## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**For the above system:
**

(a) Determine the economic dispatch assuming there are no transmission

constraints

(b) Determine the system marginal price

(c) Determine the constrained economic dispatch based on the given line

parameters and capacities

(d) Identify overloaded lines

(e) Correct the overloads by re-dispatching generation in the most economic

fashion

(f) Compute the nodal prices for the constrained system

(g) Compute the congestion cost

(h) Finally, for case (c) write the equations for the objective function and the

constraints that you would need to solve using optimisation techniques to find

the dispatch and nodal prices

(i) Solve the problem in (h) using an optimisation routine (in MATLAB, EXCEL

etc) and compare your results with what you found in (c) and (f)

Nodal pricing exercise

Solution

(a) Determine the economic dispatch assuming there are no transmission constraints

Since the marginal costs are constant, the generators are dispatched starting with

the least marginal cost until the load is met.

Generator Node Cost

($/MWh)

Capacity

(MW)

Dispatch

(MW)

Demand

(MW)

GA 1 8 140 140 50

GB 1 10 285 270

GC 2 20 90 0 60

GD 3 15 85 0 300

Total 410MW 410MW

(b) Determine the system marginal price

The system marginal price is $10/MWh (From the most expensive partially

loaded generator)

(c) Determine the constrained economic dispatch based on the given line parameters

and capacities

The line flows are determined from Kirchhoff’s voltage (KVL) and nodal balance

(KCL) equations

Figure 1

KCL equations

Node 1: GA + GB – F1 – F3 – 50 = 0 (1)

Node 1: GC + F2 – F1 – 60 = 0 (2)

Node 1: GD + F3 + F2 – 300 = 0 (3)

One loop hence one KLV equation

KVL: 0.2*F1 + 0.1*F2 – 0.2*F3 = 0 (4)

Substituting for known variables, we have;

Nodal pricing exercise

Node 1: 360 – F1 – F3 = 0 (5)

Node 1: F2 – F1 – 60 = 0 (6)

Node 1: F3 + F2 – 300 = 0 (7)

From (5), F1 = 360 – F3 (8)

From (4) F1 = – (0.1*F2 – 0.2*F3)/0.2 = – 0.5F2 + F3 (9)

Equating (8) and (9); 360 – F3 = – 0.5F2 + F3 (10)

From (10), 2F3 – 0.5F2 = 360 (11)

Multiply (7) by –2

– 2*(F3 + F2) = –2*(300) – 2F3 – 2F2 = –600 (12)

Add (12) and (11) to give

– 2.5F2 = – 240; giving

F2=240/2.5 = 96MW

Therefore F3 and F1 can be computed from (7) and (5) respectively

F3=300-F2=300-96=204MW

F1=360-F3= 360-204=156MW

(d) Identify overloaded lines

From line capacities line 1-2 is overloaded since it is rated at 120MW and the

flow is 156MW

(e) Correct the overloads by re-dispatching generation in the most economic fashion

The overload in line 1-2 can be corrected by re-dispatching either GD or GC.

Check each one in turn and compare the costs to choose the most economic

solution.

Case 1 – Use GD to reduce flow in line 1-2 by 36MW to 120MW the rated line

capacity.

Figure 2

For the above scenario we will have

Y = F3 + F2

Nodal pricing exercise

, )

, )

MW Y

Y F F

90 5 18

2 . 0

5 . 0

36

36

2 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0

2 . 0

2 1

= - = - =

=

+ +

- = =

Cost of re-dispatch = 90*15= 135

Case 2 – Use GC to reduce flow in line 1-2 by 36MW to 120MW the rated line

capacity:

Figure 3

, )

, )

MW X

X F

60 5 12

3 . 0

5 . 0

36

36

2 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0

1 . 0 2 . 0

1

= - = - =

=

+ +

+

- =

Table 1

Marginal

Cost

£/MWh

Unconstrained

Economic

dispatch

Case 1

constrained

dispatch

Case 2

constrained

dispatch

GA 8 140 140 140

GB 10 270 180 210

GC 20 0 0 60

GD 15 0 90 0

Total(MW) 410 410 410

Cost ($) 3,820 4,270 4,420

Cost of

constraints

($) 0 450 600

The most economic way to eliminate the constraint online 1-2 would be to use

case 1. However GD capacity is limited to 85MW hence some use would have to

be made of generator GC.

Hence with GD output equal to 85 the line 1-2 will still be overloaded by:

MW 2 34 36

5 . 0

2 . 0

85 36 = ÷ = - ÷

Hence we need to dispatch generator GC by:

Nodal pricing exercise

, )

, )

MW X

X F

33 . 3

3 . 0

5 . 0

2

2

2 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0

1 . 0 2 . 0

1

= - =

=

+ +

+

- =

dispatch would be

Hence final dispatch will be as shown in Table 2 below

Table 2

Marginal

Cost

£/MWh

(A)

Unconstrained

Economic

dispatch

(B)

Case 1

constrained

dispatch

GA 8 140 140

GB 10 270 181.67

GC 20 0 3.33

GD 15 0 85

Total(MW) 410 410

Cost ($) 3,820 4,278

Cost of

constraints

($) = (B)-

(A) 0 458

(f) Compute the nodal prices for the constrained system

Due to line 1-2 being congested, the nodal prices will be different at each node.

Node 1:

The nodal price at node 1 is equal to 10$/MWh because generator GB is not fully

loaded and hence the next MW at this node will be supplied by GB

Node 2:

The generator GC at node 2 is also not fully loaded and hence the next MW

demand at this node will be supplied from this node. Therefore the nodal price at

this node is 20$/MWh

Node 3:

Since the generator at node 3 is fully loaded, the next MW demand at this node

must be supplied from node 1 and node 2. Hence the nodal price is found as a

linear combination of the nodal prices at nodes 1 and 2.

Nodal pricing exercise

Figure 4

Figure 5

From Figure 4 and Figure 5, compute nodal prices as follows:

0 2 . 0 4 . 0

1

12 2 1

2 1

= A = A ÷ A

= A + A

F P P

MW P P

2

2

1

2 1

5 . 0

4 . 0

2 . 0

2 . 0 4 . 0

P

P

P

P P

A =

A

= A

A = A

MW P

MW P

P

P P P

3

1

3

2

5 . 1

1

1 ) 5 . 0 1 (

5 . 0 1 1

1

2

2

2 1 2

= A

= = A

= + A

A ÷ = A ÷ = A

Therefore; the nodal price for node 3 is:

MWh MC

MC P MC P MC

/ $ 67 . 16

3

50

20

3

2

10

3

1

3

2 2 1 1 3

= = - + - =

A + A =

(g) Compute the congestion cost

Congestion is given from final dispatch table 2 as $458

(h) Finally, for case (c) write the equations for the objective function and the

constraints that you would need to solve using optimisation techniques to find the

dispatch and nodal prices

Nodal pricing exercise

Figure 6

(a) Objective function

i

Ng

i

T

i

G C Min

¿

=1

= GD GC GB GA Min 15 20 10 8 : + + +

where Ng is the number of generators

Subject to the following constraints:

(b) KCL equations

0 300 3 2

0 60 2 1

0 50 3 1

= ÷ + +

= ÷ ÷ +

= ÷ ÷ ÷ +

F F GD

F F GC

F F GB GA

(c) KVL equation

0 3 2 . 0 2 1 . 0 1 2 . 0 = ÷ + F F F

(d) Generator limits

85 0

90 0

285 0

140 0

s s

s s

s s

s s

GD

GC

GB

GA

(e) Line flow limits

250 3 250

130 2 130

120 1 120

s s ÷

s s ÷

s s ÷

F

F

F

(i) Solve the problem in (h) using an optimisation routine (in MATLAB, EXCEL etc)

and compare your results with what you found in (c) and (f)

Nodal pricing exercise

Result from Excel

Microsoft Excel 11.0 Sensitivity Report

Worksheet: [Solver.xls]Sheet2

Report Created: 31/12/2011 02:09:20

Adjustable Cells

Final Reduced

Cell Name Value Gradient

$F$3 GA solution 140 -2

$F$4 GB solution 181.6666667 0

$F$5 GC solution 3.333333333 0

$F$6 GD solution 85 -1.666666667

$F$9 F1 solution 120 -16.66666667

$F$10 F2 solution 63.33333333 0

$F$11 F3 solution 151.6666667 0

Constraints

Final Lagrange

Cell Name Value Multiplier

$C$14 KCL1 min -5.68434E-14 10

$C$15 KCL2 min 0 20 Nodal Prices

$C$16 KCL3 min 0 16.66666667

$C$17 KVL min 0 33.33333284

Nodal pricing exercise Solution (a) Determine the economic dispatch assuming there are no transmission constraints Since the marginal costs are constant. the generators are dispatched starting with the least marginal cost until the load is met.1*F2 – 0.2*F3 = 0 Substituting for known variables. (4) (1) (2) (3) . Generator GA GB GC GD Total Node 1 1 2 3 Cost Capacity ($/MWh) (MW) 8 140 10 285 20 90 15 85 Dispatch (MW) 140 270 0 0 410MW Demand (MW) 50 60 300 410MW (b) Determine the system marginal price The system marginal price is $10/MWh (From the most expensive partially loaded generator) (c) Determine the constrained economic dispatch based on the given line parameters and capacities The line flows are determined from Kirchhoff’s voltage (KVL) and nodal balance (KCL) equations Figure 1 KCL equations Node 1: GA + GB – F1 – F3 – 50 = 0 Node 1: GC + F2 – F1 – 60 = 0 Node 1: GD + F3 + F2 – 300 = 0 One loop hence one KLV equation KVL: 0.2*F1 + 0. we have.

Nodal pricing exercise Node 1: Node 1: Node 1: 360 – F1 – F3 = 0 F2 – F1 – 60 = 0 F3 + F2 – 300 = 0 (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) From (5).5 = 96MW Therefore F3 and F1 can be computed from (7) and (5) respectively F3=300-F2=300-96=204MW F1=360-F3= 360-204=156MW (d) Identify overloaded lines From line capacities line 1-2 is overloaded since it is rated at 120MW and the flow is 156MW (e) Correct the overloads by re-dispatching generation in the most economic fashion The overload in line 1-2 can be corrected by re-dispatching either GD or GC. 360 – F3 = – 0. Figure 2 For the above scenario we will have Y = F3 + F2 . F1 = 360 – F3 From (4) F1 = – (0. giving F2=240/2. 2F3 – 0.5F2 + F3 Equating (8) and (9).2 = – 0.5F2 = 360 Multiply (7) by –2 – 2*(F3 + F2) = –2*(300) – 2F3 – 2F2 = –600 Add (12) and (11) to give – 2. Case 1 – Use GD to reduce flow in line 1-2 by 36MW to 120MW the rated line capacity. Check each one in turn and compare the costs to choose the most economic solution.2*F3)/0.1*F2 – 0.5F2 + F3 From (10).5F2 = – 240.

2 36 0 .2 0.1 0.1 0. Hence with GD output equal to 85 the line 1-2 will still be overloaded by: 0 .420 0 450 600 The most economic way to eliminate the constraint online 1-2 would be to use case 1.270 4.5 12 5 60 MW 0.5 Hence we need to dispatch generator GC by: .Nodal pricing exercise F1 F 2 Y Y 36 0.820 4.2 0.2 0.5 18 5 90 MW 0 .2 Cost of re-dispatch = 90*15= 135 Case 2 – Use GC to reduce flow in line 1-2 by 36MW to 120MW the rated line capacity: Figure 3 F1 X 0.2 0.1 36 X 36 Table 1 0.3 GA GB GC GD Total(MW) Cost ($) Cost of constraints ($) Marginal Unconstrained Case 1 Case 2 Cost Economic constrained constrained £/MWh dispatch dispatch dispatch 8 140 140 140 10 270 180 210 20 0 0 60 15 0 90 0 410 410 410 3.2 36 85 36 34 2 MW 0 . However GD capacity is limited to 85MW hence some use would have to be made of generator GC.2 0.

67 20 0 3.3 Hence final dispatch will be as shown in Table 2 below Table 2 (A) (B) Marginal Unconstrained Case 1 Cost Economic constrained £/MWh dispatch dispatch 8 140 140 10 270 181.2 0.Nodal pricing exercise F1 X dispatch would be 0.1 0. the next MW demand at this node must be supplied from node 1 and node 2. . the nodal prices will be different at each node. Therefore the nodal price at this node is 20$/MWh Node 3: Since the generator at node 3 is fully loaded.2 0.5 X 2 3.820 4.33MW 0.1 2 GA GB GC GD Total(MW) Cost ($) Cost of constraints ($) = (B)(A) 0 458 (f) Compute the nodal prices for the constrained system Due to line 1-2 being congested.278 0. Node 1: The nodal price at node 1 is equal to 10$/MWh because generator GB is not fully loaded and hence the next MW at this node will be supplied by GB Node 2: The generator GC at node 2 is also not fully loaded and hence the next MW demand at this node will be supplied from this node.33 15 0 85 410 410 3.2 0. Hence the nodal price is found as a linear combination of the nodal prices at nodes 1 and 2.

5P2 0 .2P2 F12 0 0.4P1 0.Nodal pricing exercise Figure 4 Figure 5 From Figure 4 and Figure 5. the nodal price for node 3 is: MC3 P1 MC1 P2 MC2 MC3 1 2 50 10 20 16.2P2 0. for case (c) write the equations for the objective function and the constraints that you would need to solve using optimisation techniques to find the dispatch and nodal prices .2P2 P1 0.67$ / MWh 3 3 3 (g) Compute the congestion cost Congestion is given from final dispatch table 2 as $458 (h) Finally.5 3 1 P1 MW 3 P2 Therefore. compute nodal prices as follows: P1 P2 1MW 0.4P1 0.5) 1 1 2 MW 1 .4 P2 1 P1 1 0.5P2 P2 (1 0.

EXCEL etc) and compare your results with what you found in (c) and (f) .2 F 3 0 (d) Generator limits 0 GA 140 0 GB 285 0 GC 90 0 GD 85 (e) Line flow limits 120 F1 120 130 F 2 130 250 F 3 250 (i) Solve the problem in (h) using an optimisation routine (in MATLAB.2 F1 0.1F 2 0.Nodal pricing exercise Figure 6 (a) Objective function Min C i 1 Ng T i Gi = Min : 8GA 10GB 20GC 15GD where Ng is the number of generators Subject to the following constraints: (b) KCL equations GA GB F1 F 3 50 0 GC F1 F 2 60 0 GD F 2 F 3 300 0 (c) KVL equation 0.

333333333 85 120 63.0 Sensitivity Report Worksheet: [Solver.68434E-14 0 0 0 Lagrange Multiplier Name GA solution GB solution GC solution GD solution F1 solution F2 solution F3 solution Final Value 140 181.6666667 3.xls]Sheet2 Report Created: 31/12/2011 02:09:20 Adjustable Cells Cell $F$3 $F$4 $F$5 $F$6 $F$9 $F$10 $F$11 Constraints Cell $C$14 $C$15 $C$16 $C$17 Name KCL1 min KCL2 min KCL3 min KVL min Final Value -5.66666667 0 0 10 20 16.6666667 Reduced Gradient -2 0 0 -1.66666667 33.Nodal pricing exercise Result from Excel Microsoft Excel 11.33333333 151.33333284 Nodal Prices .666666667 -16.

- Open Access ( Power Trading ) Presentation
- [London Business School, Bunn] Forecasting Electricity Prices
- 1-1-3_EU_Russian_Market_Evolution.ppt
- Economic Dispatch Control
- 3_Netzwerke
- AnnualReport_2008-09.pdf
- RepasoC1
- electric circuits
- Basic Electricity
- EEE 209 Presentation 2 (Electrical Circuits)
- 31.Operation of Restructured Power Systems 2001_Kankar
- L03_kvs_baisc_circuit_analysis_full.pdf
- AI in Power Systems
- Gs 3511851192
- 9 Dynamic Economic Dispatch for Microgrids Including Batterry Energy Storage
- The Many-to-Many Location-Routing Problem.pdf
- 03 Current Electricity
- Combined Economic and Emission Load Dispatch using PPF using PSO
- National Science Foundation
- BD Reduction
- Praesentation SGC2012 CDadapco SH
- Dc Circuit
- EE42_100_cch-Lecure11_071713-clean
- Aptitude
- Digital Multimeter Fluke 289
- Multimeter_measurements_rev1.doc
- 03-current-electricity
- IX Solution
- Network Analysis Chap.2 Network Theorems (1)
- ProblemSets ProblemSet II Solutions

- Vol5_Route_Wide_Network_Rail_Company_Standard_EM-003-000.pdf
- Femi's project plan1.pdf
- Femi's Project Plan1
- 01 UKPN 2013 Grad Selection - Before You Arrive.docx
- Femi's project plan2.pdf
- Fault level Calculation.pdf
- 60301Line & Cable Modelling 1.2
- EEEN60301 Solutions
- Security Constraints OPF
- Mock Exam Questions & Solutions

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading