This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
For the first exam, the material you will need to look over can be broadly divided into the following sections that have been bolded: Origin of Eukaryotes Origin of nucleus, golgi and the e.r. Endosymbiotic origin of mitochondrion Endosymbiotic origin of chloroplast Things to think about: • Why do we suppose that the origin of the chloroplast came after the mitochondrion? • What is the theory that presupposes the endosymbiotic origin of these two organelles? • What evidence is there that supports this theory? • Some of the evidence that indicate that the origin of the mitochondrion and chloroplast in eukaryotes is that the DNA sequences of these organelles indicate they are bacterial in origin. However, molecular studies have also determined Bacteria and Archaea DNA sequences can even be found in the nuclei and the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. In fact the three domains have DNA sequences in common. How was this explained? The SURVEY part of this course will cover the diversity in the Kingdoms Fungi and Plants. The Kingdom Protista has been reorganized in your textbook, such that various monophyletic groups, within Protista, are being proposed to be elevated to kingdom status. For this part of the course, you should be able to define the various groups of organisms that were covered with the combination of characteristics that make them unique. If a representative was given for the group, and if given, a specific representative and its life cycle. Kingdom: Protista and life cycles Three types of life cycles Gametic life cycle: Animal-like protist life cycle. Zygotic life cycle: Most fungi and protist life cycle. Sporic life cycle: Plant and some algae life cycle.) Vocabulary: gametic life cycle, zygotic life cycle, sporic life cycle, gametophyte, sporophyte, asexual reproduction, clones, sexual reproduction, spore, serial endosymbiosis,
1 of 8
but will separate them into two groups because of the significance of the Charophycean line that has a common ancestor that gave rise to the plant kingdom. • Chlorophytes: Chlamydomonas life cycle • Charophyceans: Sister group to plant kingdom. Be sure to know the characteristics that define each of the groups after the BLACK BULLETS: Alveolates • Apicomplexans: Example. Know characteristic. oogonium. Know characteristics. they are now known to be unrelated to one another. • What has been done/is continuing to be done.e. Rhodophyta: No specific example and life cycle not given. Amoebozoans • Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds): No specific example. Why? Hint: It is paraphyletic. The Protists were covered in class using an artificial classification. However. Paramecium life cycle Euglenozoans: Description. antheridium. to try to remedy this problem in Protista? • There are a number of photosynthetic protists. Chlorophyta (Covered this group as a single phylum. sporangium. Things to think about: • How does sexual and asexual reproduction differ? • What are the events that must occur during sexual reproduction? • There are three types of life cycles. phragmoplast. • I will summarize all the groups and examples covered in class according to the different trees covered in your text. How do they differ? • The biggest flaw in Whitaker’s five-kingdom classification scheme is the kingdom Protista. phagocytosis. Stramenopila • Oomycetes (water molds): General life cycle • Phaeophyta: Laminaria life cycle • Bacillariophyta: No representative and life cycle. stipe. i. No specific example and life cycle not given • Kinetoplastids: Example. 2 of 8 . Know characteristics. Plasmodium • Ciliophora (Ciliates): Example. holdfast. fungal-like protists and plant-like protists.Trypanosoma (life cycle not given) • Euglenids: No specific representative or life cycle. thallus.zoospore. General life cycle. animal-like protists. blade. What characteristics do they have in common? Although they have several characteristics in common. their true relationships were also summarized according to the phylogenetic trees in your textbook. secondary endosymbiosis. commonly referred to as algae.
when there were two kingdoms. there is no vaccine to treat this disease. spore. coenocytic.2 in your text). What disadvantage can you see in being unicellular. Euglenids were classified as a plant and an animal when only two kingdoms were recognized. However. What is Plasmodium and what disease does it cause? What is the part of the life cycle that is infectious to the human host? How is this part of the life cycle transmitted to the human host? Trypanosoma is the cause of African Sleeping Sickness. septate mycelium. septum. hyphae mycelium. the flagella are now believed to have been lost several times during the evolution of fungi. monokaryotic mycelium. haustorium. when comparing it to a multicellular alga. What characteristics in this group led to this classification. Fungal symbiotic relationships: Lichens and mycorrhizae Vocabulary: heterotroph. if not detected. conidia. No specific example. the Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds) were classified as a fungus and as an animal. soredium. once. yeast. saprobe. gametangium. such as Laminaria? Kingdom: Mycetae (=Fungi) • Life Cycles of phyla or examples: Chytridiomycota: Characteristics? No specific example or life cycle Zygomycota: Rhizopus life cycle Glomeromycota: Characteristics? Covered as example of mycorrhiza. mycorrhiza Things to think about: • What is the combination of characteristics that defines the kingdom Fungi? • What is the only phylum of fungi that has flagellated stages? • It was once thought that fungi lost their flagella.• • • • • • How are the different algal lineages thought to have evolved? (hint: see Figure 28. parasite. What is the problem in developing a vaccine for this disease? Although the Oomycetes were once classified as fungi and have characteristics that would indicate they are fungi. absorption. It can be successfully treated if diagnosed early. However. What characteristics in this group led to their classification as plants? As animals? Chlamydomonas is an example of a unicellular alga. dikaryotic mycelium. give at least one characteristic as to why they are no longer classified as fungi? In the past. What recent evidence led to this conclusion? 3 of 8 . Ascomycota: General life cycle. Basidiomycota: Mushroom life cycle. early in their evolution.
No specific example. • Pterophyta (Fern): General life cycle. of the Chlorophyta that gives evidence that the ancestor of terrestrial plants evolved from this group of algae? In order to adapt to the terrestrial environment. carpel. No specific example. petals. • Coniferophyta (Conifers): Pine life cycle. What are the phyla of “bryophytes”? Although all plants have sporic life cycles. • Lycophyta (Club Moss): Selaginella life cycle. incomplete flower. filament. hypocoty. seed. sorus. fruit. • Hepaticophyta (Liverworts): No life cycle or specific example. leptoids. stamen. • Anthophyta (Flowering plants): General life cycle. ovule. what are the benefits for each partner this relationship? What are the organisms involved in a lichen thallus? How does each partner benefit in the relationship? Kingdom: Plant Life cycles of phyla or examples: • Bryophyta (Mosses): General life cycle. sporophyll. microphyll. What are these food and water transporting cells called? • • • 4 of 8 . (hint: think in terms of structures that obtain water and prevent water loss in plants) There is said to be three periods of plants. seed coat. endosperm.terms that go with it).and mega. No specific example. style. imperfect flower. flower. Things to think about: • • What are the features of the Charophycean line. pollination. homosporous. what features had to evolve in order for plants to survive in this hostile environment. how does the phylum Zygomycota differ from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota? What is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship? What two organisms are involved in a mycorrhizal relationship? Generally. Vocabulary: rosette cellulose synthesizing complex. coleorhiza.• • • • With respect to the thallus and asexual spore stage. scutellum. anthers. What evolutionary advancement evolved in each of the periods. dioecious. hydroids. megaphyll. cotyledons. ovary. pollen. • Anthocerophyta (Hornworts): No life cycle or specific example. strobilus. some species have cells that transport water and food. heterosporous (all the micro. perfect flower. monoecious. complete flower. epicotyl. how does the Bryophyta (moss) life cycle differs from that of other extant vascular plants? Although mosses generally do not have vascular tissue. stigma. sepals.
during primary and secondary growth and anatomy of the leaf. In the Cycadophyta and Ginkgophyta. What are the two groups and what are the combinations of characteristics that are used to distinguish these two classes? One of the groups has recently been redefined. pine life cycle.• • • • • • • • As we covered the various phyla of plants. with respect to their ability to adapt to the terrestrial environment. the cell types and tissues that make up the organs. primary meristem. leaf. sieve tube element. fiber. lateral meristem. procambium. palisade parenchyma. Flowering plants have traditionally been divided into two groups of plants. secondary growth. Plant anatomy Vocabulary: root. vascular cambium. xylem. companion cells. cuticle. vessel element. stomata. you should be seeing a trend that as plants evolved. modifications that may occur in the organs. primary growth. spongy parenchyma. the development of the stem and root. stem. guard cells. you should know the three organs. keep in mind that environment is dynamic and has had great influence in the evolution of plants. Do they have a common origin? What group of plants is believed to be the first seed plants? What reasons can you give that would explain why seed plants eventually became the dominant terrestrial plants? In answering this question. phloem. In terms of homospory and heterospory.e. there were advancements. i. cork cambium. What is that characteristic and why is it considered an unnecessary feature in the life cycle? Compare this feature to the Coniferophyta. Things to Think About: 5 of 8 . protoderm. Which group is this and why was it redefined? The flowering plants eventually became and are still the dominant group of plants. apical meristem. collenchyma. What features do they have that allowed them to become the dominant group of terrestrial plants? There are many variations in floral morphology. which one gave rise to the seed plants? What evidence can you give that will support your answers? Describe what is believed to be the evolution of the microphyll and megaphyll. mesophyll. ground meristem. sclerenchyma. function of the organs. parenchyma. there is a characteristic that seems to bridge the gap between the seed plants and non-seed vascular plants. Name each phylum and give some characteristic(s) that you believe to be a further adaptation to the terrestrial environment. What is believed to be the reason for the tremendous variation that has evolved in flowers? In the plant anatomy part of this course. tracheid.
In 8 years. How high above the ground is the nail? Give a reason for your answer.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What are some fundamental ways in which animal and plant cells differ? Growth in plants and animals differ? What are the three organs of the plant body that were discussed in lecture and what is the primary function of each? Although these organs have primary functions. above the soil level. How are the essential minerals transported into the plant? Although the root system of plants plays an important role in obtaining minerals from the soil. What is primary growth? Describe primary growth in the stem and root of a dicot. tall. You have driven a nail into a tree 5ft. Minerals are also required for plant growth. There were several cell types that were described. lets say that the tree will be 20 ft. In what form is most of the food sent in plants? Describe the experiment that was carried out that supports the hypothesis for food transport that was covered in lecture. What is the fundamental difference in the growth of leaves versus the growth in stems and roots? Describe how does water initially enter into the root system of plants and later into the stem. name and describe some examples as to modifications that have evolved that have changed their functions. What types of plants did we mention where secondary growth is absent? What is secondary growth and describe how this growth occurs and how it differs from primary growth? Here’s a question from Mastering Biology. but many do not have secondary growth. What are these organisms and how do they help the plant in nutrient uptake? As the root matures. The tree is 10 ft. most of the time it requires help from other organisms. suberin eventually covers the interior of all of the cells of the endodermis. How does water enter the stele from the soil after this has occurred? What is the most likely mechanism by which water is transported from the roots to the leaves of plants? Describe this mechanism. What is another mechanism that was described and why is it not likely to be the mechanism by which plants transport water? What is the mechanism that is believed to transport food in plants? Describe this mechanism. How does it differ from primary growth in monocots? All plants have primary growth. How does root and stem developments differ? Summarize the primary and secondary growth of the stem and root and describe how the two differ in their development as well as cell types and tissues. What are these cell types and their function(s)? Tell how the cell’s physical attribute makes it suitable for its specific function(s). 6 of 8 . tall.
Photoperiodism: See above Vocabulary: photoperiodism. apical dominance. biological clock. phytochrome (far red = fr and red = r). • • Photoperiodism is a biological phenomenon and we mostly covered it with respect to flowering in plants. long day plants. 7 of 8 • . lodging. bolting. Give some example of trophic responses and the hormones responsible for these responses. short day plants. Each one functions individually. Name the hormones covered in class and the primary functions that each have when acting alone. Hormones are also important in development of plants and examples of this function was also given. The reactions that hormones elicit from plants often express themselves visually. describe what is believed to be the role of this pigment in initiation of flowering in plants. abscission layer Things to Think About: • • What are plant hormones and how do they usually arrive at the part of the plant that they are affecting? What is a hormone that is an exception to this rule? Acting individually. hormones are known to elicit specific response when applied to various parts of the plants. What is a day neutral plant? What is the pigment that is thought to be responsible for measuring changes in night and day length? Briefly. • • • What is Florigen? What phase in the life cycle of flowering plants is this hypothetical hormone supposes to initiate? What is photoperiodism and what does it have to do with flowering in plants? What are long day plants. circadian rhythm. but also may function in combination with other hormones. day neutral plants. Give some examples of hormones can work in combination to elicit a response. in trophic responses. short day plants and why are these terms incorrect as they are used? Describe the experiments that were carried out that demonstrated that these terms were incorrect. long night plants. Hormones and development Vocabulary: phototrophism. gravitrophism.In the last part of my part of the course. abscission. the different plant hormones are covered. thigmotrophism. Hormones are also known to work in combination with one another. short night plants.
I have tried to list all of the terms that I think are relevant for the exam. So when you look over the pdf outlines for lecture. the questions cover the concepts that I want you to learn. look for terms that have been highlighted in blue. I purposely left out most terms that are in life cycles since you will cover them as you go over each life cycle. I may have missed a few. Although the questions are presented in short answer/essay form.Finally. However. you should do well on the exam! 8 of 8 . So if you can answer all of the questions above and can define the terms in the vocabulary section. anyway.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.