) The Contemporary NormativeGroup: CoUigan.Osborne. if a person scores 70 or higher on any scale. A score of 70 or above on any scale is at 71-9!. This normative groupingwas comprisedofaportionofthe original 1940 group.Swensonand Ofl'ord. 7. Swenson & Offord. Prejudice(Pr). Frequently scoredsupplementary scales on the MMP!-2 includethe following: Some scales have subsequently been applied to the test records of the original MM?! normal 13 . Other Scales. In a nutshell.41-76 (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Presumed to be "normal" the range of the 1957 group's responsesto the MMPI was derived from a comparisonand contrastwith the responses these two groupsofpeople originallygave to the 1940exam. 12-14.P. Guidelines for how to score results of the MM?! are based on three normative groups: the I-!athaway and McKinley Groupof 1940. As Anne Anastasinotes: standardization sample. Therefore. Osborne. Still anothergroupingofMMIIitems is representedby the contentscales developedbyJ. pjg. Dependency(Dy). Wiggins. 1983). thus providingnormative datacomparableto those of the initial dependencyscales. The controlgroup at representeda cross section ofboth sexesofthe Minnesotaarea between the ages of16 and 55. 527. theauthorsrecommend furtherreadinginColligan.1984).

209-11(1960). Taylor. Dahlstrom(Eds). Low scorers are outgoing. High scorersarewilling to acceptresponsibilityfor theconsequencesoftheir behavior.cautious. Highscores mayindicatemaladjustment. [G. "A PersonalityScaleforDominance.e.] (h) MACANDREW ALCOHOLISM (MAC).and lack dependabilityand trustworthiness. abletoleadandevenmanipulateothers." In G. 'Factor DimensionsA and R. Low scorershave poorpsychological adjustment. jolly. Basic Readingson the MMPI in Psychologyand Medicine (Minneapolis: UniversityofMinnesotaPress. and arerelativelyfree ofphysicaland/orsomaticcomplaints.internalizing.] (d) EGO STRENGTH (Es).and may be proneto black-outs.ineffectual. lackofsocial poise. Meehl. MacAndrew.A.well-spoken.unassertive. JB. high scorers tend to be effeminate. are task-oriented.] (i) OVER-CONTROLLED HOSTILITY (0-H). power-oriented.238-46(1965). Low scorers are active.orthatthepersonis inhibited." 7 Journal ofCounselingPsychology. resourceful. High scorers are not readily intimidated.perform well on simple tasksand poorly on complextasks. favorablefirst impression.] SOCIALRESPONSIBILITY (Re) (1) responsibility ofresponsibilityto the group. [J. Low scorers tend to remain calm and unruffled instressfulsituations. subject to excessiveperspiration. Gough. Welsh.jumpy.. [H. Welsh and W."48 Journal ofAbnormal and Social Psychology 285-290(1953). H.PsychologicalTesting (a) Chapters ANXIETY (A) Anxiety isa factordimensionthat emergeswhentheclinicalandvalidityscales are factor analyzed.and persevere.distant anduninvolved.feel safe and secure. 1956).G. along with anxiety. vigorous. reject privilegeand favor. conventionaland formal. anxiety)in order to study the effect of the level of the subject's drive on performance. and create a psychotherapy. informal."Identification ofMaladjustedCollege Students. and have trust in the world in general. The ManifestAnxiety Scalewas developedto identi&subjectswith high and low drive (i. Low scorers are adjusted. High scorers are more likely to be excessivein usingdrugs oralcohol.and may become confused and disorganized understress.andhavechronic physicalcomplaintsand/orfatigue. McCloslcy and P. Thepurposeofthe ego strengthsupplementary scale istoassess theresponseofneuroticpatients to individual have a secure sense of reality. Lowscorers are weak in face to face contacts. [F. Barron. Thesocial responsibilityscale evaluateswillingness to accept for one's own behavior and sense trustworthy. Low scorers are less likely to usedrugs. talkative.G.] (g) COLLEGE MALADJUSTMENT (Mt) Thisscalediscriminates betweenemotionallyadjusted collegefreshmanandthose studentswhoare emotionally maladjusted. This scaleis designedto identify alcoholicsand individualsprone to alcoholism. and are shy and conventional.] (b) REPRESSION GD) Repression. High scorers are predisposed to experience emotionaldiscomfort in stressfulsituations. Kleinmuntz. 'The DifferentiationofMale Alcoholic Outpatientsfrom Non-Alcoholic Psychiatric Outpatients by Means ofthe MIMPI. Low scorers are unwillingto accept responsibility for their ownbehavior. (jj) (c) MANIFEST ANXIETYSCALE(MAS). 14 . have flexible values.S. emphasize the presentmore than the fixture. (1951)."26 quarterly Journal ofStudies on Alcohol.ifmale. andprefer actiontothought. pessimisticand procrastinators.S.impulsive and shrewd.] (e) DOMINANCE (Do) The dominancesupplementary scale seeksto identi& people who are dominantin interpersonal relationships. [Jj at 73-80. [C. High scorers are tolerant. High scorersare considered submissive. are not well equipped to deal with stress."46 JournalofAbnormal and Social Psychology360-366.E. pessimistic and inefficient. 'An Ego StrengthScale Which Predicts Responseto Psychotherapy" 17 Journal ofConsulting Psychology323-327 (1953).haveadeep concernforethical and moral problems. lackchronicpsychopathology. are more likelyto be diagnosed psychoticthanneurotic. "A PersonalityScale ofManifestAnxiety. conscientiousand optimistic. is a factordimension that emerges when clinical and validity scales are factor analyzed.

scores from theclinical scales.thenexthighestsecond.000 booksand prevailing psychological articles published on the development. 1989. [Graham. TheT-scoresarearranged in sucha mannerthat the highestscore appears first.] 15 . and further that such a The MMPI-2 re-standardization weighedtwo possibleapproachesto scoring. Shoulda person score high on Scale6 (Pa) for example.The MMPI: A Practical Guide. MYTH: YOU CAN FAIL THE MM!'!. 'Developmentand Validation of an MMPI Scale of Assaultiveness in Over-controlled individuals.administration.2.MMP1-2 Consistency Scales .5 19-528 (1967). MMPI-2 Workshop. 3.Swensonand Offord. as the normativesampleused tojudge everythingwas large.S. (I) Remember. The completed answer sheet ofan examineeis fed into the computer. Univ.usually by opticalscanningequipment.E. Ben-Porath. Osborne. [El. if the "K" scale indicatesthat the respondent was "faking."72 Journal ofAbnormal Psycholozy. normal or abnormal. FACT: You cannot fail the MM!'!. . (3) Dependingon the sophisticationofthe clinician.] 8. g22.ljat 64.that personis not necessarilyparanoid. instead ofby examiningeach scaleindividually. interpretation ofthe MMPI involves creating profilesfrom the T scores achievedby the individualstaking the test.) ComputerScoring ofthe MM!'! andMMP!-2 TheMMPIcannow bescoredby meansofa computer. and the appropriateclassificationrules are applied in order to determine the categories for the profile. Cook & G.a high orclinicallysignificantscore ontheMMP1 meansthat thetesttakeranswereda question in a mannerlike that of a particulargroup of "abnormal" subjects or unlike that ofa particulargroup of"normal"subjects. P. lathe worst casescenarioin a custodydispute. Highscorershave strongemotional attempts to distinguish control. therewere over 9. of § Minn. as advocated by Colligan. (2) et cetera. and adjusting the distributionofeach clinical scaleso that it would match the compositedistribution. Sucha score would simplyindicatethat the test taker endorseditems similarto those endorsedby a statisticallysignificantnumber ofparanoidsratherthan those endorsedby a statisticallysignificantnumber ofnormalsubjects. The re-standardizationcommittee decided that the manipulation of standardized T-scores would alter the MMPI profile. and interpretation ofthe MMPI. and have little emotional control. insane. Low scorers are emotionally immature. The process is relativelysimple. [Graham. Thecreatorsdesignedthe MMPIsuch that scores wouldbe achievedby comparingthe interrelationofTscores of the 10 clinical scales.] 9. The computer then searchesits memoryforinterpretivestatementsappropriatefor the categories and prints out a report.(1977).which involves: derivinga composite (or avenge)distributionofthe raw scores on the eight basic clinicalscales. . FACT: The MM!'! is a clinical tool. The restandardization committee therefore opted for another approach. Mendelssohn. (1) Myths and Facts AboutScoring The MMPI And The MMPI-2. at 185-86." the T-score from the "K"scale is used to "correct" T. 10. The implementation of such a procedure resulted in a set of uniform T-scores that are percentile equivalent. MMPI-2 Profile Scoring MMPI profiles are createdthroughthe followingsteps: The raw scores are tabulated and convened into T-scores with "K" correction as appropriate. The first involveda manipulation manipulationwas notjustified with the MMPI.) ofnorntalized'F-scores. "codetypes"are used to arrive at interpretations. As of1977. A particular score on the MIvIPI does not mean that without question a person is sane." (Y. 18 (New York: Oxford UniversityPress. (2) MYTH: THE MM!'! IS THE FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT OF A CLINIC. The protocol is scored.A. An interpretation of "code-type" or interrelationof the scales is primarily premised on consulting (4) literatureandclinicalexperience. Megargee.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS Thisscale assaultivefrom non-assaultive prisoners. irresponsible. (.and reportfew angry feelings.

irna at T-42. exceptfor the lawyerwho would like to figureout the basis ofthe clinical opinions that resultedin an unfavorable MMPI profile for hisTher client or a favorable MMPI profile for the other side. Cuadra's. The MMPI and the MMPI-2 have long been recognizedas excellentclinicaltools for diagnosing and treating mental health patients.Edwards'. at T-42." Ziskin. One of the reports madeno statementsregardingsomatic complainings and another stated the subject is "not at all thesort ofperson that gets bodilysymptomsto symbolizehis emotional conflictswithoutorganiccause. 1977. Implicit in the construction of most personality tests is the assumption that an individual's behavior is characterizedby consistency. The test has the added benefit of the validity scales. etc. some validated. See Graham.and has the added benefit ofyears of empirical researchbeing generatedto help refine and interpret interpretation of the test. without conscience. o. some not validated.) (McCurleyand Fuller. Graham. 177. For the most part. Moreover.) There are numerous MtvIPl computer reporting services.some reliable and some unreliable.P. Disadvantages Of The MM?! And MMP!-2. It cares notat all whethertheinformation stored is from astrologycharts. Minneapolis.and theCaIdwell ReportClinicalPsychologicalServices.some consistent. The MMPI tests are easy to administer.. 0. Four ofthe reportingcompaniesstated that thesubjectwas "Likelyto reportsomatic complaints that haveno clear organic basis. (Emphasis added. ofhis entitles. Butto's.Chu's. Byrne's.Ziskinquotesthe opinionofone researcheras follows: "At this stage computerized narratives using psychological-test-based information is little more than an art (or craft) disguised as science.) 16 .the original MM!'! is the most widely used personalityinventory. at 62. 12. Box 1294.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 Soundseasy as 1.they can evenbe administeredby a layperson in most intelligentlyexamine the basis of computer interpretation? Is it Alter's. some conflicting. Boerger's. It is also interesting note that Grahamsent the exact same MMPI test results to all six of the computer services. how are we.and unlike many intelligencetests that require administration by the clinician. 1977. Oneclear contradictionwas observedby Grahamin thereport result.. In psychologicaljargon. 11.Duckworth's. It is. Carson's. the narrative reports are clinical hunches (often many steps removeddata) whichare automaticallycrankedout by an electronic beast that will. The computer is a generallywilling and efficientservantthat will readily combineand give back scores ofinformation from its vastmemory. Dunbar's. page210. RorschachIndices. pages 210-11." (Shuman. the computer interpretation services and their copyright lawyers). telephone. Block's. Barton's Baughman's.) (McCurleyand Fuller.Comrey's. weave a devastating and sometimescontradictorytale about an individual's personalityand problems." Graham. Demonstrating the validity ofcomputer-generatednarratives (like that of demonstratingclinical interpretations generally) is a formidable task. telephone. or Somatotypedescriptors .teststhat identify individual traits withoutqualifyingthe situationin which they are likely to be manifestare probablymisleadingifnot invalid. as lawyers. this statementis contradictoryto the other four reports. Dahlstrom's. 213-478-3433. p. 1977. The problem is nobodyknows who is doing the "Interpretation" within the internal computations of the computerprogram which generates the final report (except the computer programmers.s. Although Graham reported general consistency among the results. In referenceto the validityofcomputergenerated interpretations ofthe MMPI. page 223. MMPI codebooks. the "clinical" astuteness is often compelling.Distlers'. regardlessofthe situation. Grahamlistssix computerreportingservicesin hiswork and alsodescribedthevariousservicesoffered by each to Graham. Box 24624. "Thus. Eichman's. 612-9332800. 3. or some combination ofthe above? (The above is a partial list ofresearch material cited as referencesas Graham. While intellectualfacilitiesare fairly consistentdespite the situation. constructedto catch attemptsto deceive the 210 (emphasisadded).) Graham. there were some discrepancies. Davis'. Advantages OfThe MM!'! And The MMPI-2. Carkhuffs.California 90024.Drake's.Inc.2. With so much research in the field. Black's. the "artisan" nature of this endeavorhas been demonstrated. Los individual's behaviormayshow considerable changefrom onesituationtothe next. 1977. page 2 13-14. 1981. but the "science" is often neglected or ofa tertiary consideration By far the most hauntingproblem and serious shortcoming of the automatedMMPI assessment approach remainsthat of system validation. Calvin's.Minnesota 55440.. Perhaps the most common in use by clinical psychologistsare: NationalComputerSystems.

crossing culturalbarriers.) Subpoena the test administeredand the party's answers.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS Regarding the MMPI and MMPI-2 as a whole. long form. 8. 2. McCurleyand M. their relevance must be questioned. Establish whichMMPI was administered(short form. McCurleyand K. 16-315. (M. Tryingto use DSMHI-R (Diagnosticand Statistical ManualQfMentalDisorders)inreviewingthe clinicalscales is quitedifficult.) The sample group of norms for the MIVIPI-2 appearsto solve some ofthe problems that have plaguedthe MMPI. 1981. 21-308. 13.shouldn't the clinicalscales and their developmentalsobe updated? (M. is thereresearchvalidatingthe newnorms? (a) Ifno. 17 .) Establish how many and what scales were scored. that means she is a psychopathic deviant?" should be easily fielded by a competentpsychologist. 12. 1981. As was previouslystated. However. 1981. "Reliability coefficientsfor the MMPIgenerallycluster in the area ofthe 0.why shouldMMPIresultsbe admissibleand lie detectors not. 1987. The MM?! and MMPI-2 WERE NOT DESIGNEDTO FIELP COURTS TO DETERMINE WHO IS THE BETTER PARENT! The original MM?! has been heavily criticizedfor its sample group of norms and because some ofthe items seemedoutdatedintheircontent.thereare few itemsdealingwith "the family and fewerstill about children. page 217. "So. Ifthe opinion is that the liedetectoris morereliableand valid. 10. for purposes of crossexamination ofthe opposingparty. The newsamplegroup consistedof'larger segmentsofthe population ofthe UnitedStates. (7) (8) Ifthe expertis familiarwith thelie detector testand its reliabilityand validity. 5. whetherby computer or by the clinician. have the expert give an opinionas to whichis a more reliable and valid test as far aspredictionis concerned. If the answer is only partly or only as one aspect. Attempt to get theexpert to admit the limits ofthe reliabilityofthe test.1983." Additionally. the tests may be a goodclinicaltool for diagnosingand treating mental health patients. 9. 13-290. 22-326. Also. Ifthe expert will not concede the limitations. etc." Ziskin. Many ofthe abnormalgroups used tocreate the originaltenclinical scaleswere diagnosed ashavingdisorders whichnowhaveoutdatedlabels. 20-310. 35-331.does the computerserviceincorporate theresultsofthenew (c) norms established by Collican. 7. 8-183.16 ofthe MMPI itemsare repeats. 3. when you examine their validity in a custody dispute. in 1983? (1) Ifyes. page4. 11. 1983? (2) (3) Was MMPIscored. Cross-examinationofthe MM?! and MMP!-2 Expert Some suggested lines ofquestioningare as follows: Was the MM?! in questionscored usingthe updatednorms established by Colligan. note Ziskin states. Those itemsare: 1. 32-328. 33-323. (b) Ifthe testwas scored bycomputer. for such a comparison. N65-66 May. 24-333. 4. The items in MMPI-2 haveremainedfairlyuntouchedso the mostofthe criticismofthe original items remain unchanged. (See Ziskin. confront the expert with the Green table cited herein. Questionssuch as. The last generalobservation concernsdiagnosticlanguageand categories. pointout criticismsofold norms appearing through Colligan. the expert is likely making proper use of (b) (4) (5) (6) MMPI results. as in MMPI. 15-314. you're saying just becauseMrs. using the newcalculationsregardingTscores developed by Colliganin 1983? How much does the expert rely on the MM?! in the formulation ofhis/heropinion? Ifthe answeris 100% or "verymuch. Ifthe definitions have changed.70's which is low. McCurley.and Ziskin. 6. Fuller. Jones says she doesn't have a satisfactory sex life. it might be interestingto know andpoint out answersto suchitems as "Evilspiritspossessme at times. However.Psychological TestingMarriageDissolutionCourse. The clinical scales on MMPI-2haveremained virtuallythe same. 23-288."theexpert is in troubleand shouldbe confrontedwith the (a) research cited in this article.

ask iftheexpertknowsthebasis ofthe interpretationplacedon the Ina casewhereMMPIresultsarepivota!. (9) (10) (II) (12) (13) scores by the computer. (McCurleyand Fuller. in anefforttoarriveata comprehensive description ofpersonality. Vasthetest administered in theexpert'sofficeor was theparty allowedto takethetesthome. pages 75 and 333. Colligan. 1982.wrnat T-52. ifthe MMPI was computerscored. and 317-362.D.Psychological Testing 13." in fact. L. the information is on normative samples. SomeReflectionsonMM!'! ShortForms: A literatureReviy.began assemblingall personality trait names occurringeither in the dictionary. In a case where your client has fared poorly on the MMPI.e.Note the validating scales on the MMPI should pick up any deliberate attemptto make the test results look different.." Cattell'sfindings havebeen criticizedas not true identificationsofpersonalitytraits.) A valuable source for statistical information and reviews ofMM!'!testvalidityand reliability is Buros. i. Other Sugeestions. If the expert diagnoses your client as a manic-depressive (or whatever)." constructionisinadequate.. or in the psychiatric and psychological literature.487.sendingtheIvIMPI to the variouscomputerscoringservicesmay(small chance)result in differentinterpretations ofthe same test. and conductedfurthertests on 208 men on a shortened list. Journal ofPersonality Assessment. R.) Ifsub-scaleswereused. 16. 67. It is designed for use with individuals that are sixteen years ofage or older and to analyze suchtraits as "reservedversus outgoing. Cattell was able to identify what he described as "the primary source traits of personalties.0. I6PF 1. iiprii at 542-43. pages 486 .& AndrewW. History.were thetest scoresdifferentonthesub-scalesthanthestandardclinicalscales? Rememberthe sub-scalesare "content" oriented insteadof empirically' developed. It is arguablethat factoranalysis ofratings may revealmore about theraters than about the ratees.determine what the expert observedor wastoldabout yourclient's behaviorandactionswhichsupportsthis diagnosisindependent oftheMMPIscores.. some scientistshave found the same factorswhen analyzing ratings given to completestrangersas when analyzingratings assignedto persons whom theraters knewwell.. (Pessini& Norman.not becauseofintentional design.D. how does the expert know who took the test? (It would be rare that a home test would be permitted. MarcJ. K. Colliganmailedthe MMP1's to thesubjectswhotook the test at home. B. 1983. No. MMPI scores may vary over time. Attack theopinionwith evidenceofopposite behaviorifit exists. Kane. he used intercorrelations and factor" "humble versus assertive. Cattell. regardless ofthe scoreson the validityscales. Ifthetest was taken at home. a good argument could be made against testvalidity. 305-366. compiledby Odberg(1936). The test never gainedthe acclaimthat the authorshad hoped. page67. 38-31!. Ackerman. Thereafter. IS. see A. Ph. aa a. For valuable research information concerningthe reliabilityand validity of MMPIshod form tests. a a 18 . 1983. This may be fruit forcrossexaminationitself. The same couldbe done by taking the test resultsofanother clinicianand gettinga second opinion. and the test "trusting versus suspicious. From these factorial analyses. As noted by the researchdone by Green.) Ifthe answersto the repeatquestions arenot consistent.Ph.) B. Id. Cattell developed 171 traitlistswhichhe employed firston a heterogenousgroup of100 adults. Chapter5 37-302." and These scales are short. Vol." the 16 PersonalityFactor Questionnaire (I6PF) has beendeveloped assesspersonality traits.Flow To Examine to Psychological Expertsin Divorceand OtherCivil Actions200 (1990). although. Colligan. 5. note that in establishingthe new norms. (It should be noted that the repetition ofthese itemswas done so the MMPI could be more economically scoredby the IBM 805 machine. (Green basically opines the imperfections of the standard MMPI are only magnified by use ofshort forms. See Anastasi. but instead as reflections ofthe influenceofsocial stereotypesand other "constanterrorsofjudgment. a retest done by a consultingpsychologist may look substantiallydifferentand provide good information for cross-examination.1966). what research does the computer endorse? Dahistrom's? Green's? Graham's? Hathaway's? etc. 14. one should consultGreen. Anastasi. Background& Purposes of16 PF Throughtheuse ofa statistical processcalled"FactorAnalysis. 46.

WinderO'DelI &Karson. Only a few studies existon the use ofthe I6PF with forensicsamples. with fewer itemsper factor. These areas correspond to certain second-orderfactors identified amongcorrelatedfirst-order factors. (Lovenian." 'humble versus assertive.The EvaluationofTruthfulness inAlleged Sex Offenders SelfReports: J6PFandMM?! Validity Scales. 1989. jj The assessmentofresponsebias is especiallyimportantin forensicpsychologicalassessments and constitutes oneofthe unique advantagesofpsychological testingin this definition.&Tucker. reworded to fit clinical context. and the evaluationofbusinessexecutives.Eber. on the basisofhis factorial research. A computerized. Kochkin. the factorial homogeneityof items within each scale is reliable.a 28-scale inventorywhich includes: a shortened version of the I6PF "in clinicaldress". 1974). This is becausein forensic evaluations. Linda S. 2. Irvine & Gendreau. 1988. Id. JOURNALOF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT 273 (1992). l3raun &LaFaro. 1988. and neuroticism. assumes a normaldistributionofresponsebias in the populationbeing tested. Birenbaum & Montag. 1986. Grossman. and yields 16 scores insuch traitsas "reserve versus outgoing. ith at 543. 1969. and 6108(EarlySchoolPersonality Questionnaire).(Audubon& Kerwin. "Specification profiles equations"are provided for a number ofoccupations. including anxiety. 1976B. marriage All ofthese inventories are experimental instruments requiring counseling. Wasyliw. Krug (1978). 1987).however. 1974.using a larger normative samplefor cross-validation. Empirical validationdata include average for more than 50 occupational groupsand aboutthe same number ofpsychiatricsyndromes. in the form of multiple regressionequations for predicting an individual's criterionperformancefrom scores on the L6PF. Theirstudy furtherconcludedthat minimization is far more common amongsex offenders than exaggeration in comparison to normalpopulations. Ziskin & Faust. Otheradaptations pathological ofthe I6PFinspecial dress havebeenpreparedforassessmentpurposein such contextas careerdevelopment. Separate inventories have also been published within more limited areas. Dalby. In addition. Winderet al. Use ofthis rationale.psychologicaltests constructedwith validityscales designedto detect response bias are particularlyuseful." "shy versusventuresome" and ttmstingversussuspicious. depression.1970). However. Another addition to the series is the ClinicalAnalysis Questionnaire. 1978. Elliott.1982. Available informationon normativesamples and other aspectsoftest constructionis inadequate. a 19 .PsychologicalTesting Cattell. for ages 16 and over. Reliability andValidity cithe I6PF Reliabilities of factor scores for any single form of the I6PF are generally low. 1967).little is known about their efficacyindetectingclinicalpatientswhoattemptto "fake good" or "fakebad" (Green. That assumptionis not a valid one in the populationofparentsbeing evaluatedfor custody. 1961). Parallel form Others havequestioned whether reliabilities centeraround . 1988).ofwhichthe Cattell'stest was designed bestknown is the 16 PersonalityFactorQuestionnaire (Cattell. is!.1975) orjob applicantsundergoingpsychological screenings(Birenbaum.moststudies ofthe validityscalesofthe I6PF haveusedexperimentalsamples. jj jj a a In general. For this subjectsgenerally reason. narrative reporting service is also availablefor users. 1988) that haveassessedthe effectivenessofthe I6PF indetectingresponse bias in forensicpatientswho are knownto minimize or exaggerate psychopathology on the MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI) (Hathaway& McKinley. furtherdevelopment. For example.the I6PF literaturehas not produceda consensus about thebest cut-offscores to use in deciding whethera particularprofile shows significantresponse bias (Krug." A "motivational distortion' orverificationkeyisalsoprovided for some ofthe forms. there havebeen few studies (Dalby.from eitheraccentuatingtheir strengthsor theirweaknesses. Haywood & Orest E.Salinas.80. 1988. As Grossman. validity scales are designed to assess types of exaggerationor minimization in actual clinical evaluations. Theoriginalcut-offscore proposed by Winder et al (1975) was set at seven or higher (out ofa possible 15 items per scale) for both motivation distortion(fake-good) and the fakebad scale. havesubstantial. later a suggested that ascoreoften constituted bettercut-offcriterionforthe fake-good scalebecausethisscoreclassified 15% ofhis normative sample as a attemptingto fake-good when taking the I6PF under standard instructions. 1980.Thomas W.Stricker. has constructeda numberofpersonalityinventories. standardization. 1976A. j4.50 and retestsafter a weekorless often fall below . Haywood& Wasyliw(1992) concludedin their study ofthe use of I6PF validityscales in the forensicpsychological evaluations ofallegedsex offenders.validityscalesofthe I6PFweresignificantly correlatedwith those ofthe MMPIand correctlypredicteda highpercentageofpatientswho showed minimization and exaggerationon theMMPI. Id.8 to 12 (Children's Personality Questionnaire). and validation. tangiblegains. and 12 scalesidentifiedthroughfactoranalysisofitems fromthe MMPIandotherclinicalscales. whichhas the most widely researchedand effectivevalidity scales ofany psychometric instrument (Greene. Becauseofthescarcityofresearchontheefficacyofthe I6PF'svalidityscalesinforensicsettings. & Tatsuoka. suchas students instructed to "fake good" or"fakebad" whiletakingthetest. Riggio. 1988). 1975). j j ChapterS Similar inventories havebeen developed for ages 12 to 18 (High School PersonalityQuestionnaire).

etc.. are recorded by the examiner. These tests involvemore use ofthe psychologists's judgment than an "objective"test.e. There are now 20 . Reliability& Validityofthe Rorschach Althoughthe Rorschach is frequentlycriticizedbecauseofproblemswith reliabilityand validity. (kj at 174." is begun. All responses. shading. B. at 170. Rorschach'sresultswere basedon test data from more than 400 subjects. Prolective Personality Tests Unlikethe "objective" personality tests. whether there is movementin the response. as well as the time taken to respond to each card.or humanbeing. Rorschachselectedthese particular cardsafterextensiveclinical research. the second part ofthe test. Thetestconsistsoften inkblots printed on separate cards.states. l22 Construction. prn. Varioussymbolsareused to score these four elements ofthetest. i. Stuart. whether other featureswere used.theRorschach continuesto be the most widelyused projectivetest. These type oftests are generally more stressful to takebecausetheyare less structuredthan. The subject is shown the cards once again. plus some designationofthe actual contentofthe response. A fourthscoringelementissometimesadded whena responseis consideredto be popular (P) The testconsistsoftwo mainparts: (I) the free associationperiod. These combined responsesare then combined into what is called a "psychogram. factoranalysis providesa technique for grouping personality inventoryitems into relatively clusters.] It is with the above thoughtin mind. B.) ofeach response.) b. BecauseofExner's system.e..PsychologicalTesting ChapterS In conclusion.(1970)." In the first part ofthe test.that this article explores the disadvantagesof projective tests.theclinicianwho would use projectivetests must answerMeehl's(1954)question. projectivetests presentthe testeewith a stimulusandask for a response. Forewordto Trick or Treatment..texture. whetherthe subjectseesan object. Administration. Homogeneity and factorial purity are desirablegoals in test construction. The "inquiry"part of the test is used to ascertain two things..'Am I doing better than! could by flippingpennies?' An honest answer to this questionmust be a qualified'No' (page 89). "location" (what part of the blotwas used). Stuart.the MMPI..Berkeley. (Shuman. but this time is askedbythe clinicianwhichparts ofthe cardhe responded to and what led him or her to perceivethe blots as he or she did. c.which led him to believethat this methodoftestingcould help in personalitystudy. authorofTrick orTreatment. Five of thecards are coloredand therest areblack and white orshades thereof. (Shuman. each ofthe ten cardsare numbered and are shown one at a time in sequential order. and "determination" (whetherthe form is judged good or bad. Despite the popularityofthe Rorschach with clinicians.Arthur R. After the free association period is over." which is a summaryofall the scored responses. at 51. Historyand Rackround ofthe Rorschach The most widely used projective test is the Rorschach. color." [R. at 226. the "inquiry. Exnercollectednormative data fromnormalindividualsand variousdiagnosticgroupsfrom a wide range ofage groups ( 5 . in great part. RorsehachInkblot Technique a.) R. (Ziskin. ". but the developmentof the Exner system of administrationand scoring in 1974 has been consideredto have made a substantialimprovementin the reliability and validity ofthe Rorschachtechnique. for example. dependenton the abilities of the individual examiner.i. (Garfield. There are several scoring manualsavailable. animal. B.) people as well as to those with mentaldisorders. in describing projectivetests.and(2) the "inquiry. The test is. Suchagroupingshould facilitate the investigation ofvalidity againstempirical homogeneousand independent criteria and such contribute toward construct definitionand permit a more effective combination of scores for the prediction of specific criteria.) The scoring ofthis test is obviouslynotan easy matter. has written the followingreview ofRorschachreliability: "Put frankly.) The Rorschach was first introducedmore than 50 years ago by a Swisspsychiatristnamed HermannRorschach. professorofEducationalPsychology and Research Psychologyat the Universityof California. Thesubject is asked to tell the or often used. Jensen.the consensusofqualifiedjudgment is that the Rorschachis a very poortest and has no practicalworth for any ofthe purposesfor which it is recommendedby its devotees.and Scorine ofthe Rorschach clinicianwhat he or she sees. a cliniciancan comparethe individual who has been tested to normal at 52. These two factors.but are not substitutes forempirical validation.constitute the minimum scoring ofone jnm.. 1.

quite It is important for theattorneyto be aware ofastudy by Exnerthat some psychologistsmay cite as evidenceof Assessmentin 1978and wasentitled." (page 505) (ArthurR. ifhe is to hold his own amongthe experts..most ofthe scoringcategories are usedrelatively infrequentlyso their reliabilityis practically indeterminant. The most extensive determinationof retest reliability is that of Epstein and others who gave he Rorschach to 16 college students.which is. upon the degreeofsimilarityofthe "trainingofthe scorers and has beenreported as ranging from 0. The studyappearedin theJournalofPersonality Temporal Stability ofSomeRorschachFeatures."The reliabilityofthe Rorschach.forthe research has notrevealedany significantdifferences inreliabilityorvaliditybetweenbeginnersin theRorschach masters.asystematicsearch ofthe literaturehas not turnedupa singleinstance wheretheoverall interpretation was more reliablethan the separateelements entering into it. The subject-examiner the test. Jensen. (Ziskin. No longercan itbe claimed that negative findings are the result of bluenose methodologists of statistics and experimental psychology. rorschachtext books havenot presentedany evidenceofsatisfactoryreliabilityofthe final product ofthe test and the reviewerhas not been ableto find any such evidence in the research literature.) low.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 of and a number methodologically statistically sound and sophisticatedstudies. Reliabilityof scoring depends. such as the scoresand variousderivedcombinations andindices. It should also be noted that even Exner acknowledges that there are a number ofadditionalmeasureswhichwere not even evaluated. ofcourse. usually consists of a verbal description of personalitycharacteristicsbased on a global evaluation ofall aspectsofthe subject'sprotocol.33. had a correlationof0.Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook.and complcx ways. to a large extent.80.64 to0. in 0.) Concerning validity.31. (page 501) "In addition.what the research has shown is the validity of the Rorschach: 21 .91. The effect of the setting in which the test is taken and the fact that different examiners consistently elicit different amounts of various score determinants from subjects. prii.he orshe shouldbecross-examined regarding the fact that themajority ofmeasuresdo not meet thecriteria for reliability.. only sevenreachedthe minimumcorrelation of0." in Exner'sstudy.. Here aresome typicalexamples ofwhathas been found. combininga perceptiveand intuitive sensitivity to humanqualitiesand thepower to expressthese perceptionsinsubtle. shouldacliniciancitethis studyasprovingthereliabilityoftheRorschach. and no talent. Anastasisums up. and not particularlythe case history. is supposedto be able to answer. a literary work of art.the would-be Rorschacher. ofcourse. The Rorschach report of an expert is. Contraryto the usual claim ofRorschachers that this global interpretation is more reliableormore validthanany ofthe elementsupon whichitis based. Therefore.. should make it imperative that futureRorschachstudies be basedupona representative samplingofexaminers as well as ofsubjects. Six other cliniciansrating thesame traitson thebasis ofthecase story abstractsalone. in the case ofthe Rorschach. for the attorney. must possess the kindofgiftssimilartothe literarytalentofanovelistor biographer.29 to 0. "Reliability ofinterpretation is...themost important matterofall. The averagereliabilities for variousresponsecategories ranged from 0. ifnothing else. varied. This is the chief criterion ofexpertnesswith the Rorschach.a total of10 timesover a period of5 weeks.. A. 100 normalnon-patientswere retested after athreeyear interval. applying inappropriate criteria to an instrument for which they have no sympathy nor clinicalexperiences. The correlation betweenthejudges was 0. The interesting point is that the 10 rated personalityitemswere speciallyselectedas being the kind ofquestionswhich the Rorschach. Jensencites other studies ofthe Rorschachwhichshow a meanco-efficientof0. Itmay be stated as a general principlethat the most crucial reliabilityis that ofthe end product ofthe test which.56. nor intuitivefeeling. often with the thu cooperationoftheirclinical colleagues whoare highly experienced in the use ofprojective techniques. Most ofthe combinational scores from the Rorschach consisting oftheratios and differencesamong thevariousprimaryscores(page 504). Even more important in terms of doing full justice to the Rorschach is that the good research is now being done by the Rorschachers and projectivetest experts themselves. Of 19 variablesevaluatedin this study..30. 501 -505. l3uros.. Blasinskskyhad 6highlyqualified Rorschachers rate 40 subjectson 10 personalityitemswhichtheyagreed could be confidentlyassessed from the Rorschachprotocol. at 241. In the typical protocol.. (page techniqueandacknowledged 502) "Few other tests provide so many opportunitiesfor the multiplicationof error variance as does the Rorschach. Examiner and situationalinfluenceshave been increasinglyrecognized in recent research as significant contributors to the variance of the interaction is certainly one ofthe most important aspects of Rorschach scores. Scoringreliability per se has been determinedvery seldom... K.

4 and are so low that one cannotconcludethat the testhas clinicalusefulness. The five systems .theattorneyshouldask the expertwitness iftheresults heorshe obtainedmighthavebeen differentifgiven in a different order. Ifthe clinician usedthe Klopfer System. fears. then the attorneymust be armed with several studiesthat contradicthis or her hypothesis. and interpretive hypothesis. for example. and 34% prefer the Beck System.) jjj. If the cliniciandenies such studies. and presence ofvarious conflicts.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS "Nor can any encouragementbe found in empirical studies of Rorschach validity.assertsthat it is not likelythat Rorschach of devoteeswill discontinueits use. it is. variousdeterminations personality or intellectual of traits in normal persons. the vastmajorityofinterpretive relationships that form the basis of Rorschach scoring have never been empirically validated. which show it to be statisticallysignificant. dependenton"one's philosophyofdiagnosis. They differ in basic administrativeprocedures.responseto psychotherapy.2-0. The Rorschach was found to have little or no predictive or concurrentvalidity when checkedagainst such criteria as psychiatricdiagnosis. 235-36. 12a1 Jensen points out that the validity studiesofthe Rorschach. In the case ofall other systems." (Garfield.Beck.) (2) Thereare at least five major Rorschach methods orsystems in the UnitedStatesalone. at 176.the RorschachInkblot techniquehas also beenused by the psychologicaland psychiatriccommunity to examine related aspects of personalitysuch as attitudes. Cross-Examination the RorschachExpert of Areas of cross-examination.motives. until proponentsof the Rorschach can substantiate their claims of validity. Jensen even suggests that. Theresultsofthe Rorschach mayprovide information foramore evaluation ofthe patient. attitudes. RoIfA. Exner cites studies that show.) It appears obviousthat surely. aspirations.) (jat d.differ from each otherenormously. complete e.ProfessorofPsychologyat the University Illinois.) Garfield. ( (3) Exner discovered that when a battery oftests is given. Klopfer. the sequence in which the tests are given can make a difference in the test results.fall in the generalrange of0.and many othersbelievethat the Rorschach valueatthe clinicallevel becauseoften the severityofa patient's problemis notapparenton initial interviews. and conflicts.incumbenton them to provide the predictivevaliditydataupon which their interpretations andpredictionsarebased. Anastasi. he or she shouldbe askedwhether thereis contradictory psychologicalliteratureor studiesthat challengehis or her assessment. The number of published studies that have failed to demonstrate a significant relation between Rorschach scores. other than the obvious questions regarding the reliability and validity of the Rorschach." (kj at 230. that the incidenceofhuman content responseson the Rorschachcan alter dependingon the order in which the differenttests are given.forwithoutsuchdata. Thus. Thequestion. in more than fifty years of researchon the Rorschach. Thosestudies that appeartoprovide positive results have beenshown tocontain seriousmethodological defects.are the following: (I) Whatever the clinicianproposesas his or her interpretation ofthe subject'sresponsesto the test.ofwhy theRorschachhas so many followers is a mystery. (The research material in this article is good background for many ofsuch studies. (This is also true ofother tests. has Exner.success orfailure inawide varietyofoccupationsinwhichpersonalityqualities play an important part. is truly impressive. or global evaluations and relevant criteria. at 230.) On cross-examination. therefore. Despite a bibliographyofover 2.then.asGarfieldputs it. Advantaaesofthe Rorschach Althoughdevelopedto analyzebasic personalitystructure.Hertz. at 237.or fantasies independently identifiedin patients.theirconclusionsare merelytheory. (Ziskin. Exner reports that a surveyshowed that ofthe five systems.) (hj at 238. Peterson.roughly 54% ofthe psychologistsprefer the Klopfer System. The administration of one test affects the response given in different tests that follow.scoring. The value ofthe Rorschachas an aid in diagnosis is highly controversial.Piotrowsky and Rapaport-Schafer. the Rorschachshould be abandoned in clinicalpracticeand that studentsof clinical psychology"not be required to waste their time learningthe technique. [A. However.000publicationsontheRorschach. its usefulness maybe.) 22 .the clinicianshould be asked which ofthe five major systemshe or she used.some positiveresearch regardingits validityshouldhave beenproducedbynow. it must be emphasized thatalmost half ofall cliniciansthat use the Rorschachdo not use that system.and yet is seemsthere has notbeen. combination ofscores. less than halfuse any one system.

. 1947) at that oncethe per so n is explainingthe occurrence. therefore.illy.1980. 23 .itwas discoveredthat therewere four main sourcesfrom whichthe stores were drawn: (1) booksand movies.taken further. 1943)and continuesto be apopular techniqueusedin clinical assessment. Murray.they used thesame techniques oftestingas used in theoriginalTAT. A few ofthecards show othertypes ofsceneswithout peoplein them. females. when created.." will expose his or her own personality. at 240."For instance." (jj at one picture. was to "evoke fantasies that reveal covert and unconscious at 530. Therefore. choose his ownifhe orshe hasaparticularareaonwhichthey wishto focus. childcustody questions are almost impossible (k It is clear that theRorschach is a highly controversial test.BarryRitzier.and therefore. Forexample. in most instances. b. hopefl." subject? possiblefantasies. Chudy. (B. c. Thematic Apperception Test (Tat) a. K. Theresearchersused picturestakenfrom theFamilyofMan photo essaycollection publishedby the Museum ofModernArt (1955).orpreoccupations.Murray felt. he or she becomes conscious ofhimselfor herself.(2) actualevents ofwhich the subjects were aware. Variationsofthe TAT Most ofthepicturesinthe TAT are indark shadowytones and most ofthe scenes are low-keyedand depressing situations. Murray pointed out that "everysubjectalmostimmediately projectshisown circumstances. The theory.) The test was based on the idea that when facedwith an ambiguous social situation. The following criteriawas used to select each picture: (I) The pictures had to show "potential for eliciting meaningfiilprojective material" (Murray's only criterion).therewasat least one person in thepicture with whom thesubjectcould. Thelatter is lookingdownwardand with aperplexedexpression. "A Comprehensive Projective Alternative the TAT.inanotherpicture." JournalofPersonality to Assessment.Explorations in Personality (2d ed. 2.however. it is evenmorequestionablewhether we should allowconjecture in thecourtroom.a person complexes.) The attorney shouldelicit testimony from the clinicianwho administered the Rorschachif the clinicianrecognizes Exneras a known expert inthe field ofpsychology. Sharkey and J. sixofthe elevencollegemen whotook the testsaidthat the youthin one picture was a student. Therefore. (jj ThecreatorsoftheTATcame up with a set ofpictures.Kevin SharkeyandJamesChudyputtogethera newsetofpictures. and then an attempt is made to find a uniing ía theme. at 358.young adultsand older adults.nojudge or jury should be asked to Believe any conclusions based upon its use. experiences. (3) experiencesin the subject'sown life.) it should be used at all. (Shuman. (H. Or. The test consistsof30 cards whichdepict people indifferentsituations.males.) The purpose of the procedure.and (4) the subject's conscious and unconsciousfantasies.) The first two sources. It is highly questionable whether the adversary system is conducive to conjecture.that. his hatin his hands.there isa heavily built one oftheearly experiments. comprised a clue to the subject'spersonality. In theoriginalstudy done by H.) To analyze the whereasnone ofthe twelvenon-college menwho actedas subjects describedhimas such. ". History and Background oftheTAT TheTAT was developed in the 1930's (Murray. Murray. were those things which had the deepest impression on the patient and.a shortelderlywomanstands with herback turned toatall youngman. The at 53.Psychological Testing Chapter 5 (4) to answer from mostassessmentdata and particularlyfrom Rorschachdata. According toExner. As to actual events or experiences.relate. both as to the methodofusing it and even whether Given the wide disagreementwithin the professionofpsychologyitself. Some researchersfeel such somber picturesmay elicitthe negative thoughtsofthe patient. A.) subjectis then asked to look at each cardand makeup a story about it. The examinermay present thestandardcardsormay.each story is read and diagnosed separately.becomesvulnerableto scrutiny. Because child custody issuesinvolvequestionsofapredictivenature. RitzIer. The attorney shouldthen ask the clinicianifhe or she knows that Exnerbelievesthat the rorschachis or little or no use in child custodydisputes. The TAT has been ranked as the fourthmost frequentlyused psychologicaltest. naked to the waist with his headhungdownwardand his arms hanging limplyat his side. therewere separate sets ofpictures chosen for children.selectively. Constructionofthe TAT StandardTAT instructions stress imaginationand creativity. at 533.

with strong doubts as to its reliabilityand validity and its ability to assess individual personality traitsaccurately. For example. Additionally.) J. Thus.iftheclinicianusesthe techniquesby Ritzier. theTAT is likely to be as ambiguousto theexamineras it is to the subjectsrespondingto it. &eat difficulty in attaining suitable independentcriteria to validate inferencesagainst and problemsoftrying to developmeaningful quantitative measures. (l d.ofthe free nature ofthe response. (Ritzier.. with no information on reliability. Professor ofPsychology. examiner bias. remainsa test of controversy." at 243. among others. (j at243.) At leastone-half of the pictures had to show activity other than merely sitting or standing." at 244.. validity and standardization. Eron then states.g.Sharkeyand Chudy.) interpreting the data derived from the TAT. "Nothinghas appeared in the literature in the last five years which would serve to refute these conclusionswith any degree of conviction.embracing. (hj at 242-43.) focusedon the reliabilityofthe test.explainsthat thebody ofTAT research does not provide any cohesive knowledge regardingthe applicationsofthe test to personality evaluation.) Leonard Eron.) It is extremelyimportant fortheattorneytoknow.) Apparently. like the Rorschach.dancing. at 244. therefore.) The results ofthe test illustratedthat the newtechnique provided a balance ofpositively andnegatively-toned stories. (Shuman. (lj at 243.they maymake a fairerassessment for one has beenable to convince themajorityofexpertsin this field that the above-mentioned problemswith the TAThave been solved.which raisesquestions like those on the Rorschachabout the usefulnessofa test that has mixed research resultsafleroverfortyyearsofinvestigation. etc.) Some researchers have suggested that if the TAT were published today. UniversityofIllinois..) (jj e. 24 . LI. or even of some other projective tests. f. Reliabilityand validity are especiallya problem with the TAT because". Swartz. it would most likely not attain anywhere near its present ( z popularity. whoreviewstheTAT intheEighthMentalMeasurements Yearbook.smiling. the Additionally. Because ofthe recent research data regarding the negatively-toned storiesresultingfrom theselectionofthe picturesby Murray. Advantagesofthe TAT ( TheTAT canelicitinformation which isusefulto diagnosis andtreatmentplaningwhen it isused in conjunction with other test data and the history ofthe patient.then the result is an even more valid comprehensiveassessment tool forthe clinician. at 359. full of conjecture. Cross-Examination the Expert of The lineofcross-examination the TAT should. the clinician should be questioned astowhetherhe orshe took the studies regardingthe negativelytoned picturesinto accountwhen at 53. becauseoftheconcernamongcliniciansregarding picturesthat composetheTAT. The researchers felt that they had developed a TAT which covers a more comprehensive range of human at 361-62.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS (2) (3) (4) ofthe pictureshad to include more than one person. Reliabilityand Validityofthe TAT The fundamentalproblemwith the TAT is that it is subject to an even wider range of distorting factors than objective tests.which gives reliability or validity data.whenconfronted with aclinicianwith negativefindings from theTAT abouttheclient. becauseofthemany variationsinscoringand administration. Sharkeyand Chudy. theTAT.the high degree of interaction with situational factors. states that the TAT is not suitable for providinga profile ofpersonality traits or a reliable measurement ofany one with theRorschach. Atleastone-halfofthe pictureshadto showpositiveexpression(e.that theTAT is still being publishedwith theoriginal manual (1943). particularly in cross-sex administrations affect the type ofcontentelicited. at very best. of Theattorney shouldelicit testimony which shows that anyonewho administersthis testin a child custodysituationhas done so when the great weight ofauthorityshows the TAT results to be of little benefit in such situations and.

which originated with the work of Jung in 1904 and 1906.Psychological Testing ChapterS SentenceCompletion Tests a. Be sure to make a complete is Eachcompletion ratedon asevenpointscaleaccordingtothedegreeofadjustmentormaladjustment indicated. 3. butnotuntilWorld WarII did thesentencecompletionmethodbecome test popular. F. has been widely employed in both research and clinical practice.with men's and women'sresponseslistedseparately. The examinercan take the information at face value. (a) Scoring The scoring systemsfor all three forms ofthe test are based upon the scaled responsesofcollege freshmenin the developmentofthe College Formof the RISB.or (4) Neutral response (no significantpositive or negative effect).Anastasi. Othersbeganto usesimilarinstruments. While valuable material can be gatheredthrough the word associationtechnique. The sum ofthe individual ratings providea total adjustmentscore that can be used for screeningpurposes. it was anticipatedthat information not readily availableduring an interviewwould often be broughtout.some standardized forms have beenpublishedformore general applications. By placing some distance between the examinerand the examineevia use of the test. (3) Positive response (reflecting positiveor hopeful attitudes).itwas used asa screendevicetohelp decidewho should be given more thoroughpsychologicaltesting. A needexistedfor a quick. it was soon realizedthat limitationsexistto this method.at608. a sentencecompletion waspart ofa batteryoftests orpart ala largersetofdataabout test a personandoftenservedasan aid in subsequent interviews. The use ofthe sentencecompletion technique as a psychological test is considered to have its origin with the works ofEbbinghaus(1897) in his studies ofmentalabilities. fairlyobjective scoring is possible. Foruse in personality assessment." The RotterIncomplete SentencesBlankconsistsof4O sentencestems. Nevertheless. Payne in 1928. but was probablybest known for its use in the Office ofStrategic Services. The manual providesmanuals for each scoring category. (2) Conflict response(reflectinghostility or unhappiness). In militaryhospitals. b. Thedirections "Completethese sentences to express your real feelings. The flexibility ofthe sentencecompletion technique represents one of its advantagesfor clinical and researchpurposes. While the test was not seen as exposingextremelydeep levels ofpersonality. The Rotter Incomplete SentencesBlank (RISB) is oneofthe most widelyused sentencecompletiontests in partbecauseit was one ofthefew whichallows both qualitativeand quantitative assessment ofresponses. it allows the examineeto respond more freely than he or she might in a face-to-face interview. In nearlyall Longerand possiblymore structuredstimuli and responses are useful for theinvestigation ofpersonality.easilyadministered psychological that could begiven to largegroupsofpeople. developedtobeused in AirForcehospitals. What worries me These sentencestems are frequentlyformulated so as to elicit responses relevant to the personality domain under investigation. Eachofthe 40 items receives an "adjustmentscore. Background and Purposes ofSentenceCompletionTests Another verbal projectivetechnique. With the aid ofthese specimen responses." Each item is assignedone offourpossiblecodes: (1) Omission(no responseortoo short aresponse to be meaningful). It was used in the Air Force as a screeningdevice. Onesuch test. Generally. Try to do every one. yieldinga quick overviewofsome ofthe issues for a given individual. History. Examples might be: "My ambition _.the sentencecompletionmethod is nowprimarilythoughtofas a technique for assessingpersonalityand attitudes. Women_. wasadoptedforcivilianuseafter the War. Mymother________ completions. sentencecompletion. Id. permit an almost unlimited variety of possible . The response contentcan also be examined clinicallyfor more specific diagnosticclues. TypesofSentenceCompletion Tests (1) Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank Test (Risb) to thetest-takerread: sentence. 25 . The firstuse ala sentencecompletiontest for personality assessmentis attributedtopsychologistA.the test can be tracedto the word associationtechnique. However. Both "conflict" and "positive"responses are given a weighingofone to three to reflect the degree ofsentimentexpressed. The sentence completionmethod met the needs and soonbecamea part ofpsychologicalbatteriesin militarysettings. Rotterintendedtousethe Incomplete SentencesBlankasan alternativetoa lengthystructuredinterview. the opening words for a sentencestem. Binet and Simon (1905) found the method to be useful for measuring intellectual abilitiesand includedsentencestemsas one ofthe tests in their first battery.

Ackerman. (6) IncompleteSentencesTask A more recently developedinstrumentis the IncompleteSentencesTask.e.g. to indicatewhen he orshe was most depressed.anxiety. validityand interrelationofthe three scores.towardcollege. She also arranged the order ofthe stemsto try to lead the individualaway from every day life toward the more inaccessible areas ofpersonality. These constructs were chosen on the basis ofpersonalitytheory and becauseoftheir clinical importance to any adjustmentofstudent. Availablein a School Form(GradesSeventoTwelve) and a CollegeForm. The test can beadministeredto any sizegroup and littleexperienceor trainingis required. (3) The Sacks SentenceCompletionTest TheSacks Sentence Completion Test (SSCT) consistsof60 itemswhicharerelatively structuredcompared to most sentencecompletion test. The degreeofdisturbanceregardingeachattitudeis ratedon athree pointscale.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 Advantages ofthe Test (b) This ease ofadministration and initialinterpretationare prime reasonsfor the popularityofthe test. 26 ." There is no formal scoring system. the authors urge the clinicianto form hypothesessentenceby sentence. The RISB consists of4O sentencestemswhichexamineesare asked to complete to create statements which reflect their feelings about themselvesand others. at 287. Initial resultsare promising. the test yields three scores: hostility.e. with the intent ofminimizingthe degree to which people feel threatenedor exposed. development. It has been suggested that theRISB is probablymost effective in theearly part ofassessments.who are anxiousand/orwhohavea poor self image. As apsychometric instrument. Whilethe sentencesarenot formallyscored. irn. The RISS has not been found to be especiallyeffective at assessingchanges in psychological adjustmentover the short term via pre and post test differences. The instructionsare also more general than most. TheRISB hasbeensuccessful at identifying peoplewho are depressed.. Sacksalsosuggeststhat aninquirybeconductedat the end to maximizean understanding oftheresponses. the Miale-Holsoppleis the least structuredof the sentence completion tests and dependson the subjectiveinterpretiveskills ofthe clinician more than any ofthe other tests. Rohdetried tochooseeachstem with great give the examinees some distance from the examinerto facilitate theirexpressingthemselves more openly..however. towardmother.since it is based on theskill ofthe clinician doing the interpretation.jj. at 600. In its Anastasi.but subjective. numerous examples ofcharacteristicresponses are given for each stem.g. rather than obviouslypersonal ones. and dependence. and orders a checklist for that purpose. and provide more objectivedata thanare customarilyavailablefor projectiveinstruments. involving the formation of hypotheses about the individual which are to be compared with other data prior to drawingconclusions. Note that validitydata are largely based on formal scoring ofthe RISB. This raisesa questionabout the validity ofa particularinterpretation." No formal scoringsystem exists. The stemsarestructuredtotry toforce therespondenttooffer materialuseful for diagnosis. (4) The Forer StructuredSentenceCompletion Test TheForerStructured SentenceCompletion Test(Parer) consistsof100 itemswith instructionswhichemphasize speed. eachresponse is to be evaluatedin the contextofpsychodynamicformulations and categoriesofneed. Thereareseparate male and femaleforms.etc. Most analyses ofthe 1USD are not objective. ilL jj (2) The RohdeSentenceCompletion Method TheRohde Sentence Completion Method(SCM) consistsof 65 itemsplus an open-endedquestion at the end ofthetest. including comparingthemwith stems from other tests. asking the individual to "complete each sentence in whatever way you wish. The open-ended question is a requestto Writebelow anything that seems importantto you. The manual suggeststhat content analysis ofthe RISB be similar to that done with the TAT. Thetest is organized around 15 attitudes with four stems perattitude-. To facilitate identification ofunusual responses. thistestwould be strengthenedwith more representative norms and with further researchon reliability. from none to severely disturbed.therefore.relying on the clinical expertiseofthe evaluator. ith at 288. Forer suggestsorganizingthem into sevenmajor areas. 'Overall. this instrument combined the projective approach with standard psychometric procedures of test constructionand evaluation. while in clinicalpracticeformalscoringis rarely done. The stems consist ofrelatively general items. (5) The Miale-holsopple SentenceCompletion Test The Miale-Holsopple Sentence Completion Testconsistsof73itemsand is designedto beminimallystructured. Instead.and to combinethem into a global descriptionafter all sentencesareread. attitude toward women.

" Someexaminers preferthe more ambiguous request to draw family as it provides the examiner with the opportunity to measure the subject's identification with their own family. Id. the tree depictsgrowth.' The RISB by itself rankedtwelfth and is the only sentence completion test mentioned by name in their survey.RRIS DRAWING TEST In 1963. R. Chapter 5 Acceptanceby Mental Health Professionals Inareport presented at themeetingoftheAmerican Psychological Associationin 1983. (4) DRAW-A-FAMILYTEST TheDraw-a-Family test was originallydevelopedby Appel and later elaboratedon by Wolff.the subject is asked to draw a person of the oppositesex.placementof individuals in the family." together. whole family. psychologistB.PsychologicalTesting c.Id.5 among psychologicaltests in their surveyof psychologists. thereforedrawing through Thefollowingtests have techniques can be veryuseful in assessing a child's intellectual and personal functioning. estimate ofthe child's intellectual development."I would like youtodrawa picture ofeverybodyin your family Ofparticular note in the interpretationofthis picture is whether the family is doing something doing something. as they represented the items most frequently spontaneously drawn by children. "The approach of usingkinetic (action)instructions. Ackerman.down from 10th in a 1969 survey but up from 61st in a 1959survey. points out that the "Goodenoughdrawing test is an acceptable screening instrumentfor use asa non-verbalmeasure ofcognitiveability. one of the foremost experts in intelligence testing. or each individual is doing somethingseparately. Children start drawingbefore they learn to talk. a a 27 . a.up from 8. Scoring criteria were presented for each ofthe drawings. Matarazzoindicated that "Sentence completiontests(all kinds) rank 7. Buck. out ofdesperation. Projective Drawin2s Most psychologists recognize that not all the information desired in psychologicalinvestigationscan be gained verbalinteraction. Id. !4 (2) THE GOODENOUGH-HA. relative sizes of the family members and othervariablesare used in interpretingthe draw-a-family test. He chose these three items. j a (5) KINETIC FAMILY DRAWING TheKinetic Family Drawings(ICFD)test wasdeveloped by Bums & Kaufman in 1970. " and the other requests the subjectto "draw a picture ofa family. Family constellation. Sattler." Sattler felt howeverthat the drawing test should not be used as the only measure ofintelligence due to reduced validity. at248.and apersononseparatepages.Id. askingthe child to produceadrawing offiguresmovingordoing somethinghas been found to producemuch more valid and dynamic material in the attempt to understandthe psychopathology of children in a family setting. j jj a (3) and a person. The RISI3 also rankedtwelfthin a 1982 survey. [The MMPIwas the numberone ranked test in this survey ofpsychologists. Although a thorough discussionofthe of interpretation the house-tree-person is not possible in a manuscriptofthis nature.particularly with children under 10or 11 years ofage. requested subjectsto draw a house. Harris added 22 items to Goodenough's original criteria. The subjectis asked to draw ahouse. Larsenand J. Harris updated the Goodenough Draw-a-Mantest to includea drawingofthe selfandofa woman. HOUSE-TREE-PERSON DRAWING TEST In working with non-compliantchildren.. Sentencecompletiontests also ranked7. Typesof ProjectiveDrawing Tests (1) DRAW-A-MANTEST the Goodenough developed the Draw-a-Mantestin 1926 forchildren between ages ofthreeand fifteen asaquick at 249.e. Luben. "the houseis thoughttorepresent a jj the environment.i. After the drawingofthe person is completed. Id. been used in the areaofprojectivedrawing and could be encountered in divorce litigation.] 4. a tree.5 in a 1982 survey. There are Onemethodrequiresthe subject to "draw apicture ofyour generallytwoacceptable methods ofpresentingthis test." ant250. a tree.and the personrepresents the integrationofthesubject'spersonality. Goodenough developed a SQ-item scoringscale.5 in a 1969 survey." j[ Theinstructionsgiven by the examinerstate.

Id.doesnot haveenough validationdata to justify its use as the only test given in a particular case. at 251. c.the only test ofthe groupspecificallydesigned for custodyevaluations. The instructionof"draw a picture ofsomethingthat represents each memberofyourfamily" is given.and sometimes the difference in physical distance betweenthe childand eachparent as an indicationofrelative emotionalcloseness or distance. andotherbasicperformance and testing conditions assume even greater importancethan in other psychologicaltests. Even whenemployingidentical instructions. Even ifan individualhas some psychological sophisticationand is familiarwith the generalnature ofaparticularinstrumentsuchas the RorschachorTAT. Themost reasonableuse ofthese tests'resultsistoserve as one additional sourceofinformationto be considered in the contextofall the factsin makingrecommendations regardingcustodyand access. Lynn Little St. Leger.becauseoftheirsubjectiveinterpretation. Inthe lightofthesefindings.] Id. follows: Some ofthe questions which mightaid the attorney in cross-examinationofthe psychologicalexpert. expose to thejury insufficient dataexists to base his conclusions. Were the projectiveinstrumentsadministeredprior to objective instructions? Ifnot. Moreover. (2) The Draw-a-Dream Test wasdesignedto depicta dream that the child actuallyhas had or one that the child would like to have. projectiveinstruments less suspectableto fakingthan are self-reportinventories.PsychologicalTesting Chapters In the context ofa custodyevaluation. (6) As with any psychologicaltest used in the context ofa custody evaluation. The purposeofprojectivetechniquesis usually disguised. Yet evidence exists that even subtle differencesin the phrasingof verbal instructionsand an examiner-examinee relationships can appreciablyalter performanceon these tests. why not? What projectivedrawingswere used? AdvancedFamily Law CourseBB. jj a On the other hand. defensiveness.the final steps in the evaluation and integration of the raw data usually dcpend on the skill and clinical Butperhaps the most disturbing implicationis that the interpretation ofscores is often experienceofthe examiner. Such differences may affect response productivity. Even the Bricklin. owing to theirgeneral manner and appearance. at 614. (3) The Representational Family Drawingwhich was developedby Oaklanderin an effort to measurehow the childrepresentationally perceiveseach familymember. (1) The Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain Test to measure how the individual deals with unpleasant environmental stress.and otherprojectiveinstruments haveshownthat significantdifferencesdooccur experiments whenrespondents are instructed to alter theirresponsesso astocreate favorableorunfavorableimpressions orwhen they aregiven statementssuggestingthat certaintypes ofresponsesaremore desirable.PsychologicalExaminations. characteristics. someexaminersmay be more encouragingor reassuring. jj b. are at 613. 99-100(1990).but strong confirmationofeven that interpretation ofthe KFD awaits the accumulation ofmore data. Cross-Examination of the ProiectiveTest Expert Projective tests. Id. Evaluators usuallyinterpret both thegeneral themes and dynamics represented.each of these four tests has some OTHER DRAWING TECHNIQUES There are many minor drawingtechniquesthat have been developed for usc in interpreting specific kinds of The number of drawing techniques developedonly by the creativity of the examiner. Somerecent researchhas begunto provideevidenceofa correlation between the distancebetween figures on the KFD and the child's perceived closeness to the people representedin the drawing. Several with theRorschach. Id. j Jj lit is obviousthat most projectivetechniquesareinadequately standardizedwith respectto both administration and scoring. the KFD can be very enlighteningas a way ofunderstandingthe child's perception ofhis family.the respondentsoon becomes absorbedin a task and is less likely to resort to the customarydisguisesand restraintsofinterpersonal communication. Reliabilityand Validity In general.Id. jj jj Equally serious is the lack of objectivity in scoring.others more threatening. Id. utility. personality concerns. Anastasi. it is still unlikely that he or she can predict the intricate ways in which these responses will be scored and interpreted. problems ofadministration imaginativeness. Even when objective scoring systems have been developed. are as (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) Were projectivetechniquesadministered? Ifthepsychologistused only projectivemethods for testing. jj jj 28 . ifprojective tests are the only tests administered. stereotyping.why? Were the instructionsfor the specific projective tests followed according to the manual? Ask the examinerto repeat the instructions that were given.TAT. are topics forintensecross-examination. it cannot be assumedthat projective tests are completely immune to faking. Examples include.

. j4 Such scoring procedureslend the scores an illusory semblanceofobjectivityand maycreatethe unwarrantedimpressionthat the given techniquecan be treatedasa test. objective norms. at 621. performance. at 6. The special valuethat projectivetechniques may haveis more likely to emergewhen theyare interpretedby qualitative clinical procedures than whenthey are quantitatively scoredand interpretedas psychometric instruments. that blind analysis is an unnatural wayto are interpretprojectivetest responses and does notcorrespondto the ways theseinstruments used in clinicalpractice. The test was designed to measure "a child's unconscious or nonverbal perception of each parent in the areas of competence. Ratherthanbeingregarded andevaluated as psychometric instruments. and personality idiosyncrasiesofthe examiner than it does about the examinee'spersonality dynamics.the use ofelaborate scoringsystemsthat yield psychometric procedures quantitativescores is not only wasteful but also misleading. Some investigations have revealed marked divergencesin the interpretations been conductedwith projective tests. a a a a V. testing and validationof the test has been an ongoing process since the early 1960's. (This is especiallytrue of studies concerned with the Rorschachtest. favored hypothesis. at 616. A large chanceof variations are to be expectedunder such circumstances. With longintervals. score at 615. genuine personalitychanges With shortintervals. Bricklin Perceptual Scales (Bps) 1. Ratiosand percentages responses. he believed that these tests were not well-suited for use in custody disputes. the final interpretationof as projectivefor the examineras the teststimuli are for the exatninee. Althoughonly by recently published.lacksufficientfirst-hand familiarity with the characteristicreactionsofnormal people. a Chapter 5 a jj jj In view ofthe relativelyunder-standardized scoringproceduresand the inadequacies ofnormative data. A fundamentalambiguity in such results stems from the unknown contributionofthe interprete?s skill.) Dr. The large majority ofpublishedvalidationstudies on projective techniquesare inconclusive becauseofproceduraldeficienciesineither experimental controlsor statisticalanalyses. Thus. at 617. the research. Hricklin developedthe test because. Some methodological The deficiencies may have the effect of producing spurious evidence of validity where none actually exists.Backgroundand Purpose ofBricklin The Bricklin Perceptual Scales. grossly inadequate. Neitherhighnor low scorereliabilitycanbe directlygeneralizedtoother scores from thoseutilized in the particular investigation. differing appreciably a j jj Retest reliabilityalso presents special problems. and preconceptions. theymay serve as supplementaryqualitativeinterviewingaidsin thehands ofa skilled clinician. computed with suchunreliablemeasures are often evenmore unstablethan the individual measuresthemselves. Bricklin concluded that the following characteristics were required ofany test which was to be useful to a court in custody disputes: 29 .Id. NEW DEVELOPMENTSIN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING WiTHIN THE LAST DECADE A. projective test responses may reveal more about the theoretical orientation. History.a retest mayshowno morethanrecall of original may occur which the test should detect. andpossessionofadmirabletraits. given by reasonably well qualifiedtest users. This apparentcontradictioncan perhaps be understoodifwe recognizethat. the most fundamentalquestion is that ofvalidity. a a a a a a aa a ) a a Besidestheirquestionabletheoreticalrationale.projectiveteclmiques are coming more and more to be regardedas clinicaltools."(H.BricklinPerceptual Scales Manual.PsychologicalTesting In otherwords.Ph. Many validationstudies ofprojective tests have been Mostofthosehave compared theperformanceofcontrasted concemedwith concurrent criterionrelated validation. many projectivetechniquesare found clearly wanting when evaluatedin accordancewith test standards. jjj Anothercommondeficiency to many projectiveinstruments pertainsto normative data. Such data may be In theabsence of adequate completely lacking.were firstpublishedin 1984. in whichthe testworker is interpreted bya scorerwhohashad no contactwith therespondentand who hasnoinformationabout herorhimother than that contained in the testprotocol. Theirvalue as clinical tools is proportional to the skill ofthe clinicianand. other idiosyncrasies ofthe clinician.such as occupational or diagnostic groups. Attempts to evaluate them in terms of the usual independentlyof the individual clinician using them. groups. or tests in thestrictsense ofthe term. or both. with a few exceptions.althoughhe is an "expert' in the use ofthe standardprojectivetests.thus. developed BarryBricklin. would be inappropriate.D. Theclinicianmay. the clinician falls back on his or her "general clinical experience" to interpret projective test But such a frame of reference is subject to all the distortionsofmemory that reflect theoretical bias. cannot be assessed at 622. customarycontrolforthetypesofcontaminationinvalidationstudiesis toutilize blind analysis. Commissions have argued. Bricklin. Butby the same token. For any test. concemedwith the extent to whichdifferentexaminersattribute the same personality characteristicsto the respondent Few adequatestudiesofthistype ofscore reliabilityhave on thebasisoftheirinterpretations ofthe identicalrecord. hence.however. supportiveness. Id. follow-up consistency. or based on vaguely describedpopulations. Interpretative score reliability is reliability becomes an important consideration in projective testing. projectivetechniquesare nottrulytests.j4.

. The test would have to avoid asking the childdirectquestions.). (2) supportiveness.altruism. (A few cards say 'Very Oftent' and "Not So Often"). at 1213.responses.and theanswer is recorded.where on this line would Mombe?" (b) this?" "IfDadhappensto be theone to take you to the doctor. are printedonthe reverse side of the card.ability to acceptcriticism. rather thanconscious.) (j Each question ispresentedby showingthe childa card.and this is Daddoing not so well at (e) Verbal: "I'low often does Mom make sure you do yourjobs around the house?" Non-Verbal: SUPPORTIVENESS Verbal: helping you to feel comfortable.the nonverbalportionofthe test begins. The grid ranges from I to 60. The test would have to avoid askingthe childto makea directchoicebetween parents. 2.g. and (4) possession ofadmirabletraits(e.the child is asked to respondto the questions is he at makingyou feel comfortableabout "Ifthis is Dad doingvery well at helping you to feel comfortable. ía The following are examplesofthe questionspresentedto the child in the BPS: COMPETENCY Verbal: "Ifyou had questions bout wherebabiescomefrom (childrenunder 7and older)sexandbabies (children Non-Verbal: (a) 8 and older) howhelpfuldo you think you would find it to talk to Momabout this?" "Ifthis is Mom being very helpful at answeringyour questions.32 of whichpertain to the child's perceptionsofm other and 32 to the child's perceptionsoffather. The testwouldhave to be capable ofreflectinga particularneed ofa childthat is so compellingthat the parent who could best satis& that need would receive recognition ofit in the scoring scheme.) ( Forvalidand reliableuse.) ía Thetest consistsof64 questions. The test would have to rate each parent in each area coveredby the test." (jj It is assumed that thechild's placementon the continuum represents an unconscious. where on this line would Dad be?" FOLLOWUP CONSISTENCY 30 . Construction ofBPS Fourareas are tested on the BPS: (I) the child'sperceptionofa parent's competence. The child is then askedto respondto the same questions non-verbally on a continuumline which ranges from Very Well to Not So Well.and this is Mom being not so helpful at answeringyour questions. thoughts and feelingsabout cactiparent. and this (pointing to the end marked "NotSo Well") is Dad doing not so wellathelpingyou calm down. whichpicturesa line with the words "Very Well" at the extremeright and "Not So Well"to the left. rather than on parental behavior. Thecard isheldin front ofthechild andclinicianasks. etc.trustworthiness. The test would have to look at the child'sobservations. First. "Ifthis (pointingto the end ofthe line marked"Very Well") is Dad doing very well and helpingyou calm down.) The questions. aswell asthe scoringgrid.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) The test would have to be based on the child'sperceptions. (3) follow-upconsistency. (hj at 18. at 17. thoughtsand feelings"weighted" by the child'sown value system ofthe parent at 19.) Afterthe childhas beenasked the questionsverbally and they havebeen recorded. where on this line would Dad be?" The child then uses a stylusto punch his orherresponsealong thecontinuum. at 18. The test would havetobe basedprimarilyon unconscious. keeping promises.gut-levelresponsewhich reflects a combination ofobservations. Bricklinsuggests that the test be used only on childrenages six years and up.) being consideredin the area coveredby the card. with I being "not so well" and 60 being "very well. at 17.

3 3/28/86. He also sometimesuses the Rorschach. much does he seem to enjoy this? ADMIRABLE TRAITS Verbal: "Ifthisis Dad very much enjoying time with other people. Cards 10. and this is Dad not so much enjoyingtime with other people.that child has probablybeenprogrammed orbribed. or special treatment (i. d. 6 6/30/88. promises. Suspect Reactions Wherethechildmaypreferoneparentascaretakerover theother. Dr. Dr. Watch involuntaryhand movements .). 17. 1 6/11/85. lack of rules.PsychologicalTesting Non-Verbal: Chapter 5 "Ifthis is Momveiy often making sure you do yourjobs aroundthehouse. it is based on what the child has been told ratherthan actual experience. the evaluatorsenses the possibility ofthe child having been manipulated.where one sidewants to litigateregardlessofthe data. Ask for examples. My Parent Would. (d) AdditionalDirectionsfor Child With ConsciousBias Inthemostrecentsupplement.whereon this line would Mom be?" making (d) "When Dad has a chanceto spend sometime with other people. Speak very slowly when you are reading the questions to ensure that the child understands and occasionallyask the child to repeatwhat was said. (c) Reports Bricklin bases his own reports on a combination of the BPS. c. When facedwith a real adversary case. and the House-Tree-Person Test. tying down the pertinent date to prevent "fishingexpeditions.Bricklinaddressesthe "MMU. 7BM. letting the child stay up past bedtime.whichare deliveredalong with thetest. the PerceptionofRelationshipsTest (commonly referred to as the PORT). Bricklin outlines the following as suspect regardinga child'sconscious or verbal choice: a. Bricklinsuggeststhe followingas tools to ensureaccurateBPS data with MMU children: a. 31 . 3. through gifts. Bricklin advocates writinga short report. or is a child with "mind-made-up" (MMU).the response may have been contrived. Ifthe child cannot give any exampleto backup the quick response.41 and 56. Challengesomeresponses. etc.e. and 10 of the Thematic ApperceptionTest (TAT). Bricklin has updatedthe BPS with six short supplements. b. Repeat critical wordsin long questions. and thisis Momnot sooften sure you do yourjobsaroundthe house. c. 6BM.but the evaluatorfeelsthat thepreferencemay not be in the child's best interest." Ifachildhas a conscious bias.especiallythosegiven in haste. 2 9/12/85." BPS Manual SupplementNo. BPS Manual SupplementNo.. Bricklinsuggests that the evaluatorfollowup with cards 4.where on this line would Dad be?" Bricklin PerceptualScales. Non-Verbal: Supplements to the BPS follow: A briefsynopsisofthe supplements (a) To date.does the child have an initial impulse in one direction on the continuumand then force himselfto respondon the other end ofthe continuum? e. BPS Manual SupplementNo. it involved drawing tests).for fear ofthat parent falling apart ifnot chosen. To try to furtherassess close calls.where the contestants havecome out fairlyequally on test results. Bricklin admonishes the test giver to be wary ofsuspect reactions. the evaluatorsuspectsthat the childis tryingto "save' a parent. Does the child avoid eye contact? Resist humor or friendliness? BPS Manual SupplementNo. b. (b) CloseCalls Supplement 2 helpspreparetheevaluatorfor cross-examination on close calls.

This test is designedto give us information. The agreementrate between the primary caretaking parentand all available tests was 97percent. Bricklin Perceptual Scales. (Id. the judges.respectively.4 10/15/86 jj Someinterestingvalidity research has been done in the short time that the Bricklinhas been out. The same agreementrate was arrived at by rate of89 comparisonof results on other psychologicaltests and the BPS. In anotherstudy. In twenty-sevenofthe twenty-nine cases. These last two methods had a 70% and 87%validity. When 64 cards are completed.) 5. citingJ3ricklin PerceptualScales. percent.there will be 32 paired scores. Spread yourresponsesout and give honest answers. the PerceptionofRelationshipsTest(PORT).) In the supplement. vocationaldata. The second method ofvalidity measure utilized in Bricklin's PerceptualScales involved two kinds of child in which each child was asked to name theparent more likely to lend assistance. ChapterS Scoring the BPS Supportiveness. The clinicianthen counts the numberof items on whichDad had the highestscore and the number ofitems on which Momhad the highest score. Note: the validity methodofboth BricklinPerceptualScales and the ASPECT test should be questionedasone methodof validitywhich appears to be highly touted bythe authors ofthese tests is the fact that Judges pickedthe same person. one Ackerman. Twenty-nine out ofthirty-sixcases in whichthetest asgiven went to Courtto determinecustody.or controlin a wide varietyof circumstances. 11 ofwhich measure Competency. However. in particular.at33-4. unlike.etc. However.4 10/15/86. school and medical records. as the person chosen by ASPECTor Bricldin.. in dealingwith reliability." a tested several ways. The surveywas basedon 27 respondents. testimony offriendsandrelatives.Bricklinnotes that in formal thejudge's choice and the BPS resultsofwho would be thebetter primarycaretakingparent had an agreementhearings. a primary caretakerofthe child in a custodysuit. BPS ManualSupplementNo.sincethey shouldvaryinaccordanceexpect with changes inthechild'sperceptions. thoseconcernscould be eliminated.and the only change was for a child who was in family therapy. Knowingthe adversarialsystem as well as we all do.usinga samplepool of141 cases. The parent achieving the higher number ofhighest scores perceives that parent as the primarycaretakingparent. questionnaires Bricklin acknowledges that some experts havenot been gathering verbal responsesdue to their reasoningthat forcing the childto give a verbal responsemaycause tension ifthe nonverbalresponseisdifferent." BPS Manual Supplement No. much dependsupon the quality oflawyeringand the waythe case was handledin situationswhere custody is determinedby theCouxt The author ofthis paper holdscertainreservationsabout this particularmethod 43. using all evidencepresented.Psychological Testing 4. for example. Bricklin admonishesevaluatorswho encountera childwhoroboticallypunches one end ofthecontinuum the or other to instruct the childas follows: "We alreadyknow you want to live with (whoever)." BPS Manual SupplementNo. Other personalitytests may reveal that Dad is an alcoholic.52/15/88. (lc at 33 -4. where 12 children incustody caseswere retested on the BPS withina 7-month span oftheoriginaltesting. for 36.including life histories.or the MMPI or the Rorschach. six children in a non-adversarypopulationwere retested. None ofthe data changedsignificantly.and one whichrequired the child to describe what each parent would do in prescribed practicaland fantasysituations.ifthe validity data includedseveral hundred cases. 11 measure The cliniciangoes throughthe paired Point Scores foreach item and draws a circle around the expressed purpose of which to increase the quality of parenting ofthe newcustodialparent. in One method involvedvalidationagainst a previouslyvalidated Validity hasbeen instrument. notes that "there are no reasons to the measurements reportedhere to exhibitany particulardegreeofstability. Advantagesofthe BPS The Bricklin PerceptualScales are so new that it is noteasy to assessitsadvantagessince the research data on this test is so limited. Limitedreliabilitystudies havebeen conducted. is clearfollow-tip that the Bricklin is much more of a valid tool for the clinician who is faced with evaluating one or both parents and making a recommendation to the Court. gavecustodyto the sameparent as the BPSscoredas beingtheprimarycaretaker. The agreementrate between the psychologists's interpretations and the clinical life history data was 91 percent. 3 measure Follow-UpConsistency and 7 measure Admirable Traits. ReliabilityandValidity ofthe BPS at 282.but it does not 32 . 6. Bricklinassertsthat BPS responses are rarely "fake"because "BPSnonverbalresponsesallow childrento tell what theywant to tellwithout ever havine to come into conflict with parentalverbal commands.

Most important. is a professorat Columbia Universityin New York.) a disturbancein whichchildrenalienationsyndrome"as: are with preoccupied Dr. They have beenpurchasedby every level ofgovernmentfrom county to the UnitedStatesgovernment. Ifthe child is eight years ofage or below. DavidI3rodzinsky. Depending on how the questions are asked the clinician. these instruments are likelyto provide informationthat is particularlyrelevant tothe issues beforethe court.ifvideotapingtheadministration the testisnot possible. In his book. therefore.Gardner. [R. it includesfactorsthat arisewithin the child . they representa valuable addition to the field ofchildcustody evaluation." isunjustifiedand/orexaggerated. answer in such a way to make that particular"win.M. To date. Futureresearch. becauseifthat childis campaigningtobe with a particularparent. Theconceptofthe parentalalienationsyndromeincludesthe brainwashing component. have influencedthe child's answers should be undertaken.Gardnerdevelopedthe SALSto focuson and battle what he hasdubbed the " is a flfl at addressingwhat is really relevantin custodydisputes: the child. Sex Abuse Leeitimacv Scales (Sals) I. of ofwhether Additionally.D. It includes not only consciousbut subconsciousand unconsciousfactors within the programming parent that contribute to the child'salienation from the other.214 -219.] Dr. to insureforreliableand validuse. Dr. may greatly influence the child'sanswers. 24. The attorneyshould pay attention to theage ofthe child that the BPS is given to. Bricklin suggeststhat the 'bottomline"age.2. in any way. David M. Thenotion that such childrenaremerely 'brainwashed' is narrow. ismuch more but inclusive. Parental AlienationSyndrome The Sex AbuseLegitimacy Scaleswere developedbyRichardA. Dr. Brodinsky. "On the Use and Misuse of Psychological Testing in Child Custody Evaluations. Dr.) At the very least.willneed toresolvethedilemma regarding validation ofthese measures. because even Dr.thena detailedexamination the clinician could. Additionally. Gardnerhas published extensivelyon the subjectofpsychotherapywith childrenofdivorce.however.000timesaspart ofacustodyevaluation.independent ofthe parental contributions.PsychologicalTesting Chapters revealhow this trait inDad impacts on his child. the attorney should ask the psychologistifdevelopmentallythechild is capable ofabstract thinking. The Parental AlienationSyndrome and the Differentiation between Fabricated and Genuine Sex Abuse.thatplay a role in the 33 deprecationand criticismofaparent .The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the DifferentiationBetween Fabricated and Genuine Sex Abuse.hundreds ofmajor hospitalsanduniversitiesuse the BPS and PORTintheir outpatientclinics.denigrationthat . Gardner discusses the developmentand underlying theory supporting his Sex AbuseLegitimacyScales(hereinafterreferredto as "SALS"). or ifitis even relevant." PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH ANDPRACTICE. thetest may not bevery reliable forchildrenover the age of12. (and this is extremelyimportant). p. in administering the test. no. The term brainwashingimplies that one parent is systematicallyand consciouslyprogrammingthe child to denigratethe other. Cross-Examination ofthe Expert Anycross-examination ofthe expert shouldelicit the information that the BPS is a very new testingdevice and has not yet received outside confirmation ofreliabilityand validity." Ask the psychologist ifit is possible that this has happened.a practicingchild psychiatristand adult psychoanalyst. Associate ProfessorofClinicaland Developmental Psychologyat Rutgers University. states the followingabout the BPS: Despitethe limitations ofthese alternativeassessmentprocedures[such as the BPS].They havebeenused inall fiftystates and accepted as part ofcourtroomproceedings in these states. Furthermore. Dr. 1993. Gardner. As such. Additionally. B. (New Jersey: CreativeTherapeutics. what has an impact on one child does not necessarilyhaveimpact on another. As theBPS andother testsbecome more frequentlyused. Gardner.1987). the questionsare structuredin such a waythat a bright 12 year-oldwould realize the result of his or her answers and. they shift the focus from a more traditional clinical assessment to one in which the evaluator is focusingmore on a fUnctional analysis of the parties' competencieswithinspecificchildcare roles. Bricklin believes that the BPS successfullyaddresses all the main complexities which plague custody decision-making. tobe age six and above. 7. Dr.the Bricklin PerceptualScalesand the PerceptionofRelationships administeredmore than50. Gardnerdefines "parental (jj at 67.(Jjat 16.theirreliabilityandvalidityincustodyevaluationswill Test(PORT) havebeen becomemore clear. Moreover.

parents have been more apt to "brainwash' a child to insurevictory. Inaddition. and telling the child about innocentconversationsMom'shad with men as "proof' ofMom's infidelity.i.situational factors maycontribute. at 689. An exampleofsubtle would be the old guilt trip trick. withoutconsideringthat the child mayin factbe betteroff with the denigratedparent. outside in the waiting area..e. Example: sayingto the child.) (jj Dr."your fatherhas got other people in his programming in the life. they may let theirguard down and start to enjoy themselves." at 71-2.or speaking loudly when telling the child to brush his or her teeth before bed." givingadissertationon the alleged wrongs committedby the "hated" parent in aspeech that has a rehearsedquality. Momcomplainingtothechild or children somuch aboutnewfinancialrestrictions that thechildrenthink they may go without food. almostas ifthey have realizedthat they are doing something 'wrong. or telling the child to get somethingfor the hated expressionsoflove and affection. Gardner contendsthat there are two reasons for the increase in manifestationsof the parental alienation syndrome:(I)the"bestinterestofthechild" presumption superseding thesexistandoutdated"tenderyears"presumption (i.whenthechild is alonewith the allegedly hatedparent. to neutrality.) ( Chapters at 67-S. at 89-92.Psychological Testing development ofthe syndrome. Whenyou're gone. Gardner notes that parental alienation will manifest itselfwith the "brainwashed" child an "obsession"about the "hated" parent. orin open court. the parental alienation syndrome is when a child." at 75-88." For example: the child believing for some reason that he or she is "bad for wanting to visit" the noncustodial parent or a daughterbelievingthat her father must choose betweenher and his newgirlfriend.he or she may exhibit anything from hatred. And the same statementismade to the other or shelter becauseDad's now a ( Talking to the children about problemswith the other spouse and exaggeratingthem. Whenthese childrenare with the hated parent. the latter representing the theorythat mothersshould be favoredover fathersas custodiansof children oftender years). for no valid reason.e. Dr. the more likely the child will manifesthis or her alienation. Such children may find family interviewswith therapists extremely anxiety provokingbecauseofthe fear that theirmanipulationsand maneuvers willbe divulged. Dr. such as: ifMomhas a glassofwineover a businesslunch. and (2) withjointmanagingconservatorships taking an upswing.' they will suddenly stiffen up and resume their expressions of withdrawal and animosity.) (j (c) Factors Arising WithinThe Child The parental alienation often developsfrom contributionsarisingfrom "psychopathologicalfactors withinthe child. FactorsContrihutinE to Development ofParental Alienation.she becomes"an alcoholic.) (jj 34 . Gardner urges that anyoneinvolved in custody litigation recognizethe phenomenon.judge's chambers. Then. The child'salienation may be rationalizedby trivial events such as the "hated" parent forcing the child to write out an incorrectspellingword 25 times to insurethat the same error will not be repeated.e. Gardner states that: "The professions ofhatred are most intense when the children and the loved parent are in the presenceof the alienatedone. (b) Subtle Programminn Subtleprogrammingis akin to brainwashing. factors that existin the family and the environment that may play a rote in bringing about the disorder.and the closer the loved parent is (in the room.) Scrooge.) ( (i 2. Gardnernotesthat theproximityoftheloved parenthas an impacton thechild's reactions.butoften unconscious. at 72. the court-appointedpsychologist'sdeveloping office. In this way these children 'cover their tracks' and thereby avoid the disclosure of their schemes." In laymen's terms. Given the proper forum i. all I have wholeworld is you.thechildwill provide"a command performance.) Dr. Dr. at 80-8. Anothermaneuver commonlyseen in this situationis the child's professingaffectionto one parent and askingtheparent to swear that he orshe will not revealto the other parent the professionsoflove. I am so alone". at home). Forexample: (i) (ii) (iii) Dad convincing himself that Mom is having an affair.Gardneridentifiesthe following four factors as contributing the child'sdevelopmentofparental alienation: to (a) Brainwashing Brainwashing includesconsciousacts of programming the child againstthe other parent. However. is distantand/or has dislike for one ofhisor her parents.

. andareoften encouraged to do so by theaccuser. Presenceof Parental AlienationSyndrome." at 100. (iv) Credibilityofthe Description. As Dr. .whereby "an attemptwas madeto providea more egalitarianrole for both parents in their children'supbringing." (D.beginningevenatthe nursery THE CHILD Dr. anyone whowill listen." (Gardner.) Dr.) Examples ofsituationalfactorsthat add to the parentalalienation syndrome would be when one sibling observes another being punished.". Nassau.October26.combineto generategenuine perceptionsof abuse but invalid reports. that the fabricator is likely to provide preposterousexplanations. Ifa child is makingthingsup. "False Accusationsof Physical and Sexual Abuse. treatedbadly. The childwho has trulybeen abused may feel guiltyas a result of feeling pleasure over said activities. !pfl at Ill." (jj. Fabricated and Bona Fide Sex-abuseAlleeations in Custody Disputes Dr. (IL at 92-6. Childrenwhohavetrulybeenabused"may feel guiltyover theirdisloyaltyand therecognition that the disclosure is goingto result in formidable painfulconsequences for the perpetrator. "[h]eightened instinctual forces in childrenand regressive loosening ofprelitigation characterdefensesin adults." (Jj at 92." Annual Conference ofAmericanAcademyofPsychiatryand the Law. Gardnerstipulates thatchildren whohavegenuinely beenabusedwillpresentmoreconcrete facts than children who are fabricating. Gardneridentifiesten criteriaas being very valuablein differentiatingbetweengenuineand fabricated sex abusewhen interviewing the child. (iii) Providing Specific Details. it shows in his or herdescription. Fabricatorswill talk. (i) Fabricating children are thoughttobe more likely to manifestsymptomsofparental alienation syndrome. and the mother: 1.both in the contextofstressful family breakdown. 35 . Guilt Relatingto the Consequences ofthe Disclosureofthe Accused.. Kidswho are genuinetendnot tobethrilledbytheprospectofspillingtheirguts tocaseworkers. Fabricatorsdonot tendto exhibitguiltor remorseover what mighthappen to theperpetratoras a resultofthedisclosure. Criteria for Constructionofthe SALS Dr. orrejected for speakingout on behalf ofthe rejectedparent. Daniel C. [1]t is in the description of theejaculate. Dr. (v) (vi) Guilt Relatingto Participation in SexualActivities. lawyers.) Moreover. .namely. and describe the "stuff" that came out of perpetrator's penis as yellow and clear like urine --the only other "stuff'with which the kid has a frame ofreference. Gardneracknowledgesthat children have been exposed to sex abuse as an increasinglycommon topic on television. Gardnerpropoundsthe following criteriaforassessingthe child.especially.etc.ofcourts shiftingaway from the tenderyears presumption towardjointcustody. . Gardnercontinuesthat perhapsbecause of"a progressiveerosion of the mother's secure position in custody disputes . Gardner discussesthe changes ofthe late '70's and early 80's. Theoppositeis truewith fabricators.the father. The fabricatordoes not feel guilt over the sexualactivitieshe orshe has allegedlytakenpart in.external eventsthatcontribute' and/or" . The Bahamas.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 Situational Factors (d) Situational factorswould bethose". at 99.[in 1982 or 1983 1 began seeing a new development.) a. . psychologists. Shuman. the utilization offabricatedallegationsofchild sex abusein the contextofcustodydisputes. Both parentsand childrenare educatedand havethe ideathat an allegationofsex abuse will certainlyget the Court's attention in a custody suit. andthat sex abusepreventionprograms havebecomestandard in more schools.) 3. the fabricating child is likely to take the interviewer's lead. Schumandiscussedat an annual conferenceofthe American AcademyofPsychiatryand Law in 1984. (ii) Receptivityto Divulgence.judges.abetthe internal psychological processesin the parentsand in the child.) (jj schoollevel.

Victims ofabusetendtoconsidertheirgenitalsashavingbeendamaged. sexuallyabusedchildrenareoften compliant. Gardner recognizes that sleep disturbances. (ii) SeekingHired Gun Evaluator Gardner thinks that mothers of fabricatorswill. 36 .the mother ofthe fabricatorwill bring in a hired gun.chronicity.such as classroom presentations. Fabricatorsdonothave such feelings. children who have been abused tend to display regressivebehavior."hire her a whore.' Rather than trusting the court-appointedpsychologist. pseudo-maturity.) (jj 2.) Dr. (j4 at 109-17.Psychological Testing Chapter 5 Fear ofthe AllegedPerpetrator. ifin fact the husbandhas truly abused the child. or did Mom. (j at 117-21. in the words of one of Dallas' top family litigators. such as physical contact with the interviewer. Children whohave genuinely beenabused mayengageindesensitizing play --such as ejecting the doll that representsthe perpetratorfrom the dollhouse. movies. victims tendto be more likely to suffer from psychosomatic disorders. THE MOTHER Initial Scenario (i) The intervieweris to determinehow mama first learned of the abuse -. (x) Attitude Toward Genitalia. developingacheerful facade toward offthe threat fabricators borrowtheirscenarios from other experiences.seductive behavior with the perpetratorand retractionmay all potentiallyhave high value in differentiatinggenuinefrom fabricatedsex abuse. for example.) Ofmoderatesignificance to Gardnerare thefollowing: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) the litany offabricatorhas a rehearsedquality. genuinevictimstend to withdrawfrom involvement with others. (ix) Desensitizing Play. at 121-24.and will not independently characterizetheir genitalsas damaged. etcetera.did the child report that dad attackedhimin the shower. genuinevictimsfrequentlymanifestdepression.inquire whether Dad had washedhis penis and ifhis penis "got a little hard when Daddywas washing it?" Shame Gardner notes that many mothers would be ashamed at having to report reprehensibleconduct on the part of their husbands. (vii) The fabricator usuallyis not frightened ofthe alleged perpetrator -. and ofthedire consequences outlined by the perpetratorfor noncompliance.only ofwhat the accused mightdo to the child as a result ofthe false accusation. (vi) (vii) (viii) children whohave been abused often displaya deep-seatedsense ofbetrayal. (viii) Sexual Excitation. (iii) (iv) Joint InterviewCorroboration. Children whohavetruly beenabusedexperiencean early "turnon" forwhich theymay seek an outlet.

voyeurism. While mothersofchildren genuinelyabused tend to be passive or incapacitated.) 3. (ii) Fathers who have been falsely accused suffer fromextremeindignation. (i) Children who have truly beenabused have frequentlybeenbribed or threatened by the erring father.mothers offabricatorstend to be aggressive and outspoken.) 37 . (vii) (lj at 134-37. Gardnerpoints out the following criteria as having a moderate affect on differentiating mothers of children fabricating sex abuse as opposed to mothersofchildren who have been genuinelyabused: as a result ofrepeated interrogations. he outlines the followingas very valuable differentiating criteria to distinguish a father of a fabricator from a father who has abused his child: Bribes or Threats. Gardner observesthat the personalitycharacteristics regarding motherofthe child alleging abuse should also the at 131-32. Gardner argues that mothersoffabricatorswere not typicallyabused as children. often rigid and strict.sado-masochism. Fatherswho have a history ofhaving beenabused themselves are more likely to abuse their Fathers offabricatorsare morelikely to beenthusiastic abouttaking a lie detectorthan someone who has abused their child. (iii) (jlj Gardner pointsoutthe followingcriteriaas havingamoderate affect ondifferentiating fathersofchildren who have beengenuinelyabused: (i) children.) considers whathe characterizes as "obligatory homosexuality' as deviant. (1c at 137-38. ( ( THEFATHER While Gardneradmits that generalizations regardingthepersonalitycharacteristics of fatherswho arebona tide abusers are dangerous. and homosexuality.) Gardner observesthat stepfathers are morelikely toabuse than natural fathers. (i) Themotherofa genuine victim will appreciate the psychologicaltrauma sufferedby the child Mothersofchildren whohavebeenabused maystillrecognizethe importanceofthefather-child (ii) relationship. Presence OfOther SexualDeviations. Anabusermay choose a careerthatbrings himinto contactwith children. Gardner argues that a man who engages in pedophilia will exhibit other deviations such as 'exhibitionism rape." Here Gardnerdisplays one ofhis biases: he at 132-34.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 Gardner has noted that fabricators. He furthernotesthat fathers who abuse. tend to be very moralistic about sex.accordingto (iv) at 124-31. be assessed. A father who has abused his child will be morelikely to regress in stressfulsituations.and seek to preserve it in spite ofthe abuse. and Fatherswho abuse their children are morelikely to be social isolates. will frequentlygive Mom side-longglancesto "check"their stories. Indignation.) Gardner. Fatherswho abuse are more likely to suffer fromlow self-esteem than fathers who do not. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Fatherswho abuse are more likely to have a history ofdrug and/or alcohol abuse. during the course ofjoint interviews with Mom. butwill take (iii) intoaccountthe childhoodhistory ofsex abuse ofthe parties.

Moreover. Gardneralso suggests thatthe court-appointed psychologistresearch the medicaland/orhospital file on the child. one very important item regarding the child alleging the sex abuse would be the item "very hesitantto divulge the sexual abuse. The book explains how bestto evaluate and scoreeach ofthe itemsin the scale. The Parental Alienation Syndromeand the Differentiation Between Fabricated and GenuineChild Sec Abuse (Cresskill. ITEMS The SALS consists of 26 items to be propounded to the child who alleges the sex abuse. In the instructionsto the SALS. anotherofa person ofthe opposite sex. A cumulativescore is not computed. credible.point for each Yes answer.he mandates a court order allowinghimto interview all of the parties." at Addendum III. Differentiating Criteria ofLow But Potentially Higher Value . for the accuser. Gardner in chapters 3.) (jj. Dr. Thedifferentiatingcriteria are divided intothreecategories. and 5 of his hook. giving the child an opportunity to draw a pictureand tell a story about it." making information elicited through the use ofsuch dolls less at AddendumHi) Dr. Moderately valuable Differentiating Criteria .New Jersey: CreativeTherapeutics. ( c. Failure to use these guidelinesmay result in misleadingor erroneous conclusions. Gardnerstates thatthe use of anatomicallycorrect dolls is simply "loading the dice. a third ofa family. In order to give greater weight to the more valuable criteria. he suggests that the interviewer inquire oftheparentspet names that may be used for body parts." (Iclj 1. 3. thesmaller the numberofYes answers." (ith) I Separate scores are calculatedfor the child. Gardnerhas created three categories: Very Valuable DifferentiatingCriteria (a) (b) (c Moderately ValuableDifferentiating Criteria Differentiating Criteria ofLow But PotentiallyI-TitherValue 3. The SALS Test Many psychologistsfeel that Gardner's Sex Abuse Legitimacy Scale is not a "test.2 points for each Yes answer. SCORING Dr." The reason: lack of empiricaldata. in any sequence he feels is warranted. physical manifestations may no longerbe present.When medical evidence is not present.3 points foreach Yes answer. ClinicalEvaluation Dr.PsychologicalTesting Chapters b. Unlessthe evidence or clinical examinationwarrants it. Part B. items to be to the accuser. Gardnerexplainsthe use andscoringofthe itemsas follows: "The itemsare wordedsothat thegreaterthe numberofYesanswers. CRITERIA As outlined above. Therefore.4. PartC. who can also score a maximum of27 points. the greaterthe likelihood the sex abuse has been fabricated. Gardner employsthe use ofaudiocassettesand videocassettes to document theevaluation. fromthe most to the lease valuable. In contrast. Gardnersuggests a direct verbal inquiry with a child. Dr.he requiresthe child to tell a storyabout the familypicture.and neveragrees tonot being allowedto interview the child in the presence ofthe allegedperpetrator.the SALS is best characterized as aclinical tool. who can score a maximum of 60 points. Priorto interviewing a particularly youig child. 38 . this instrumentmust be used in association with the information provided by Dr. Dr. "no. Richard A. and for the accused.the SALS includesthe following warning on the frontofthe instrument: "WARNING: In order to be used in a meaningfulway.1987). andasking the child to drawa picture ofa person. but as an example." or "not clear or not applicable. Gardnercomes to his conclusions based solely on his clinicalexperience as opposed to anystudies. as by the time the evaluatoris called in.and 13 itemsis tobe propounded tothe accused. the SALS Scores may be the primary sourcesofinformation about whetherthe sex abuse allegationis valid. Theitemsand criteria are outlined above. In fact. and finally. Gardneroutlines the followingsalientpoints: . greaterthe likelihood that thesexabuse the is genuine. the followingpoint scores are to be given for Yes answers in each ofthe threecategories: Part A. who can score a maximumof27 points. especiallywhere the accuser is the mother." to whichthe interviewer would cheek "yes." propounded II 2. Gardneradvocates the use ofa clinical evaluationin conjunction with the SALS. Very Valuable Differentiating Criteria .

In fact. Gardnerchoosesto publishthe empiricaldatahe hasgathered. it would not be surprisingto finddifferentresultsdependingon theprejudicesand bias ofthe individualpsychologist. 7 to 29 are follows: Child Part A: n x 3 = maximumof39 Part B:nx2=maximumofl6 Part C: n x I = maximumof5 Maximumtotal ofA+B+C = 60 6 or below indicatesfabrication. accuserand accused have been completed. that increases the likelihood offabrication or abuse. "Rather.Psychological Testing ChapterS In computingthe scores. 4 to 13 areinconclusive. then any two psychologistswhoadministerit shouldgetthesameresults. respectively.dependingon which end ofthe spectrum the score leans toward. Until Dr. e. However. There areno studiesthat havebeen ameansofcompilingdata capableofstatistical interpretation." (jj) d. itcertainlycomescloser to measuring theexistenceofsex abuse than any othertestbeforeit.the accuserand the accused. Direct Examination OfThe Expert manner. that a score of 50% or more out of the maximumor more suggestsbona fide sex abuse.consideringthesubjectivityof thescoring oftheSALS. In fact. the Sex AbuseLegitimacyScales succeedas a valid instrument. thereisno wayto determineifthe SALS trulymeasureswhethersex abusehas occurredornot. Ifone ofthe inconclusive score leans towarda significantscore.based on his years of experience and research. whereas a score of 10% ofthe maximumorbelowsuggests fabricated sex abuse. £ theSALSfails. (1) Establish that the SALS is a systematic effort to quantify a very emotional situation in an objective The SALS takes into account the suspicion that sex abuse may havebeen raised merely for litigation (2) rather than for legitimate purposes. with "n' representingthe number of"yes" checks.the scale shouldbe used alter the interviewswith the child. Establish that the SALShelps to determineif the parties and/or the child requirecounseling. () THE SALS SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A QUESTIONNAIRE.and/or if (3) visitationshould be supervisedor limited. 14 suggests real abuse Accused PartA: n x 3 = maximumof 12 PartB: n x 2 = maximumof 12 PartC: n x I = maximumof3 Maximum total ofA+13+C = 27 3 or below indicatesfabrication.or a clinical tool. Both individual and joint interviewsmust be conductedin order toproperlyassess conflicting data that is often presented. Gardnershouldbeapplaudedforhis efforts.4 to 13 areinconclusive. scoresareweighted as follows forthe child. Ifforno other reasonDr. As a rating system. 39 .Dr. Gardner himselfnow testifies that it is not a test and has withdrawn it as such. 30 suggestsreal abuse Accuser Part A: ox 3 = maximumof 18 Part B: nx2maximumof8 Part C: n x I = maximum of I Maximumtotal ofA+B+C =27 3 or below indicatesfabrication.andon whichhebases theitems and scoringofthe SALS. however. Gardner contends.14 suggests real abuse Dr. of Reliability/Validity the SALS IftheSALSis a reliabletest.

Thedevicemeasures: changes in blood flow through the penis [to] detect sexual arousal. ThePhallic Plethysmograph. and advocates.3' rating scale. Ifthe psychologistdoes not have the same amountofexperience as Gardner. by contrastto the other tests discussedin this article.mightbe expectedtoexhibitsexual arousal atthe sight ofyoung children. is aphysiologicalbehavioral assessmentdevice.' (Also note his opinion that "obligatory homosexuality" is an illness." "petermeter.iftheaccuseddrownedwhensubmergedin the"SalemWaterTest" theywere obviouslyinnocent. (9) moderatelyvaluable. for example. has been sexually abused." and the mother as the loved parent. no other psychologicaltest has providedsuch assessment. Gardnerdoes not provide definitions forsuch wordsas "moralistic". What is moralisticto one psychologistmay be blasphemy for another. Opinions are not equal to is possibleto determine their sexualpreferences.get the expert to admit that Gardner'sitemsand scores are based on opinion. 4. Establish that the SALS makes an effort at quantification by attributing numerical values to the (8) assessments. they were burned at thestake as only those guiltyas chargedcould survive the water test)." based on a "reflection of' his "own observation. Phallic Plethysmouraph The PhallicPlethysmograph. affectionatelyalso knownas the "dipstick. Gardnercharacterizes the abuserbywhether ornot he has pedophilic characteristics. or ifhe or she did not adhere to the guidelinesoutlined in the book.or oflow but capable ofhigh importanceis neverjustified by empirical data. he characterizesthe father as the "hatedparent. or the justificationofhis '1. Additionally. Ifthe expert testifiesthat the SALSis a test." may wellbe the functional. the test can most definitelybe effectedby the attitudes and beliefs ofthe examiner. By showing photographsof sexual stimulito subjects.thevictim andthe accuser.homosexualsatthe portrayalofsomeone ofthe 40 .Psychological Testing Chapter5 Establish that the SALS providesa means for. point out the lack ofempirical data validatingthe items or the criteria by which they are adjudged. Beforethe SALS." and "hardo'meter. (6) (5) Establish that the SALSprovidessomemeansofhelp forthepsychologist determiningwhetherachild in Establish that the SALS strivesto befair in including the alleged perpetrator. Ifone of the parties declines to be interviewed then ask thepsychologisthow he or she can quantify (3) interviews ifone ofthe partiesdeclinedto participate? (4) Question the psychologistabout Gardner's failure to show the building blocks through which he established his items. but never explains howhe definespedophilia. Cross-Examination OfThe Expert TheSALS is nota true test. and (I) not simply a clinical tool. Get the expert to admit that the rating scale forces dichotomouscategories of responseswhere most (6) responsesshouldfall on a continuum(cx: does the child lovehis or her parents?) (7) Additionally. The attorney should get the expert to admit to this problemwith the SALS. f. Further. Ask the expert ifGardner does not state thingsas universal truths that may in fact not be universally (8) acceptedtruths: cx: althoughGardnerdisclaimshaving sexistviews. the resulting scores should be disregarded.modem-dayequivalentofthe Salem WaterTest (used to determine ifa person was a witch orwarlockas alleged. Establish that the SALS includes amultiplicityof factors under each area. interviewingall of the parties involved (4) in thecase/sex abuse allegations.2. ifthey floated. Without such definitionsand standards to go by. It is simplya ratingscale. The SALS is subjective.) The expert should be forced to admit that the characterization of certain items as very valuable. allowing the interviewerto (7) check unclear or uncertain"(wluch is often the way things are). Child molesters. other thanhis own experience.and one examiner'sassessment could vary vastly from another examiner's (5) assessment. There are no standards defined for making the scale other than those outlined in chapters 3-5 of (2) Gardner's book.

bust measurements. Phallic plethysmography has been developing over the courseof the last twenty years as a meansofmeasuringmale sexual response. the Phallic Plethysmograph is an attemptto documentpenile tumescence. Bancroft. and heterosexuals formembersofthe opposite sex. "Physiological MeasuresofSexualArousalin the Human.] b. Plethysmographycombinesthe use of an electrocardiogram machine and some type of "strain gauge. 3 Urology235 (September. [D.[K.] ofVolunietricand Circumferential MeasuresofPenile volumetric devices.PsychologicalTesting Chapter5 samesex.) Every actionhas an equaland opposite reaction. The cuffmeasuresthe erectile response ofthe subject. In addition.]and metal-bandstrain gauges. Many researchers therefore advocate conversion of circumferentialgauge scores to percent full erection scores. plethysmography can determinechanges in bloodvolumein the part being examined.] Hence.orcapableofcommunicating by intercom. ( prepubescentor blank slides. note 107. a. The slides may be accompanied by an audiocassette."36 Joumalof AppliedBehavioralAnalysis. or the legal forum.. The subject is isolated.3 Somemethodsemploy circumferentialmeasuringdevices. R.typically. The gauges all measure increased gauge strain. Jones & B. A plethysmographic is wrappedaroundthe base ofthe flaccidpenis. An increase or decreasein the size of the penis has a direct impact on the amountofair trappedwithin the pneumaticcuff." InN. (klj jjjj Penile tumescence has been documentedas the best measure of sexual arousal in males.S. History And Background The phallic plethysmograph was developedas an adjunct to biofeedback. Note: if ever there was an area calling for a case by case analysis. Speakinggenerically.] "Plethysrnography may be definedas the measurement Phallicplethysmographyhas beenused to diagnoseand treat impotence. 16 ArchivesofSexual Behavior.S. 289-299(1987). The cuffis constricted(ifa pneumatic cuffis used. H."Queen' 236. (Note: the cuffis akin to the cuff type ofcufftypically used to measure bloodpressure). al.73-76 (1970).) findmostattractive.B.A.this is it.includingmercury-inrubberstraingauges. The subjectis shownslidesranging from clothedmales or femalesto nude subjects. withthe subject Thetechnicianadministering the test iseitherin the room. 4 Behavior Research and Therapy.Rubin. Greenfieldand R. I BehaviorResearch and Therapy.With Comments on Its Use in the Treatment of Sexual Disorders".] There has not been a sufficientamount ofcomparativedata compiledto determine if one method is more reliable than another. Barlow. The penis might be wrappedin something like Handiwrapto assure cleanliness.Canada BehaviorResearch and Therapy Vol.subjects undergothe following: (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) The subject is seated on a recliner.H. ofchanges in volume ofa portion of the body.such as hair and eyecolor.WheelerandH. "A Laboratory MethodofDiagnosingPredominance Erotic Interest in the Male". [M. 22." (Roedinger.actual plethysmographymeasuresthe volume displacedby the enlargedpenis. 23(3) 273-280 (1985). this procedureyields "reproducible" measurements. (Kedia. Since transientchanges in the volumeofmost partsofthe body are related to blood circulation. [D. height. whichvary the severityofaggressionportrayedby theslide. No. 239-241 (1966). Leitenberg & W." Vol.jI2.Agras "A Mechanical StrainGaugeforRecordingPenile Circumference Change. [J. (Malcolm. Obviously." [P. thereby ofHomo-andHeteroeliminating individual variances.a) The above-described method is only one ofseveral available. et. directly corresponding to circumferential increases of the penis. Kedia. Biofeedbackmeasures a person's responses to stimuli and allows the person to learn to control his or her responses to those stimuli."Penile Plethysmography Useful in DiagnosisofVasculogenicImpotence.Kingston Penitentiary TreatmentCenter. Pullman. Becker.the transformation from flaccid to erect will be vastly differentbetweensubjects. thetightening is accomplished by injectingair into thecuff"producingan air pressureequal to meanarterialpressureplusone-thirdoftheblood pressure). Sternback(Eds)Handbookof Psychophysiology 709-749(New York: Holt Rinehart& Winston 1972). Freund." or "constricting ring.1983). The technician might also be behind a two-way mirror to assure that the subject is watchingthe slides presented. 85-93 (1963)." [K. Construction ofthe Test Althoughseveral types ofmethodshavebeen conducted.] 41 .H. Zuckerman. "Control of Penile Tumescence: The Effects ofArousalLevel and StimulusContent."A SimpleTransducerforMeasuringPenile Erection. the Phallic Plethysmograph has been used to assess and treat sex offenders. Malcolm. Itisthen possible topinpointfeaturesthat subjects at 525. "AComparison Erection".

Psychological't'esting c. Measuring ErectileResponses


Sciencehas surelyprogressed since Mae West first asked"Isthat a bananain yourpocket,orare to see me?" The followingmethods areused in measuring responsesto the Phallic Plethysmograph: you just happy
(1) (2) (3) Millimeter change in circumferencefrom the flaccidstate. Conversion ofraw score into percentagescore basedon subject'smeasurementat full erection. Z-scoresare determinedby analyzingeach subject's responsestoall stimuli; mean and standard scoresare calculated, thenconvertedinto "z" scores,whichrepresentthemean in standardized deviationunits. [V.L. Quinsey and G. Harris "Comparison of Two Methods of Scoring the Penile CircumferenceResponse: Magnitude and Area", 7 Behavior Therapy,702-04(1976).] for

opt scoringpenile ofpeak response,while othersmeasurethetotal curve oftheresponse,which alsomeasureslatency. (Freund, jjji.)

Researchersconflictoverwhen toscorethe erectileresponse--many

tumescencein terms

Use Of Microcomputers In TumescenceMonitoring

Many innovatorsofPlethysmography advocatethe use of"computerassistedtumescence monitoringsystems" [W.R. Farrall and R.O. Card, "Advancements in PhysiologicalEvaluationofAssessment and Treatmentofthe Sexual Aggressor", 528 Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 266 (1988).] The new affordability of personal computersmeans that every practitionercan have advancedtechnologyat his or her fingertips. "Preliminaryfindings indicatethat with improvedprocedures, a wealth ofpreviouslyunseen data about the offendercan be gathered. (j4)
(1) Examples OfDeviantAudio Segments

Audio segmentsare used in the presentationofsome Phallic Plethysmographs, followedby, or in conjunction with, slides"involvinga wide varietyofdeviantsexualactivitiesfocusedon male/female victimsover a wide range, and an adult-heterosexual sequence." (hjat 268.) Whilethe authors refuseto presentexamples ofdeviant visual segments used in a Plethysmograph, following are two examplesofdeviantaudio segmentsformulated by Robert D. Card, ofthe Clinic for Counseling and Psychotherapy, Inc., and William R. Farrall, of Farrall Instruments,Inc. (note: Farrall Instruments is the world's largestmanufacturer ofplethysmographs), who have developeda new,computer-controlled stimulus presentation,data collection and analysissystem: CHILD MOLEST, FemaleVictim3-8 years Old. I really like littlekids. They like me too. They always seem to want to climhon my knee or play horsie with me. I feel so good when I see them running tome when I go into the room. Theywant to climbon my lap and wrigglearound and cuddleup to me. They'reso soft and cute. I hopeshe wantsto sit on my lap today. She's thecutestone. I feel so goodwhen I'm there. Ijust want to touch her a bit. Maybe we can do it in the other room. It feels so good whenshe squirmsaround. Maybe she'll want to touch it. I could gether to do some thingsifwe playedsome games. She seemsto know all about itsoit can't hurt her. ADULTHETEROSEXUAL, Adult female. I'm really having a hard time concentratingon my work today, She'swearingthat tight sweateragain. Ifshe comes over here once more and bends over my deskI'm not sure I can keep from grabbingthem. I can almost feel theexcitementif! could pushmy facebetweenthem. Get a hold ofyourselfi She looksalmost as good from the back. Can't keep my eyes offher butt as she walks past. I can almost feel my hands runningalong that soft body. No wonderI'm so homy! I haven't had it for days. Thelast time we got it on was wonderful! I've got to get some tonight. I can almost feel her squirming with excitementat the touch ofmy hands. (jj)


Plethysmograph canbe usedto treatand lessendeviantresponsesbyjuxtaposingarousingpictureswith aversiontherapy --suchaswhiffsofammonia.[R,E,Freeman-Longo and R.V.Wall, "Changinga LifetimeofSexual Crime",Psychology Today, 58-64 (March, 1986).]

For those who have been convicted of rape, child molestation and/or a related offense, the Phallic

One practitionerin Dallas who administersthe Phallic Plethysmographfor federal probationand state child that protectionagenciescomments the PhallicPlethysmograph is". . . notthe be-all,end-all,butit'sthebest tool we have now for evaluatingthese cases." [S. Crawford, "Device Used for Offenders", The Dallas Momintz News, 41-42A (November 13, 1988).] Child protection agencies in both Dallas and Tarrant County have used the Phallic "when trying to determine whether to allow a father accusedofchild molestingback into the home." Plethysmograph (Id. at 42A.)

Psychological Testing


WilliamFarrall,president ofFarrallInstruments,Inc.,the world's largestmanufacturer plethysmographs, of has been quoted as saying: We keepthem as faraway from law enforcementas possible. Thequalityofjustice is less than perfect, and we don't want this used to force confessionsout ofpeople.


While Mr. Fan-all may have the best of intentions,deviant responses to the Phallic Plethysmographshave undoubtedlybeen used by prosecutorsin even our fair-minded county to push an accused perpetrator over the brink towarda full confession. Some researchers have noted the limitationsand properuses of the Phallic Plethysmograph:
• . First the penile tumescence plethysmograph nota sexual 'lie detector.' It will not tell whethera suspected is offenderhas actuallyoffended,nor will it tell ifthe offender is certain to offend again or not to offend. In other words, it cannotbe used to searchforprobableoffendersin the general public. 1-lowever,properly obtainedand interpreted, the penile evaluation can generally make it possible to determine the gender preference, age preference, and in many cases the type ofsexual activityand interest to both an offender and a non-offender. This is obtainedby noting the relativelevel ofsexual response tovariouslevels ofstimulus materials." (Farrell & Card, note 120, at 262.)

Of extreme importancein assessing results of Phallic Plethysmograph is the realization that "sophisticated offenderscancontroltheirerectionsandoftenalter theirresponseduring assessment. Less knowledgeable offendersmay team from the assessment experience or are coachedby those whohave previouslybeenassessed." at 264.)




The physiological studies done from the 1960's to the present regardingthe Phallic Plethysmographmay give thedevice an auraofcredibilitythat it does not deserve. Almostall studiesregardingthePlethysmograph concludethat there isa need for furtherresearch. Althoughthe Plethysmograph has some value as a treatmentdevice, questions arise as to the validity ofthe test outside ofthecontext ofthe laboratory. "The key questionto the validity ofpenile erectionmeasurements in diagnosingsexual deviants remainsthe comparison ofthose findings with the response ofa normal populationto the same erotic stimuli. Only then couldtheexaminerassertwithreasonablecertaintythat the subjectwho deniedhavingaparaphiliacdisorderbut showedapositivearousalpatterswas in fact tellingthe truth." [S. Travin, K. CullenandJ.T. Melella,"The Use and Abuse of Erection Measurements: A ForensicPerspective," Vol. 16, No. 3, Bulletin of the American Academyof Psychiatryand the Law, 235,241(1988).]

InstrivingtowardvalidationofPhallicPlethysmography, researchers most havecomparedandcontrastedresults of"deviant" subjects, such as the results ofchild molesters,to the results ofother deviant subjects, such as rapists:
"Unfortunately, there have been few studies that have comparedlarge normal subjectgroups with parapiliacs. The majority of comparative studies have tested intragroup differences, e.g., aggressive pedophiles versus nonaggressive pedophiles . . . there were no significant differences between the erection measurements or incarcerated rapists and incarceratednon-rapists." (fflj

a meansofprovingguilt or innocence ofa sex crime,or that a fathershoutd be deprived ofvisitation rightsbecauseof deviant scores regardingpedophilic slides. If used as part of a comprehensiveanalysis of a given subject, Phallic Plethysmography may havesomemodicumofcredibility. Perhapsthemostappropriateuse ofPhallic Plethysmography is in aversion therapy. However,whenused in the context ofallegations ofsexual molestationin a familylaw matter,
the reliabilityand validityofthe instrumentshould be seriouslyquestioned. g. Direct ExaminationOf The Expert

Currentresearchcertainlydoesnot supportthe theorythat resultsofPhallic Plethysmographsshouldbe used as

Havethe expert establishwho supervisedthe PhallicPlethysmograph, and theconditionsunderwhich (2) thetestwas administered.



Havetheexpert establishthe subject'ssexualhistory,andpreviouspsychologicaland criminalrecords,

Have the expert explain how measurementswere taken - is the reportbasedon raw scores or (3) percentages/z-scores? Havetheexpert report whetherthe accusedever reacheda full erection and ifso, in responsetowhat? (4)




Have yourexpert explainwhether the penile tumescence scores were measuredby a pneumaticcuff, (5) a volumetric device, a mercury-strain gauge,etc. and whether the experts opinion ofreactionswould be any different ifany oftheother means had been used. Havetheexpertreportthetimesequencebetween audiocassette deviantpresentations deviantslides, (6) and ifboth were used. Have the expertreport ifan audio presentation was used, whetherexplicitdetails offoreplayand were (7) intercoursegiven, and ifthe detailswere violent. In thecaseofan accusedrapist,havethe expertdifferentiatereactionsofa rapist from anon-rapist?from (8) someonewho engages in pedophilia? from a homosexual? from a non-offender? How? Also your expert should explain how he orshe would recognizefaking. (9)
Ii. Cross Examination OfThe Expert A subject may score a wide variety of falsenegatives and false positives on the Plethysmographydoesn't the range ofpossible inaccuraciesmakethe test totallyunreliable? (2) Inquire as to whether the test taker was subjected to a blood exam prior to administration of the Plethysmographs? (Drugs and alcoholmay haveadirect impact on results. Ifa father in a custodydisputewas accused ofchild molestation,and took a Valiumprior to submittingto thetest, the results could be skewed).


(3) Inquire as to whether the recordingequipmentused was standardized? Ask the expert: ifanother expert with his or her credentialswas shown these test results, is there any (4) guarantee that he or she would interpretthe subject'sresponses in the same fashion you have? (5) Inquire as to whetherthe expert would characterize visual materials as more stimulatingthan audio materials? (CardandFarrall would assertthat audio materials are more stimulatingsexuallythan visual materials,due to theimaginationfactor). Ask the expert ifit is true that sophisticated offenders can controltheirerections? Aren'tsophisticated (6) offenderscapable ofaltering their responsesduringassessments? Ask the expert ifthere is any wayto know ifthe test taker is thinkingabout the slidepresentlyin front (7) ofthemwhenan erectionoccurs,orwhetherthetesttakermaybe daydreaming about apreviousslide, or whethera prior slide has causedthe subject to lapse into a fantasy. (8) Inquire as to whether the subject was allowed to become detumescent between audio-visual presentations. Ifnot, can the scores the subjectreceivedas the Plethysmograph progressedbe consideredaccurate? Ask the expert ifhe or she considers the Plethysmograph as accurateas a lie detector? (Ifnot, the (9) Plethysmograph resultshaveno more businessbeing admittedthan lie detector results). (ID) The expertshould be questioned as to whetherthe testresults be consideredindependent a thorough of reviewofthe subject'ssexual history. If so, it is time to impeach the expert! (II) Question theexpert asto whetherhe orshebelievesthat thePlethysmographresultsshouldbe the sole basis for decidingwhetheror not the subjectshouldbe released from prison or from a treatmentprogram? (Ifyes, you have an expertready to be impeached).


Custody quotient (Cci)

Historyand Background

The CustodyQuotient (hereinafterreferredto as the "CQ") is a new approach to assist psychologists in the evaluationofparents in childcustodycases. The CQ was developed by Dr. RobertGordonandDr.Leon Peek,ofDallas, Texas, as a guide forexplainingexpert findings by report and incourt. Further,thedevelopersoftheCQsee it as aguide for planning theremediationofa parent's shortcomings and how to use theparents strengthsto the best of his or her ability. The authors ofthe CQ designed it becauseofa growingdissatisfactionwith traditionalpsychologicaltests as they are appliedto measuring good parenting.


Theprimarypurposeofthe CQisto assistCourts,attorneys and impartialthird parties to resolvechild custody disputesin a child'sbestinterest. The CQ is alsodesignedto haveresults that are relevantto determiningsole andjoint custody,includingtheassigningofparentingrightsand dutiesas wellas decidingissuesofaccess. Additionally, theCQ results address the threshold issue ofwhethera material change ofcircumstancehas occurred in a parents life whena modification has beenfiled.
Anotherpurpose oftheCQ istoaddto psychologist's fundofassessmentproceduresa device whichisespecially designedto addresscustody questions. The developers ofthe CQ felt that while there are a number ofvalidand reliable few psychological proceduresfor assessingpsychopathology, havebeen researchedfor legal applicationand fewerstill

for custody issues.


a CQ parent evaluationisconsideredcurrent.The Texas AcademyofFamilyLaw Specialists.there is legal authorityfortherelevanceforeach CQitem from case law.) Gordon and Peek did something that to the authors' knowledge has never been done.but to assist in providingrelevant information about theknowledge. 45 . The CQmay alsobe administered by a trained assistantunder qualifiedsupervision. DefmitionofGood Parenting The CQ Manual offers the followingdefinitionofgood parenting: "Thosecollections ofattributes. Gordon and L. Law I. gain experienceand then improvetheir score. a reviewofdocuments. attributes.for up to six months. The CQ's Manualoutlinesan education-based therapy for acquiringnewparenting skills and for retraining a with impoverished skills.Gordonand Peekwarnthat untilnationalnormsare available. a home study and collateralcontacts. The Frankness Scale on the CQ helps the examinerdecide the degree ofcandorwith whichthe parent disclosedinformation (similar to the L. (liij The CQisa set ofratings basedon a compositeofclinicalprocedures. (j43 Presently. For that reason. Followingremedial therapy. Peek.who intendsto divorce. attorney shouldkeep in mind that the summaryCQ scoredescribesthe parentata single point in time.a clinical interviewwith history. 1989. K and F scales on the MMPI). objective and projectivetests.the person takingthe test has an opportunityto study.Psychological Testing c. The CQ avoidstechnical tenns and is designedtobe sex neutral. Therefore. psychologicaland social potential.the CQ leads to designingremedial programs for parentswith low scores and therefore the CQ scoreand profile isnotstaticbydesign.skills andbehaviorswhich adultsrely onand use in raisingthe nextgeneration. (It.inferencesabout goodparentingbased on CQ results aloneshould be made with appropriatecaution. The maximum time allowedfor administering thestandardCQ interview is two hours. Goodparenting includesteaching thechildskills formasteryover their environment so the child canlive independently of theirparentsand after theirparents have died.the classification ofCQ results are derivedfrom the theoreticalpropertiesofthe normal curve. The CQ is not intendedto directthe decisionsofthe court or jury regarding the custodyofa child or children.TRIAL INSTITUTE. the examiner may considerother information acquiredabout the parent and child. Goodparenting is designedto protectthe child fromharm duringthe child'svulnerableperiodofgrowth and maturation. But itconsidersparent performance over-time. Unlikemostpsychologicalinstruments. Law2.will likely havea differentprofilesix monthsafterseparation. Examiner qualifications for administering the CQ is the American Psychological Association guidelinesfor test users. In the absence of remediationor a significantevent in the life of the parent. Aparent living in an intact family. "The CustodyQuotient: A Test ofEffectiveParenting to Assist with CustodyDecisions'.retestingat intervals of three months is recommended.observationsofthe parent-childinteraction. Gordon and Peek researchedTexas lawsbeforeallowing any item on the CQ. learn. The examinermay selectfrom a the Additionally. Each parent response is graded with referenceto written standards (similar to the Wechsler Comprehension Scale). (jj) variety ofstandardapproachespracticalfor theparticularcase: the standard CQ interview. Construction ChapterS oftheCQ The CQ is a systemofmapping judgments(similarto DSM HI-Itjudgments) thejudgments of a diagnostic or team about a person's capacityto bean effective parent. The parentmayretaketheCQ anddocument progressmadeonestablishedgoals every six months. Additionally. The followingpsychological laws ofgood parenting are offered. In doing so. Good parenting occurs when adult practices lead the child to live independentlyand fulfill their biological. statuteor by reasonableinferencefrom the UniformMarriage and DivorceAct. The commentsectionsin the CQManual points out cultural and intellectual differences amongparties as they areknown to affect psychologicaltest conclusions and thereforethe Manual pointsoutthat cultural differencesmust be kept in mind. by its authors. and skills of adults as well as provide information relevant to the issue of modifying existing custody arrangements. (kjj d.

(2) Theory ofChild Psychology Additional elementsofthe domain ofparenting were gleaned from a review of theory and research in child psychology. Thereviewalso includedliteraturein the fields ofanthropology. (6) Based in Law Gordon and Peek eliminated any item of parenting for which there was no authority in law to indicate its relevancyfor custody decisions. law. (5) Opinions ofJudges and Attorneys A survey was conductedof districtjudges and family law specialists (that survey is in the process of being updatedand presently approximately 450 district judges have respondednationwide).The family codeofvarious states. the UniformMarriageand DivorceActand Texas Family specificallySec. Gordon and L. Corollary2. see The CustodyQuotient .childpsychiatry and childdevelopment.skills and behaviorsof a parent which interfere with the operation ofthese laws are not in the bestinterestofthe child.skills and behaviorsofa parent which facilitate the operation ofthese laws are in the best interest ofthe child. psychologicaland social potential. Thoseattributes. In addition.the adjectives "good".due tothe studyconductedofjudges and attorneys.Research . philosophy. (See Chapter2 ofQ Manual for more detail). Peek. skills and behavior.however. e. (For details seeThe CustodyQuotient. In CQ tenninology.Psychologica'Testing Chapter5 Law 3. 'effective' and "competent' are used interchangeably. Thoseattributes.attitudes. theologyand comparative psychology. Chapter2).Manual. A descriptive word or phrase was selectedto represent each scale ofitems.abilities. DevelopmentOfThe CQ Scales The CQ consistsoften clinicalscales and one additional scale. Q3 (3) Home Studies A systematic observationofseveral characteristicsofthe observablejobofparenting was conductedbased on video-taped home studies. 12 of were reviewed. Gordon is trainedin law and ProfessorPeek has taught psychometric research at the graduatelevel for many years). (For details. (4) Opinions ofParentsand Children Several studies were done ofattitudes ofparentsand childrentoward goodparenting and related issues. (BothGordon and Peek are licensedpsychologistswith considerableexperience in examiningparents and children in custody disputes. The CQ Scales Eachitem ofeach scalereceivesequalweight.two scales receivegreaterweight.Research .Dr. Corollary 1. An example ofthe EN Scale is as follows: 46 . Good parentingcreates an environment for the child conduciveto the child fulfillingthe biological. EMOTIONALNEEDS SCALE(EN) (I) This scale consistsoften items that are directed toward how well the parent meets the emotionalneeds ofthe child. f.Chapter 2). fl (7) Categories The refmed itemsofgood parentingwerebinnedinto categories ofparentingknowledge.Manual. The developmentofeach scale was done in the followingfashion: (I) ExpertOpinion Theexpert opinionofthe developersoftheCQ was used to definea number ofelementsin the domainof good parenting.

typicaldefensemechanisms are denial. rationalization and projection (blameschild or the other parent or bad luck for thingsgone wrong) What decisionsor actionsconcerningyour child are you most proud of! Are there some decisions or actionsyou'vetaken you now think were mistakes? Comment No oneis perfect. An example ofthe PN Scaleis as follows: "PN 3 Provides healthydiet meals 2 parent reveals concernand awarenessofnutrition. what are themost importantaspectsofachild's diet? (Ifvague)Couldyou pleasebe more specific? (For schoolage children)Does your childbuy ortake lunchto school? (Iftaken to school)Who preparesyour child'slunch for school? job?" (Ij) (Ifcooking is delegated)How did you pick the cook/housekeeper?How do you know they are doing a good NOEMOTIONAL ORPHYSICALDANGERTO THE CHILDSCALE(ND) (3) The ND Scale like the ED Scaleis givengreater weightthanthe other scales. A matureparent is able to recognizetheir ownshortcomings and makedisclosures about errors in judgment. child occasionallyhelps prepare 1 parent knowsand employsadequateconcepts ofnutritionand diet 0 parent usuallytakes child out to eat unhealthy fast food.look to parents who have madea point ofbeing clear with the child that the divorce was not the child'sresponsibilityand that thedecisionofpost divorce ormodificationplans is thejob ofthejudge and not thechild.orders out most nights." (jj) (2) (PN) It is not proper for PHYSICAL NEEDSOF THE CHILDNOW ANDINTHE FUTURESCALE This scale contains fourteenitems that were designedto assess how well the parent takes care ofthe physical needs ofthe child. an example ofwhich follows: 47 . mental health professionalsto encouragechildrento "informt' on their parents. It is helpful to ask the child iftheir parents say they're sorry when they make a mistake. The too obviousexample is the parent who suggeststo the child that the child is responsible for 'Daddyor Mommyleaving home. There are eleven itemson the ND Scale. is overly defensiveor superficial 0 parentseemsincapableofrecognizingtheirownshortcomings orerrors.Psychological Testing ChapterS "EN 8 Parent willing to admitmistakes 2 parent has the maturity and insightto acknowledgeerrorsin parentingor in decision making about child 1 parent seems reticentto examine their own errors or shortcomings in parenting or lacks the insightto do so. Emotionalproblems in children are sometimescaused by parents insisting that all of the failuresand disappointments ofthe childare due solely to shortcomings in the child.providesbalanced diet.servesjtmkfoods Who prepares your child's meals at home? How often does yourchild eat out? How often do you take fast food home? In general." For superior ratings.

(jj) PARENT ASSISTANCESCALE(PA) (5) This scale. A1TRIBUTES. and desire to help with child. Kidnapping/denying access 2 parentdoes not havepossession ofchild contrary to a court order. during the week and on the weekend? What is the most difficult part ofyour child's schedule causes your child to run late? to keep on time? What do you do when this problem CommentThe examinermay wish to ask whether the parentkeeps a calendar ofthe child's activities and those The examinermay want to review the familycalendar at a later session. child getsplaces on time I parent tries to organize competing routines of family members. parent tends torigidly adhere to schedules so that spontaneous opportunitiesfor growth and learning are missed 0 parentseems unable to toleratechallenge to familyorganization. is designed to determine how appropriatelya parent is using help from others with their child.lack ofinterest or poor health. are availableonly for celebrations ofmilestonesin the child's life or for holidays. are available.Psychological Testing ChapterS "ND 8 Child'sSurroundings are Free From. consistingofseven items... ABILITIES. siblings are healthy and I grandparents/relatives are only tangentially involved in child's life due to distance. Obviously organizingchildren'sactivities is more criticalforschooldaysthan weekends or holidays. Conventionalwisdom is that both chaos and overly compulsive organizationhave untoward results.PARTICIPATION SCALE (GP) This scaleconsists ofthirteenitemsand is designed to measure the parentingskills ofthe parent. siblings are good models for child but are too busyto supportparent 48 . parenthas not frustratedor denied other parent's access to child in person. parenthas denied lawful access ofotherparentto child (For custodialparent) Are theresomecircumstances under which youdo not allowyour child to see or talk to theirotherparent? Howdo you keep the otherparentinformed ofevents. An example 2 parent coordinates the schedules ofmembers offamily to complimenteach other. programsand activities in your child's life? (For non custodial parent) How often do yousee your child and talk with your child by phone? Is there a court orderconcerningtheperiodsoftime your child is in your home? (4) (Ifyes)What doesitprovide?" of the GP Scale follows: "GP 9 Parent is able to organize family affairs GOOD PARENTING: KNOWLEDGEABLE. there is occasional tardiness or missed appointments. by phone or mail contrary to court order order I parent expresseswillingness to kidnap child or to frustrate otherparent's access to child contrary to a court 0 parenthas unlawful possession ofchild." of other members of the family. An example ofthe PA Scale follows: "PA 2 Family support(grandparents/other siblings) 2 grandparents/relatives constructive live close by. SKILLS.familyevents are happenstance. child often misses appointments or is tardy What is your child's usual daily schedule in yourhome. problems.

" (jj) PLANNINGFOR THE CHILD SCALE(P) (6) Consisting offive items..g.cannotrelate howhe/shewoldselectphysicianorgivespoorprocess(e.just the oppositeis ordinarily true.commonissues are: maturity. grandparents and great grandparentsplay an increasinglyimportantrole in child'scare. describesplan for helping child with special medical needswhetherfordisabilityorallergies. or a stepbrotheror sister? What is the brotheror sister like? Flow do they get along with your child? Give me an example ofhow the brother/sisterhelps you parent? Give meanexample ofa way in which the brother/sisteris not the best influencefor yourchild? Comment This item concernsthe parentsand relatives ofthe parentbeing interviewed and ofthe siblingsliving with the parent.power. Although it is commonforbrothers and sisters and stepsiblingsto deny likingeach other orcaring about one another. knowledgeand loyalties. An exampleofthe P Scale follows: "P 3 Planningfor child's medicalneeds 2 parent knows nameofphysicianforroutine assistance.PsychologicalTesting Chapter5 0 grandparents/relatives are uninvolvedin child'slife and are preoccupied with theirown needs. Ifthe older siblinghas replacedthe parent in terms ofresponsibilityforthe child. As the life spanofAmericans increaseand since halfthe American work force is comprisedofwomen. cannot give names or selection processfor specialists oParent does notknow physician.use whoeverfriendat work uses).rate '0' on this item. The I-IS scale consistsofsix items. privacy and self-demarcation. seems obliviousto the importanceofroutinemedicalcare Does yourchildhave any specialhealth problem? (Elyes) How are you goingto help themwith this problem? Who does your child see to have annual physicals? How did you select the doctor? (Ifnone) How would you go about selectinga specialistifone was needed?" (Ij) HOME STABILITYSCALE(HS) (7) As the name ofthe scale suggests.this scale is designedto measurethe stabilityofthe parent's home.describesprocessofselecting and evaluating specialistsandmethodofpayment for futureservices I Parentknows somethingabout child'smedicalhistorybut is weak on details. grandparents arcdeceased. If thereare no older siblings then omit this item. the P scale is designedto measure howwell the parent is planning for all ofthechild's needs. siblings have impoverished relationship with child Are yourparents living? (Ifyes) Wheredo they live? When did they see yourchIld last? Whatactivitiesdid they do with the child on that occasion? gettogether? Are thereother relativeswhosee your child fromtime to time? (Ifyes) Who are they? Flow often doall ofyou Does your childhave a brotherorsister. an example ofwhich follows: "I-IS 5 StableLifestyle 49 . Manygrandparents havesubstantialcontactwith theirgrandchildrenand provide emotionalsecurityandasense ofcontinuity. In evaluating theinfluenceof an older sibling.

NO I Parent misconduct Misbehavior is any activityoutsideofthe limitsofwhat is accepted. Most valuesare transmitted the child to implicitlyorthroughrole modeling.or thesports they areactive in. The criteria is the contemporarycommunity standard. economic status. the examiner should refine rating on the community standard in terms of any known subcultural or ethnic group differences. indication. themisbehaviormust havea direct. "Acts/Omissions The personal standards ofthe examinerare not the guiding criteria for rating the parent on these items. where you live.the schoolsubjects childrenshould take.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS 2 parentmaintainsconsistent employment. parent is not reachableby child due to changingscheduleexceptat certaintimes ofday U parent makes arbitrarychanges in pattern of living. stable relationships with friends. The following is an example on the MO scale. This is differentand more permissivethan what is avengeor typical to a group or community. Also.inferredorpotential impact on the child inorder to be coveredby this item. suspicion or report ofmisbehavior 1 misbehaviorhas occurredbut has been discontinued. child does not know visitors. Also. Clearlythere are some mattersabout which a parentmust havethe last word such as the dangerof traffic for young childrenor the use ofdrugs by teenagers. frequent changesdo not permitchild to know general activitiesofparent What are the most important changesyou have made in your lifestyle since your divorce(or separation)? By lifestyle I meansuch things asjobs.parent maintainspredictable daily scheduleor informs child ofchangesso childcan reach parent ifnecessary I parent or situationhas forced at least one majorchangeduring the past five years. Methodsofcorroborationinclude interviewing the childand the other parent. 2 no sign. 50 . (j4j ACTS/OMISSIONS SCALE(NO) (8) The AJO Scale consists of eight items and is designed to measure parent misconduct. parent taking steps to prevent repeat 0 ongoing misbehavior Has anyonesuggestedthat you have done something improperor illegal duringthe past ten years? (Ifyes) What did they say? Is what they said true or partiallytrue? What were the circumstances? Was your child aware ofthe situation? (Ifso) Who told the child about it?" (j) VALUESSCALE(V) (9) This scale consists ofsix items and is designed to measure how well the parent is transmitting values which allows the child to distinguishrightand wrong. Moreover. The followingis an example ofthe V scale: 'Comment This item referstoan attitudeorbeliefthat the parent holds. parent frequently changes circle of friendsin the home. what you do for recreation. Peoplewill tolerateactions more atypicalthan the behavior they enact. Comment This item involves an overall impressionby the examinerofpreviousUS items. who you spend time with. the examiner must guard against stereotypesbasedon gender whenrating the parent for these items.

An example ofan item on the FS scale is as follows: "GP 14fF Frankness I Parent frankly admitsto occasions when he or she did poorlyin handlingchild's misbehavior O Gives only superficialexamples or speaks in generalities (II) THE FRANKNESSSCALE(FS) 51 .g. When a parent gives too many answers to the frankness questions in a "socially acceptable" direction. The scale is similar to the "L" scale on the MMPI. The scale consistsoften items. parent has weak plans for travelbetween thehomesby the 0 geographical relationship ofhomesdoes not allow for safe. Jointcustody arrangements are "usually"strainedwhen one ofthe parentsremarries.. "JC 8 Geographic proximity ofhomes 2 parent livesclose by otherparent." (j43 TheFS Scaleis not one ofthetenclinicalscales but insteadis an additionalscale designedto measurewhether a parent has a proclivitymerely to answer thequestions in a socially desirablefashion. The following is an example ofthe JC scale. convenientor inexpensivetravel How far is it in minutesfrom your home to the other parent'shome? Doyou or the other parenthave immediateplans to move? Wouldyou be willingtomove ifit made it easier for yourchild to go from one home to the other? How about moving out ofthis city if it became necessary? Comment When parents live remote from one another or live in neighborhoods with highly disparate socioeconomicstatus.parent has realisticplansto providetravelbetweenthehomes (e. The FS questionsare dispersedthroughouteach of the other scales.motivation distortionorperceptualinaccuracy is inferred.Psychological Testing ChapterS V 2 Ethics ofparent values 2 parent wordsand actions illustrate moral and ethicalvalues withoutcontradictoryactions I parentonly occasionally voicesappropriatevaluesor behaves in a contradictory manner 0 parent shows or voices valueswhich contradictthose ofthe general community or denigrates the need for and wrong? Whatare the most important thingsthat you want your childtoknow aboutthe differencebetweenright How do you teach these principles to yourchild?" (j4j TheJC Scale is designedto measurewhether a parent is a candidateforjointmanaging conservatorship. children are old enough to walk or bike between the two homes in normalweather) child (10) JOINT CUSTODY SCALE(JC) I parent voicesintentionto live near other parent.joint custody arrangementsusuallyfail.

This score is relatively easy to compareto otherpsychometric measures. (jtj. it is helpful to ask the child whetherthey think their parent's discipline is fair.for teens . Effectivedisciplinedoes not include makingthe child think theyare a bad human being. Nor does it involveembarrassingthe child."timeout". The property ofthe normal curve importantto the CQ scores is that a majorityofpersons are expected to fall withinplus orminusone standard deviation. or restricting driving fora period oftime.1 () 69 and below 6. The authors define abusive discipline as parent reactionswhich cause physical injury to the child or which diminishthe child'sselfesteem.closelyapproximatingthe averageofthe general population. Specifications for the CQ call for a mixture ofcontent. Validity And Reliability It mustberememberedthat theCQispresentlystill in the researchstage and thereforethe studies ofvalidityare presentlyunderway. The Custody Quotient Score The CQ summaryscore is expressed as a standard deviationquotientscore. studies are being conductedto determine validity and reliabilityand the CQ is consistentlybeing updatedas newdata comes in. predictableand produces the desiredresult. the examinershould considerthe practicesofthe parent's subculturewhen rating theparent on this item. Usuallya parent has apreferredmethod for infants . As is true ofother CQ items. the "ClassificationSystem"is derived from the theoreticalproperties ofthe normal curve.o 16. The CQ should thereforebe treatedwith that in mind.unlike The Bricklin Perceptual Scales (BPS) and The Sex Abuse Legitimacy Scales (SALS). including establishedpsychologicalphenomena.grounding. A CQscore of70 to 130 will contain about 96%ofthe generalpopulation. As a method ofcorroboration.7 Very Superior Superior HighAverage Low Average Borderline Dangerous Average so. However.1 16. The examinershould determinewhether the parent'spreferred method is consistent.refer back to NDI and ND2. and "borderline"beginsat 79. CQIJQ The CQ Classification System Parent Competency Range Grand Score 130 120-129 110-119 90-109 80-89 70-79 % ofParents in Range 2." (j4j g. sendingthe childto their roomor the"Oneminutescolding".) h. Thereis a difference betweena parentbeing authoritativeand being telephone or television. 52 . For extremeparent response.2 i. Thesummaryscore lies onscale wheretheaverage forthe generalpopulation is 90 to 110. withholding privileges. At this time.for the young child .2 6.spanking.constructand criterion validity. at 9.7 2.PsychologicalTesting Chapter 5 Are there timeswhenyou haveregretteddisciplining your childas you did? Forexample.raising voice or momentaryphysical restraint.facial expression.because you learned yourunderstanding ofa situationwas wrong oryourdiscipline was too harsh or too lenient? Comment Appropriate disciplineis a matterofparental discretion. The normalcurve is the most common statistical distributionin nature. "superior" beginsat 120. A CQ score of85 to 115 will contain about 68% ofthegeneral population.

at 10) (6) ExternalValidity ( External validity was subjecttoa GeneralSystemTheory Approach(GSTA). it is a "clinical instrument'. attorneys and judges was madeto define the parametersand boundariesofgood parenting the CQ instrument intended to address. The General Systems Theory Approach postulates that traditional methods of establishing validity do not considerthe Gestaltofan instrument that is intended to measurea complexsystem ofbehaviorsuch as goodparenting. (4) Classification of the theoretical normal curve.the basis ofclassificationwill shift to empiricaldata. 53 .skills and behaviors ofadults which ate relevant to the tasks of measuringeffective parenting. (jj) (5) Theclassificationsystem for CQ ranges ofeffective parenting were derived from the mathematical principles Item Format Items andstandardinterview questionswere reviewed bythreepersons withknownwritingskills for appropriate grammar. Direct observation ofparents and children in a professionaloffice environmentand through videotaped home studies was also relied upon. This approach parallels the construction of classification systems in natural science. A typicalpsychologicaltest by contrast.parents. (Ij) (8) Research Status The CQ is both a clinical instrument.attitudes. (7) Reliability Thereliability oftheCQwillbeestablished byevaluating thedegree towhichtwo ormore expertexaminerswill giveaparticularparent the sameCQscore andthedegreeofinternalconsistencythat existsamongCQ itemsand between CQscales. A contentanalysisofthe understandings ofparents. At this state ofdevelopment. and a psychometrictest. Questionswere refined following theadministration ofthefirst 100 tests based on the commentsoftesttakers. Constructvalidity makes inferencespossible from CQ scores to the domainofgood parenting. Theirrelevance the understandingsofchildren. Clinical instruments serve as guides to experiencedexaminersand provide for a consistentway to record the opinion of the experts. Sample CQ resultswere presentedand attackedin the mock courtroomofthe WilmingtonInstitute by volunteeringmembersof the CQ task force. The cross-examination technique was employed. scores attributesin a more or less mechanicalway. children.Psychological Testing Chapter 5 (1) ContentValidity Thedevelopersofthe CQ identified a domain ofknowledge. There are no alternativemeasurementswhichcould be used as criteria. which summarizes the ratings of expertsalong standard criteria. The upper range was emphasized in order to enhance fairness during the CQ developmentperiod. (jj) (2) ConstructValidity Definitionsand laws ofgood parenting were offered to give specificityto the domain of good parenting. the eliminationofbiasin syntaxandconstructionflawssuch asambiguity.judges. Basic rules ofevidencewere observed. A pilot study ofinterrater reliabilityfound high ratingreliabilitybetweentwo experiencedraters. (kU (3) CriterionValidity At this point it seemsunlikelythat winning a custody lawsuit will emerge as the generallyaccepted criterion againstwhich to validatepsychologicaltests. attributes. Application is being developedwith referencetoconstitutionprecepts ofdue process. attorneys and the CQ Panel on Development. The items themselvesgrew out of a review of wascorroborated through interdisciplinary researchandthroughthecollective experience oftheauthors. Clinical instruments are 'wide band' in that many attributes of the person are weighed and assessed when the examinermakesthe ratings. When normative studies are complete. () Standards and Guidelines (9) The CQisbeing developed with referencetothestandardsforpsychologicaltests oftheAmerican Psychological Association.

(Ifthe CQ is given appropriately.and because the existing tests are so dependent on the skill of the clinician in making reasonable interpretations in custody determinations. (6) Itwould be helpfulto the fact finder to know some ofthe items on theCQ. from Establish with the expert that no otherpsychologicalinstrument (8) ofassessmenthasjustification for each item in the law. Dr. Initially. the UCCESwillprove to be valid and reliablestandard assessmentprocedure for use in custody evaluations to that the primary focus ofcustody litigationcanonce again be the children and their parentsand not the tests and who gave them. The hope is that in a few years. Harry Munsingerand Dr. (klj j. and it did not come out favorable for your (I) client. to do with the type ofinformation assessed and thenature ofthe user. exceptwith rare exceptionlike the BricklinPerceptual Scales. (2) Get the expert to admitthat the CQ's rating system is presently unstipported by empirical data. SALS.then get theexpert to admit that even (5) Gordon and Peek say that that isnot the purposeofthe CQ. When cross examiningthe expert who has given the CQ. and as such. there is no means ofcomparison. (4) the expert is using theCQ to say who should have custody.and integrityofthe clinician and ofthe 54 . Any (7) orjury will see therelevancyofthe itemson the CQ especiallyas comparedto "evil spiritspossess meat times'judge theMMPI. Additionally. If 5. k.psychologicaltests were not designedto assesslegal issues. theAmericanPsychological Association'sCommittee on Professional Practicesand Standards iscurrentlyin the processofdevelopingstandardsand guidelines for administering child custody evaluationtests such as those previouslydiscussed.Psychological Testing Chapters At this time the CQ has the specificityof administration typical of some well-dcsigned psychological tests. Ifonly one parent took theCQ. CONCLUSION A. VI. Theexpertshould be cross-examined about the fact that the CQ is notyetsupportedby normativedata. General Considerations When an Expert has PsychologicalTesting Thefirstthing an attorney should be cognizantofis that. Cross-Examination OfThe CQ Expert Establish with the expert that while the CQ is a research device. (5) Establish that the CQ is a comprehensiveinterviewsystem.PsychologicalAssessment Resources. it isbeing publishedas an interviewand decision-making guide while validationdata is collectedby thepublisher. CQ. Establish the expert's knowledgeofthe ongoingvalidationprocessbeingassembledregarding the CQ. The expertshould reporton whether he or she has based his or her opinionexclusivelyon the CQ. andthe expert should admitthat this (6) lessens the valueof the CQ. This distinctionhas Have theexpertexplainwhetherthe resultsto the CQ represent new oroldbehavior for the subject. establishthat theCQ is not a test. Psychologicaltests are designedas a means to help the expert evaluate a patient. Psychological tests. it represents probablythe best range (I) ofinformationthat shouldbe assessedin a custody battle. or (3) whether results to other tests and methods have also been addressedin reachingwhateverrecommendationis made to the Court. Kevin Karlsondevelopeda uniforminterview procedurefor all mental healthprofessionals.the experthas guidelinetocomparetwo different parents.expertise. and UCCES. (3) Theexpertshould also admitthat at presenttheCQlacks external validity.and (2) whether the primacyofthe behaviorshould have an impacton test results.calledtheUniformChild CustodyEvaluation System(UCCES). many other factors aretaken into consideration by the expert). not to be taken into the courtroom and used as an end in themselves. as stated several times in this article.theattorneyshould evaluatewhethertheclinician has used the test beyond its limits. Direct Examination OfThe CQ Expert Research is underway that will determine whetherthescoringofthe CQ is also sufficiently specific. (4) Establish that becausethe CQ isstandardized. This test should be availableby the end ofthis year. are merely tools for the clinician. Uniform Child Custody Evaluation System (UCCES) Since no existingpsychological test has emergedas the test to be utilized in custody evaluations. Putting asidethevalidityofeachindividualpsychologicaltest. their usefulnessis limited by the experience.

the psychologistshouldmaintaindetailedrecords inaccordwith the relevant statutory guidelines. To bestachieve this goal." The guidelines focus on the psychologistsrole in the divorce proceedingand provide guidance and standards for the psychologistin preparingthe child custodyevaluation. whileguardingagainstinappropriately interpretingorassessingthe data.and. (j4. While many ofthe individual guidelinesstate whatappears obviousto litigation-wise psychologists. Finally.) ofthe test resultsmay be difficult to ascertain.) 2." (Ziskin. alikeshould be aware ofnationalchild custodyevaluationguidelinespromulgated Attorneysand psychologists by the American PsychologicalAssociation which are attached as Appendix " is time that the legal community questions theuse ofthe presently established psychologicaltests in the courtroomand. Therefore. In preparingfor a child custody evaluation.thepsychologistshouldlimitthe scope oftheevaluationtoissuesraised a by the referring person or court. impartial. The guidelinesaddress three major areas: I. This does not mean that psychological tests are not effective tools for the clinician in a clinical situation. the test may be valid when given to middle class Caucasians but invalid when given to persons outside ofthosecharacteristics. then that failure to understand can leadtoabuses ofthe tests and the test data: If of I. the psychologist should avoid any counselingor therapeuticroles with anyof the partiesand confmehimselfsolely to his defmedtask. The psychological tests which are used most in the United States are based on norms consisting of middle class Caucasian individuals.there is any validityin using thoseteststo assess parentingskills. Informed consent as includesinformingthepartieipants to the limitsofconfidentiality anddisclosure oftenrequired incustodyproceedings. This provides a reference point for the family law attorney who is overwhelmedand confused by the unfamiliar world of child psychology.) established scientific principlesor general acceptance by the scientific community. Conducting a child custodyevaluation. Moreover. mostspecifically. From the perspective of the psychologist. The purposeofa child custodyevaluation. Thereare no studieswhichsuggestthat. Furthermore. How wellan individual performs on agiven test isoften determinedbythe setting in whichit is given. ofthe standard tests which are administered to custodyparticipants. dependent uponwhetherthetestis givenina noisywaiting roomofa clinician's officeor in a quiet room offby itself.the guidelinesestablish coherent standards for divorce and custody related practice. the developer the testor the clinicianfail to understand the followingconcepts. in family law courts. at 62.however. professional expertwho does not attemptto act as ajudge. All psychologicaltestscome with standard administrativeinstructions. In conducting childcustodyevaluation. Applyingthis rule to child custody evaluations. the guidelinesprovidethat theprimary purposeofa child custody evaluationis to assessthe bestpsychologicalinterestsof the child. Individualswith similarpsychological characteristics orintelligencemayhavequite different testresults. Preparingfor a child custody evaluation. at 62.) Standards and Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings ( B. the focusoftheevaluationshouldbe on parentingcapacity. and obtain informed consent from all appropriateparticipants. 55 .theyserve an importantpurposebecause they establishthe foundationand limits for a proper custodyevaluation. best. at 250. The eflècts ofthe deviation at 62. FinalThoughts It seems clearthatopinionsbased on psychologicaltests are. Thepsychologistshouldalso use every relevant and helpful available resource.the child's best interests and well-being are paramount. and the resultingfit. The psychologist should also be aware of any personal and/or social biases that he might have which could affect his opinions in the evaluationprocess. The major principle set out by the guidelinesreiterates the preceptfound in nearly every state's familycode or statutes . controversialandsometimes may even be unconstitutional.PsychologicalTesting ChapterS purpose ofthe test.the psychologistshould have current and specialized training orknowledgein order to competentlyundertake a child custodyevaluation. 3. US!. 2. the psychologicaland developmental needs ofthe child. C. Additionally. The validity ofeach test is dependent on there being no significant deviationfrom thoseinstructions. the guidelines define the role of the psychologist as a objective. there is an astoundingamount of evidenceshowing that the standardtests do not "meet the criteria of note 2.

the attorney should use this article. Withoutsuch information. 56 . an attorneycannot effectivelyperform director cross-examination ofan expert who has administered any ofthese tests.PsychologicalTesting Chapters At the vety least. and the sources cited herein. to becomeacquaintedwith information beyond ournormal expertise.

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